Conference PaperPDF Available

Aspects de qualité de l’éducation inclusive - Emotion to know and the desire to exist

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The presentation refers to the Inclusive Education of Prof. Nicola Cuomo, University of Bologna, which over the last 40 years (from the closure of schools and special classes, Law n. 517/77) has determined innovative perspectives in interventions in the field of education and teaching that go beyond the deficits and orient educational projects towards learning and teaching. The emotion to know and the desire to exist are proposed for all children (origin. “l'emozione di conoscere ed il desiderio di esistere” EDC). The EDC method shifts attention from the disability, to the person, to their originality, to what they can do, feel and decide. The presentation illustrates a systemic and inclusive pedagogy as an opportunity to innovate teaching, shifting the focus from learning difficulties to teaching difficulties.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Aspects de qualité de
l’éducation inclusive
Emotion to know and
the desire to exist
Inclusive Education and Special Needs Educational
Governance in Europe, Zurich 2019-10-24
Dr. Alice Imola, Ass. AEMOCON Bologna
Stefan Meyer, HfH Zurich
Dr. Alice Imola,
Bologna
Introduction
Cornerstones of Emotion to Know (ETK)
How to overcome the handicaps?
Interventions and principles of the ETK
Observation, supervision and evaluation
Participative and interdisciplinary action
research
"Emotion to know
and the desire to
exist" (EKT)
The method emerged from
international and multidisciplinary
studies and action-research of Nicola
Cuomo, former Professor of Special
Pedagogy, Department of Educational
Sciences, University of Bologna.
Cuomo worked more than 30 years
in projects with about 2000 persons
(from childhood to adult life).
EKT wants to overcome the
handicaps that the deficits propose.
(core statement)
EKT works for an autonomous and
independent life in an inclusive
dimension.
New ways since 1977
Grazia Minelli
explains the
inclusive turn in
the documentary
“Ci provo” (min.
1:30)
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=2
6--TwQutfw
The diagnoses (1000 cases in 35 years)
Emotion to know (ETK) at a glance
*Operating System of Support for an Educational Project OSSEP
Criteria of data collection C.D.C.
Cornerstones of the
method (project,
workplans)
1. Lev Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal
Development ZPD, Imagination,
human mind is mediated
2. Alexander Lurija: theory of
intelligence: Planning, Attention-
Arousal, Simultaneous and
Successive (PASS)
3. Max Wertheimer: Gestalt theory,
problem-solving, better called
"productive thinkingand
transfer of knowledge from one
into another context;
4. E. Husserl: Phenomenology;
consciousness and competence
are always intentional.
Weltsicht
Fundamental
principles of ETK
Intelligence is cultural
interaction not a sum of
individual competences (to
compare with football teams:
goals are fruits of
communication and
cooperation).
Intelligence, whatever the
meaning we give it, is subject
to being "oriented, educated
and developed" (L. Vygotsky
1932).
HETEROCRONY (R. Zazzo 1942)
Development is not linear,
homogeneous and uniform.
There is complexity and extreme
variability. (The epistemology of
physical models leads pedagogy in
wrong directions)
“Individuals don’t follow linear
designs and constant rhythms
their development is
heterochronous, with different
speeds according to the different
fields of psycho-biological
development... ».
Aphorism: The psychobiological development of the
person is not linear like the firing of a rifle, but
systemic, contextualized, articulated and complex like
the flight of a butterfly.
Cuomo (2007, 67)
The concept of "mental retardation" proposes
(quantitative and qualitative) deficits and
persistent prejudices.
The person with a handicap is a detector of
the system. (Are we bright detectives?)
ETK allowed us to detect and reorient teaching
and learning models, combining them with the
desire, with social relations, the emotions, and
the pleasure of existing.
Our goal is to identify intelligence and to
understand its original characteristics in order
to support and strengthen it.
How to
overcome
the
handicaps?
Observable Constants:
The person has confusion in space,
in time, difficulty in finding one's way
around, difficulty in remembering
events, difficulty in transferring skills
from one context to another.... (= a sea
of deficits)
These anomalies are certainly
present, but
they are not fixed and constant,
they change in relation to context
and situations... (mediated)
they bring out paradoxical
contradictions.
Photographs of
teenagers and children
who participated in ETK-
projects
….under paradoxical contradictions:
Luigi and his family run the risk of not
being seen in their existential reality. (to
ask: Who am I? Who are we in this
situation?)
Luigi and others act like the "down",
the "spastic", the “X fragile ", ..., and you
wonder when they are touched, when
they have desires, when they fall in
love…(to ask: What are they? Is it
romantic to be different?)
“Seeing” such stereotypes equals to
the prejudice in usual action.
Fragmented and decontextualized
Artificial fragmentation -
monads of skills run the
risk of falling into what is
called "functional fixity“ (ff)
(Karl Duncker, 1935).
ff assumes that in the
perception or in processes of
problem solving, a cliché or
stereotype is thought and
acted.
To s ay : a pe rson is
“artificially skilled”… but
unable to solve real
problems.
The picture illustrates a representation of a paradoxical task: put the
nuts into the eggs box.
Protocol of
intervention
in a complex
approach
Interview with the family and initial
observation to collect data and draw up a
personalized project
Putting into practice the operational paths
hypothesized in the different contexts of life
(home, school, free time and work) through
an educator trained in the Method (=
master-study)
Constant supervision of the project by the
pedagogical and psychological area
Periodic training for operators and families
to take stock of the situation on a case by
case basis within an exchange of reflections
and good practices
Alessandra attentive
conversation
The mothers description begins with deficits:
".... 20 years old and still not able to change
even a pair of pants. She is behind me like a
shadow.
Only in the beautiful days of spring and
summer she can manage herself, then she
goes out on the bike, to fish with her dad.
Alice: "How to ride a bicycle? Does the father
bring her? » The mother answers: "No, on
HER bicycle ... She is very capable, very
attentive! She's as good at fishing as her
father.
Identify skills and abilities for the Z.P.D
*Operating System of Support for an Educational Project OSSEP
Criteria of data collection C.D.C.
Stiles and
principles
of ETK
Interventions and orientations are complex,
affectively rich and based on the capabilities of all.
Experiences, education, learning, didactics, ... are not
represented in a summary and linear concept,
…but systemic, contextualized, articulated and
complex as the flight of a butterfly...
Learning is essentially a qualitative and psycho-
affective maturation of experience.
It’s aimed both to give birth to the emotion of
knowing and the desire to exist -together with the
skills to be able to solve new and unexpected
problems.
DAILY LIFE IS THEREFORE FULL OF CUES FOR
LEARNING.
Education is social
reciprocity
The educator, in the "empathic-
relational" dimension, becomes a
reference or a model (zone of proximal
development Vygotsky).
Sharing real situations in an
interpersonal relationship, according to
indirect and empathic modalities, provides
the person with tools and tricks to
overcome problems, unexpected events,
make a good impression...
Every skill is contextualized: reading for
what? Cooking for friends, using the watch
for catching the bus and going to the
cinema with friends. Handle the money for
paying the bus ticket or a meeting in the
bar (= progetto amico)
Picture: Luigi organizes cleaning roound with his
roommate (from the documentary “Ci provo”)
To
overcome
the lack of
motivation
The lack of
motivation is not part
of the character of
disabled persons.
It is an indicator of
passive contexts
unable to motivate
and to stay in social
reciprocity.
It is necessary to
provoke positively
and build
permanently
motivating contexts
↔ the subjects
experience
successes.
From here (by
method) it is
necessary to observe
carefully the skills,
even when they are
minimal.
Interventions and
principles of ETK
In order to intervene in the zone of
proximal development, the
educational/didactic actions do not
focus directly on the person, and her
difficulties.
Luigi at the university,
picture from the documentary “Ci provo
ETK designs the
circumstances of
learning and teaching
Party as a relational
and complex context
facilitates learning.
Party as aLesson /
zone for learningin
the “Progetto di vita”
(project of life)
Luigi at the party, picture from
the documentary “Ci provo
Too ls fo r the ob ser va tio n a nd eval uat ion of
the effectiveness of interventions
Pictures from video-documentations of interventions, scientific-conferences and teacher-parent-trainings
endure experience
(two styles of education,
tool for the observation)
ETK detects through observation,
group sessions and interviews the
educational "style" of the rituals
in the family, the school, the
institution:
«SUBITO» (endure, suffer, passive
education, transmission
pedagogy, deprivation,
person=object)
«VISSUTO» (experience, active
education, generative or
transformative pedagogy,
meaningfulness, person=subject).
Picture from atransport of disabled
persons (functional, no project)
Picture from Luigi on the bus, it is a
part of aproject (Ci provo)
action research participative
-interdisciplinary
The data are interpreted
and communicatively
validated between the
colleagues of the medico-
rehabilitative and the
psychological area.
The confrontation with
parents evaluates and
orients the educational
styles in favor of the
development of originality
and emotional and
cognitive potential of the
child / person.
Picture of a researcher-teacher-parents-conference at the
university of Bologna, 2014,il filo d’AriannaFragile-X-
Syndrome
Areas of competence /
effectiveness
ETK assesses the
effectiveness of
pedagogical
intervention in terms
of the gradient of
mutual involvement
and integration.
The circle illustrates the
reciprocity of the areas
Autonomy,
Socialization
and Learning
Analyze the areas, in a systematic
research.
Become able to refer to the different
situations-contexts in which the skills
and competences emerge, to be able to
identify the actions, the modalities, the
conditions that favored them.
Systemic approach: Every area must
produce competences in interaction
with the others.
These areas are distinguished not only
by the need for analysis and to find
useful data for research, but are to be
considered as an integrated,
contemporary system.
The child/person with a
deficit becomes
a precious
opportunity to reflect
, a
treasure, and
even when they have “not
learned” they will have
taught...
ETK for inclusion is like the
Socratic method for
philosophy and education
ETK irritates and transforms
Nicola Cuomo, 2011, at the University of Bologna
He went blind in 1966 (horological)
Connect the systems for a «progetto di vita» (Life-
project + University).
Contact each other with empathy (a kind of
friendship; subito-
vissuto
)
Explore and start every moment from the
resources.
Don’t teach artificial matters in artificial situations
(Schools↔Universities).
Work on real-life-problems (projects) to promote
autonomy, socialization, competences through
adaptive workplans.
Be critical and an Advocate, supervise the moves
and the theories.
Do action-research.
Imagine and enjoy transformative pedagogy
(Vygotsky (2019): it’s evolution and revolution -like
the flight of a butterfly Cuomo, 2007).
Lessons to
learn for
inclusion
Thank you
painting portraying Nicola Cuomo and Alice Imola by ayoung man with
Fragile Xsyndrome
References
Connor, D. J. & Cavendish, W. (2018). Sharing Power With Parents: Improving Educational Decision Making for Students With Learning
Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 41(2), 7984. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948717698828
Cuomo, N. (1989). Schwere Behinderungen“ in der Schule. Bad Heilbrunn: Julius Klinkhardt.
Cuomo, N. (2004a). Didaktische Orientierungen. In A. Kummer (Hrsg.), Integration: Anspruch und Wirklichkeit (S. 5766). Luzern: Edition SZH.
Cuomo, N. (2004b). L’altra faccia del diavolo. Apprendere e insegnare in stato di benessere: un atteggiamento sperimentale. Bologna: Collana
AEMOCON.
Cuomo, N. (2007). Verso una scuola dell’emozione di conoscere. Il futuro insegnante, insegnante del futuro. Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
Cuomo, N. (2014). Sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche nella dimensione multi e interdisciplinare della ricerca-formazione-azione. Un
percorso di ricerca in Pedagogia Speciale: X Fragile...Il „Filo di Arianna“ e i labirinti. In N. Cuomo (Hrsg.), X Fragile... Il „Filo di Arianna“ e i
labirinti. Una ricerca-formazione-azione tra sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche di Neuroscienze, Psicologia Clinica e Pedagogia Speciale (Band
Emozione di conoscere, S. 17117). Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
Cuomo, N., Biondi, G. & Albertini, G. (2014). X Fragile. Il „Filo di Arianna“ e i labirinti. Una ricerca-formazione-azione tra sinergie scientifiche e
buone pratiche di Neuroscienze, Psicologia Clinica e Pedagogia Speciale. Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
Duncker, K. (1935). Zur Psychologie des produktiven Denkens. Berlin: Springer.
Duncker, K. (1945). On problem-solving. Psychological Monographs, 58(5), i113.
Girard, R. (2002). La voix méconnue du réel. essai. Paris: Édition Grasset & Fasquelle.
Imola, A. (2010) The "Emotion to Know" method by Nicola Cuomo (Valentina D’Alessandro, translation. Rivista l’emozione di conoscere ed il
desiderio di esistere,8, 2010. www.rivistaemozione.com
Imola, A. (2010). Empathie und verstehen. Die Methode von Nicola Cuomo (R. Sauer & S. Meyer, Übers.). Verfügbar unter:
http://www.interview.hfh.ch/page020a.htm [Zugriff am 20.09.2019]
Meyer, S. (2014). Introduzione -Einleitung. In N. Cuomo (Hrsg.), X Fragile. Il „Filo di Arianna“ e i labirinti. Una ricerca-formazione-azione tra
sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche di Neuroscienze, Psicologia Clinica e Pedagogia Speciale (S. 1115). Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
Meyer, S. (2019). Begegnungen mit Nicola Cuomo. Behinderte Menschen, (3), 8.
Vygotsky, L.S. (2019). Mind in Society (S.73). Harvard University Press. Kindle-Version.
Some
recommendations
N. Cuomo
Toward a school of the emotion to
know
The future teacher, the teacher of
the future.
Ed. ETS Pisa 2008
I will try Documentary
(60 min) !unique
by Susana Pilgrim
https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=26--
TwQutfw
Contact web sitehttp://www.emozionediconoscere.com/
See
http://www.interview.hfh.ch/page020b.html
(English, German)
Keywords for the workshop
Resources HfH in 20 years: action-research
(>4.000 case-studies, flexible interviews (> 3.000
exercises, systemic-didactic analysis; many
networks; specific knowledge (maths, language,
behaviour)
but stumbling blocks (Plato: living in the illusion
and looking through the illusion; school ?=?
Plato’s cave):
transmission-pedagogy
lack of inclusive strategies
research about instead of within inclusion
joint will
from “flooded by transmission” to systemic
consciousness
from the “romantic” to the novelistic view of
inclusion (R. Girard: Dostoyevsky, Proust, Ainscow
+ Strasser’: 100 years)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Nicola Cuomo erforschte Integration am Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Educazione „Giovanni Maria Bertin“ der Universität Bologna I mehr als 30 Jahre lang. Das hatte ihn international bekannt gemacht. Nicola Cuomo war im Alter von 20 Jahren ganz erblindet. Sein Werk setzte sich rigoros mit den demütigenden Mechanismen zwischen Defiziten und Behinderung auseinander. Was bedeuten seine Theorie, seine Methoden und die Interventionssysteme? Wie wurden die Entwicklungsprojekte organisiert, um die von einer Behinderung betroffenen Personen und deren Umfeld zu fördern? In diesem Artikel werden die Methode und die Hauptwerke von Nicola Cuomo kondensiert vorgestellt. // For more than 30 years, Nicola Cuomo researched integration at the Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Educazione "Giovanni Maria Bertin" of the University of Bologna I. This had made him internationally known. Cuomo was completely blind at the age of 20. His work dealt rigorously with the humiliating mechanisms between deficits and disability. In this article, the method and the main works of Cuomo are presented in a condensed form: what do his theory, his methods and the strategy of intervention mean? How were the projects organized to promote people with disabilities and their environment?
Article
Full-text available
In this closing commentary to the special edition of Learning Disability Quarterly (LDQ) on parent voice in educational decision making for students with learning disabilities, we briefly survey main topics from each article, illuminating important findings from the authors, along with several questions they raise, and identify themes that reverberate throughout them as a collection. Subsequently, we offer suggestions to improve parental involvement in the decision-making process, in particular, the negotiation of Individualized Education Programs. In doing so, we emphasize the onus placed upon school professionals to better understand parental positionalities and needs, be culturally cognizant and competent in interactions, with the specific purpose of consciously addressing power differentials that have historically inhibited authentic parent–professional relationships. Finally, we end with a short note on the research methodologies used in this special edition.
Article
To study productive thinking where it is most conspicuous in great achievements is certainly a temptation, and without a doubt, important information about the genesis of productive thought could be found in biographical material. A problem arises when a living creature has a goal but does not know how this goal is to be reached. Whenever one cannot go from the given situation to the desired situation simply by action, then there has to be recourse to thinking. The subjects ( S s), who were mostly students of universities or of colleges, were given various thinking problems, with the request that they think aloud. This instruction, "Think aloud", is not identical with the instruction to introspect which has been common in experiments on thought-processes. While the introspecter makes himself as thinking the object of his attention, the subject who is thinking aloud remains immediately directed to the problem, so to speak allowing his activity to become verbal. It is the shift of function of the components of a complex mathematical pattern—a shift which must so often occur if a certain structure is to be recognized in a given pattern—it is this restructuration, more precisely: this transformation of function within a system, which causes more or less difficulty for thinking, as one individual or another tries to find a mathematical proof.
Didaktische Orientierungen
  • N Cuomo
• Cuomo, N. (2004a). Didaktische Orientierungen. In A. Kummer (Hrsg.), Integration: Anspruch und Wirklichkeit (S. 57-66). Luzern: Edition SZH.
Apprendere e insegnare in stato di benessere: un atteggiamento sperimentale
  • N Cuomo
• Cuomo, N. (2004b). L'altra faccia del diavolo. Apprendere e insegnare in stato di benessere: un atteggiamento sperimentale. Bologna: Collana AEMOCON.
Verso una scuola dell'emozione di conoscere. Il futuro insegnante, insegnante del futuro
  • N Cuomo
• Cuomo, N. (2007). Verso una scuola dell'emozione di conoscere. Il futuro insegnante, insegnante del futuro. Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
Sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche nella dimensione multi e interdisciplinare della ricerca-formazione-azione
  • N Cuomo
• Cuomo, N. (2014). Sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche nella dimensione multi e interdisciplinare della ricerca-formazione-azione. Un percorso di ricerca in Pedagogia Speciale: X Fragile...Il "Filo di Arianna" e i labirinti. In N. Cuomo (Hrsg.), X Fragile... Il "Filo di Arianna" e i labirinti. Una ricerca-formazione-azione tra sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche di Neuroscienze, Psicologia Clinica e Pedagogia Speciale (Band Emozione di conoscere, S. 17-117). Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
X Fragile. Il "Filo di Arianna" e i labirinti. Una ricerca-formazione-azione tra sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche di Neuroscienze
  • N Cuomo
  • G Biondi
  • G Albertini
• Cuomo, N., Biondi, G. & Albertini, G. (2014). X Fragile. Il "Filo di Arianna" e i labirinti. Una ricerca-formazione-azione tra sinergie scientifiche e buone pratiche di Neuroscienze, Psicologia Clinica e Pedagogia Speciale. Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
The "Emotion to Know" method by Nicola Cuomo (Valentina D'Alessandro, translation. Rivista l'emozione di conoscere ed il desiderio di esistere
  • A Imola
• Imola, A. (2010) The "Emotion to Know" method by Nicola Cuomo (Valentina D'Alessandro, translation. Rivista l'emozione di conoscere ed il desiderio di esistere, 8, 2010. www.rivistaemozione.com