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FORMULATION AND EVOLUTION OF HERBAL ANTIBACTERIAL FACE PACK

Authors:

Abstract

Natural remedies are more acceptable in the belief that they are safer with fewer side effects than the synthetic ones. Herbal formulations have growing demand in the world market. The objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate a cosmetic preparation polyherbal face pack made from herbal ingredients. Kaoline, tragacanth, orange peel powder, neem powder, chandan powder, aloe juice powder, turmeric powder , Fullers earth and Cicer arientinum Powder were procured from the local market in dried, powdered and then passed through sieve no 80, mixed thoroughly prepared and evaluated for its organoleptic, physico-chemical and microscopical characters. The dried powder of combined form had passable flow property which is suitable for a face pack. Herbal face packs or masks are used to stimulate blood circulation, rejuvenates and help to maintain the elasticity of the skin and remove dirt from skin pores. It is a very good attempt to establish the herbal face pack containing different powders of plants. The advantage of herbal cosmetics is their non-toxic nature, reduce the allergic reactions and time tested usefulness of many ingredients. Thus in the present work, we found good properties of the face packs and further optimization studies are required on this study to find the useful benefits of face packs on human, use as cosmetic product.
© 2019 JETIR May 2019, Volume 6, Issue 5 www.jetir.org (ISSN-2349-5162)
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FORMULATION AND EVOLUTION OF
HERBAL ANTIBACTERIAL FACE PACK
Mr K.G Bhutkar* And Mrs. M. Shah.
Genba Sopanrao Moze College of Pharmacy Wagholi Pune
Abstract
Natural remedies are more acceptable in the belief that they are safer with fewer side effects than the synthetic ones. Herbal
formulations have growing demand in the world market. The objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate a cosmetic
preparation polyherbal face pack made from herbal ingredients. Kaoline, tragacanth, orange peel powder, neem powder, chandan
powder, aloe juice powder, turmeric powder , Fullers earth and Cicer arientinum Powder were procured from the local market in
dried, powdered and then passed through sieve no 80, mixed thoroughly prepared and evaluated for its organoleptic, physico-
chemical and microscopical characters . The dried powder of combined form had passable flow property which is suitable for a face
pack.
Herbal face packs or masks are used to stimulate blood circulation, rejuvenates and help to maintain the elasticity of the skin and
remove dirt from skin pores. It is a very good attempt to establish the herbal face pack containing different powders of plants. The
advantage of herbal cosmetics is their non-toxic nature, reduce the allergic reactions and time tested usefulness of many ingredients.
Thus in the present work, we found good properties of the face packs and further optimization studies are required on this study to
find the useful benefits of face packs on human, use as cosmetic product.
Key Words Cosmetic, Face Pack, Herbal, Ingredients, Natural, Product Rejuvenates.
1. INTRODUCTION
Everybody wants to get fair and charming skin. Now a day, Acne, black head, pimples, dark circle are common among youngsters
and person who suffers from it. According to Ayurveda, Skin problems are normally due to impurities in blood. Accumulated toxins
in the blood during improper food and lifestyle are causing skin related diseases. Various herbs, medicines are described in Ayurveda
for blood purification. The herbal paste which is applied on face to treat acne, pimple, scars, marks and pigments are known as
“mukha lepa” in ayurveda. The process of smearing this herbal mix on face is known as “mukha lepana”. This beauty therapy is
popular as facial1. The smooth powder which is used for facial application is “face pack”. A good herbal face pack must supply
necessary nutrients to skin. It should penetrate the subcutaneous tissues in order to deliver the required nutrients. Different types of
skin need different types of herbal face packs2.
The face packs which are mentioned in ayurveda help women to get rid of wrinkles, dark circles, pimples and acne. Herbal face
packs increase the fairness and smoothness of skin. We can derive the maximum benefits of herbal face packs by using them
according to our skin type. These face packs increase skin glow and are best ayurveda treatment to increase fairness. Face packs are
one of the oldest and beautiful methods of cleansing skin. There are various kinds of face packs described in Ayurveda which have
nourishing, healing, cleaning, astringent and antiseptic properties. From the ancient era people are using herbs for cleaning,
beautifying and to manage them. Cosmetics are defined as the products used for the purposes of cleansing, beautifying, promoting
attractiveness or alternating one’s appearance2. Homemade natural face packs and masks make way for smooth, radiant and silky skin.
Face packs used in ayurveda helps to reduce wrinkles, pimples, acne and dark circles. They also increase the fairness and smoothness
of the skin3. The Natural face packs do contain some vital vitamins that are required for the health and glow of our skin. These
substances also prove to be beneficial for our skin in many ways. Natural Facial Packs are less complicated and pretty simple to use.
They help us in looking after skin and also prove its worthiness by increasing the circulation of the blood within the veins of the
face4.Effects of the facial packs are generally temporary and for the regular glow it should be used 2-3 times a week 5.
1.1Benefits of Applying Face Pack6
1. Nourishes the skin. Fruit face packs supply essential nutrients to skin.
2. Helps to reduce, acne, pimple, scars and marks depending on its herbal ingredients.
3. Face packs usually remove dead cells of skin.
4. These face masks provide a soothing and relaxing effect on skin.
5. They help to restore the lost shine and glow of skin in short span of time.
6. Regular use of natural face masks bring glow to skin, improve skin texture and complexion.
7. The harmful effects of pollution and harsh climates can be effectively combated with judicial use of face packs.
8. They help to prevent premature aging of skin.
9. Formation of wrinkles, fine lines and sagging of skin can be effectively controlled by using natural face packs.
10. Natural face packs make the skin look young and healthy.
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Face packs which are recommended for acne, pimple, black heads usually control the over discharge of sebum from sebaceous glands
and remove the harmful bacteria inside acne lesion. The scars and marks of skin can be reduced by adding fine powder of sandal and
orange peel with acne face pack.
2. Materials and methods
The Face pack prepared accordingly the particle size and their binding property mixed thoroughly in plastic bag which shown in
figure no 01
Sr
no
Ingredient
F1
F3
F4
Qty in gm
Qty in gm
Qty in gm
1
Orange peel Powder
8
08
05
2
Neem powder
12
10
15
3
Sandalwood powder
20
23
20
4
Aloe in solid powder form
05
07
10
5
Turmeric powder
10
10
05
6
Fullers earth
15
20
20
7
Cicer arientinum Powder
15
10
10
8
Kaolin
10
05
10
9
Liquorice
5
07
05
Tabel No-01
2.1 Orange peels (Citrus sinensis) Orange is a citrus fruit which contains different nutritional source such as vitamin C, calcium,
potassium and magnesium. It prevents the skin from free radical damage, skin hydration and oxidative stress. Also it has instant glow
property, prevent acne, blemishes, wrinkles and aging.7
2.2 Neem powder (Azadirachta indica) Neem is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and highly beneficial for oily and acne prone skin.8An
anti-acne effect is due to anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of different chemical constituents9
2.3 Sandalwood powder (Santalum alba) It is use if skin is oily for removing dark spot on skin. Sandalwood has an anti-tanning and
anti-aging property 10. It also helps skin in many ways like toning effect, emollient, antibacterial properties, cooling astringent
property, soothing and healing property11.
2.4 Aloe (Aloe barbadensis) Aloe vera is a great moisturizer intended for a skin. Aloe vera rejuvenates skin, hydrates this and keeps
skin layer looking fresh all the time. Aloe vera has anti-microbial property rendering it ideal to deal with acne and pimples. Aloe vera
powder contains several nutrients like glycerin, sodium palmate, sodium carbonate, sodium palm kemelate, sorbitol, etc.12.
2.5 Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) Turmeric is mainly used to rejuvenate the skin. It delays the signs of aging like wrinkles and
also possesses other properties like antibacterial, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. It is best source of blood purifier. It is effective in
treatment of acne due to its antiseptic and antibacterial properties that fight pimples and breakouts to provide a youthful glow to your
skin. It also reduces the oil secretion by the sebaceous glands 13,14.
2.6 Fullers earth (Calcium bentonite)
Multani mitti helps skin by different ways like diminishing pore sizes, removing blackheads and whiteheads fading freckles, soothing
sunburns, cleansing skin, improving blood circulation, complexion, reducing acne and blemishes and gives a glowing effect to a skin
as they contain healthy nutrients. Multani mitti is rich magnesium chloride.15
2.7 Tragacanth
Use as an emollient in cosmetic 16.
2.8 Kaoline
China clay reduces oily skin purifies pores and cleanse skin. And treat acne and make a skin in toning and softening.16
2.9 Glycyrriza glabra (liquorice)
For the removal of skin pigmentation 17.
3. Procedure
Weight accurately all herbal powder such as orange peel powder, neem powder, chandan powder, aloe juice powder.
Mix them together to form a uniform mixture with the help of mortar and pestle.
Weigh accurately kaolin, multani mitti, turmeric and tragacanth powder and triturate them together to form a uniform mixture.
In this mixture add previously prepared herbal drug and triturate to obtain a uniform drug powder of face pack.
3.1 Procedure of Development of Formulations Face Pack Application 14, 15 22
Various formulation batches were prepared according to the Table. Take prepared face pack powder in a bowl as per the requirement,
add water or rose water to mix it well and apply over the facial skin. Cover the acne and blemishes spots. Kept as it is for complete
drying for 30 to 40 min and then wash the face with cold water.
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4 EVALUATIONS OF FORMULATIONS
Following evaluation parameters were performed to ensure superiority of prepared face pack.
4.1 Physical evaluation
Physical parameters such as colour, odour, appearance and texture were checked visually.
4.2 Determination of moisture content
Weigh about 1.5 gm of the powdered drug into a weighed flat and thin porcelain dish. Dry in the oven at 100OC or 105OC, until two
consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 0.5 mg. Cool in desiccators and weigh. The loss in weight is usually recorded as
moisture.18
4.3 Total ash:
Place about 2-4g of the ground air-dried material, accurately weighed, in a previously ignited and tared crucible (usually of platinum
or silica). Spread the material in an even layer and ignite it by gradually increasing the heat to 500-600°C until it is white, indicating
the absence of carbon. Cool in a desiccator and weigh. If carbon-free ash cannot be obtained in this manner, cool the crucible and
moisten the residue with about 2 ml of water or a saturated solution of ammonium nitrate R. Dry on a water-bath, then on a hot-plate
and ignite to constant weight. Allow the residue to cool in a suitable desiccator for 30 minutes and then weigh without delay.
Calculate the content of total ash in mg per g of air-dried material.
4.4 Acid-insoluble ash:
To the crucible containing the total ash, add 25 ml of hydrochloric acid (~70g/l) TS, cover with a watch-glass and boil gently for 5
minutes. Rinse the watch-glass with 5 ml of hot water and add this liquid to the crucible. Collect the insoluble matter on an ashless
filter-paper and wash with hot water until the filtrate is neutral. Transfer the filter-paper containing the insoluble matter to the original
crucible, dry on a hot-plate and ignite to constant weight. Allow the residue to cool in a suitable desiccator for 30 minutes and then
weigh without delay. Calculate the content of acid-insoluble ash in mg per g of air-dried material.
4.5 Water-soluble ash
To the crucible containing the total ash, add 25 ml of water and boil for 5 minutes. Collect the insoluble matter in a sintered-glass
crucible or on an ashless filter-paper. Wash with hot water and ignite in a crucible for 15 minutes at a temperature not exceeding
450°C. Subtract the weight of this residue in mg from the weight of total ash. Calculate the content of water-soluble ash in mg per g of
air-dried material 19
4.6 Particle size
Particle size is a parameter, which affect various properties like spread ability, grittiness etc., particle size was determined by sieving
method by using I.P. Standard sieves by mechanical shaking for 10 min.
4.7 Angle of repose
It is defined as the maximum angle possible in between the surface of pile of powder to the horizontal flow.
4.8 Open - ended cylinder method
It required amount of dried powder is placed in a cylindrical tube open at both ends is placed on a horizontal surface. Then the funnel
should be raised to form a heap. The height and radius of the heap is noted and recorded. For the above method, the angle of repose
(θ) can be calculated by using the formula.
θ = tan -1(h / r)
Where, θ – Angle of repose,
h Height of the heap,
r Radius of the base
4.9 Bulk density
Bulk Density is the ratio between the given mass of a powder and its bulk volume. Required amount of the powder is dried and filled
in a 50 ml measuring cylinder up to 50 ml mark. Then the cylinder is dropped onto a hard wood surface from a height of 1 inch at 2
second intervals. The volume of the powder is measured. Then the powder is weighed. This is repeated to get average values. The
Bulk Density is calculated by using the below given formula.
Bulk Density = Volume
Mass
4.10 Tapped density
Tapped density is an increased bulk density attained after mechanically tapping a container containing the powder sample. After
observing the initial powder volume or mass, the measuring cylinder or vessel is mechanically tapped for 1 min and volume or mass
readings are taken until little further volume or mass change was observed. It was expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).
21,22, 24,25,26.
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4.11 Spreadability
Spreadability was determined by an apparatus suggested by fabricated in-house. The apparatus consists of a wooden block with a
fixed glass slide and movable glass slide with one end tied to weight pan rolled on the pulley, which was in the horizontal level with
fixed slide. The spreadability of the formulated gel was measured on the basis of ‘Slip and Drag’ characteristics of gel. An excess of
gel (about 2g) under study was placed on this ground slide. The gel was then sandwiched between two slides. One kg weight was
placed on the top of the two slides for 5 min to expel air and to provide a uniform film of the gel between the slides. Excess of the gel
was scrapped off from the edges. The top plate was then subjected to pull off 50 gm. Mix with the help of string attached to the hook
and the time (T, in seconds) required by the top slide to move a distance of 7.5 cm be noted. A shorter interval indicated better
spreadability 27.
4.12 pH
pH of 1% aqueous solution of the formulation was measured by using a calibrated digital pH meter at constant 28.
4.13 Microbial Assay
The antibacterial activities of different formulations were determined by modified agar well diffusion method. In this method, nutrient
agar plates were seeded with 0.2 ml of 24 h broth culture of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aureginosa acausative organism for
acne vulgaris. The agar plates were allowed to solidify. A sterile 8 mm borer was used to cut wells of equidistance in each of the
plates. 0.5 ml of formulations, herbal extracts were introduced into the wells at randomly. The plates were incubated at 37C for 24
hours. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by measuring the zones of inhibition (in mm). The results of evaluation are shown in
Table 29
4.14 Washability
This is the common method for checking the washibility of the formulation. The formulation were applied on the skin and then ease
and extent of washing with water were checked manually by using 1 liter of water is used to remove all content of the formulation
were applied on the surface 28.
5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of evaluation are displayed in Table For organoleptic and physico-chemical and general powder evaluation. The study of
nature, color, odour, taste, texture, ash values, moisture content and pH of dried powders of combined form under investigation
provided the important feature of organoleptic and physicochemical evaluation. The presence of ash in the dried powder of combined
form was evaluated for total ash and acid insoluble ash values. The yielded was found to be 4.3g total ash and 2.9g acid insoluble ash.
And moisture content value was found to be 5%. The moisture content values observation clearly indicated that the powder of
combined form was hygroscopic in nature. The acidic or alkaline nature of the dried powder of combined form was determined by
preparing 1% dispersion of powder form in distilled water and measuring the pH with pH meter. The pH of 1% dispersion of powder
was obtained as 7.21 which indicated that the powder of combined form were slightly alkaline in nature. Dried powder of combined
form was evaluated for particle size, angle of repose, bulk density and tapped density before being formulated. Values of particle size,
angle of repose, bulk density and tapped density obtained for powder of combined form were found to 25-30μm, 15°±1°05”,
0.486g/cc and 0.408g/cc respectively, have good flow properties. The powder had passable flow property which is suitable for a face
pack. And it’s easily washable with water. Antimicrobial evaluation was performed with three organisms Staphylococcus aureus,
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes Zone of inhibition was found in formulation was displayed in table 2
S. No.
Evaluation parameters
Observation
F1
F2
F3
F4
Organoleptic evaluation
1
Nature
Powder
Powder
Powder
Powder
2
Odour
Pleasant
Pleasant
Pleasant
Pleasant
3
Colour
Yellowish
Yellowish
white
Yellowish
white
Yellow
4
Texture
Fine
Fine
Fine
Fine
Physicochemical Evaluation
Ash values
5
Total Ash
2.5 %
2.7 %
2.1 %
2.4 %
6
Water soluble Ash
1.2
1.3
0.9
1.4
7
Acid insoluble ash
0.58
0.60
0.45
0.52
8
PH
7.3
6.8
7.2
6.9
9
Moisture content
2.4%w/w
1.8%w/w
1.3%w/w
2.7%w/w
General powder Characters
10
Particle size
28-32 μm
25-30 μm
29-33 μm
30-35 μm
11
Angle of Repose
33
36
31
34
12
Bulk density
0.75gm/ml
0.83gm/ml
0.78gm/ml
0.81gm/ml
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13
Tapped density
0.68gm/ml
0.74gm/ml
0.70gm/ml
0.73gm/ml
14
Washability
Easily washble
Easily
washble
Easily
washble
Easily
washble
15
Grittiness
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
16
Nature of face after wash
Soft and clean
Soft and
clean
Soft and
clean
Soft and
clean
TABLE NO 02 EVALUATION OF POLY HERBAL FRUIT FACE MASK
Sr no.
Bacteria
Zone of Inhibition of formulation (mm)
F1
F2
F3
F4
1
Escherichia coli
36
42
39
38
2
Pseudomonas aureginosa
35
36
33
35
Table 3: ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF POLY HERBAL FRUIT FACE MASK
6. CONCLUSION
Natural remedies are more acceptable in the belief that they are safer with fewer side effects than the synthetic ones. Herbal
formulations have growing demand in the world market. Herbal face packs or masks are used to stimulate blood circulation,
rejuvenates those muscles and help to maintain the elasticity of the skin and remove dirt from skin pores. It is a very good attempt to
establish the herbal face pack containing different powders of plants. Thus in the present work, we found good properties for the face
packs and further optimization studies are required on this study to find the useful benefits of face packs on human.
Figure No. 01
Figure. No 02
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... No. Different physical appearance such as colour, odour and texture were tested by visually (Bhutkar and Shah, 2019). ...
... It is a common phenomenon applies the prepared face pack on the skin and after 5 minutes rinse with 1 litre water to remove the dirt and face pack. This face pack is easy to use and washable (Bhutkar and Shah, 2019). ...
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The antibacteria properties of Indian medicinal plant extracts of syzygium alternifolium, phyllanthus niruri and rubia cord folia against six bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella Pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus vulgaris have been studies, Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from leaves fo Syzygium, phyllanthus and Rubia plants, it was observed that methanol and ethanolic extracts fo Synygium have significant activity against gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumonia and proteus vulgaris were more sensitive to the extracts of phyllanthus niruri and Rubia cordifolia respectively.
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Herbal formulations have growing demand in the world market. The present work deals with the development and evaluation of the herbal Anti-Acne gel containing hydroalcoholic extract of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) and the fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrance). The plants have been reported in the literature having good antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Various formulation batches i.e., F1 to F15 were prepared and evaluated for various parameters like colour, appearance, consistency, washability, pH, spreadability and antimicrobial activity.. Optimized formulation was compared with the marketed preparation. Amongst all the formulation studied batch F4 was found optimum for all the parameters. It is a very good attempt to establish the herbal gel containing hydro-alcoholic extract of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) and fruits of nutmeg (Myristica fragrance).
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The growth of the cosmetic industry, together with the dramatic increase in advances in cosmetic chemistry, has been one of increasing interface with dermatologists. The change especially in dermatology has found less emphasis on medical dermatology and growth in the areas of cosmetic dermatology and dermatologic surgery. With this, the dermatologist has had to become more aware of principles and products in the field of cosmetics. The use of these newer products as an adjunct to the practice of dermatology coincides nicely with recent international congresses, whose theme has been “healthy skin for all” and variations on such. Perhaps the major body for the oversight of this growth remains the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which for many parts of the world provides the assurance of safety and quality for various foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The mandate for much current regulation and oversight began in 1938 with the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which placed active oversight on various drugs and cosmetics and was further modified in 1960 by the Delaney Amendment, which focused on the growing awareness of carcinogenic potential of various agents, topical and systemic. 1 Since the radium scare of the 1920s and 1930s, the increasing use of synthetic materials has focused on delayed long-term potential cancer risks and health hazards. More recently, such agents as Dioxin, Agent Orange, and certain other fungicides and pesticides have seemingly justified this new role of the FDA. Of particular confusion at the present time are certain dyes—FD&C Red #3, FD&C Yellow #5, hair dyes—and other agents that are essential in the cosmetic and “cosmeceutical” practice. The variability of interpretation of safety still confounds easy interpretation of the administration’s role in the approval of new uses, particularly in the cosmeceutical area. At the present time, FD&C Red #3 has been
Text book of Industrial pharmacy
  • S R Rani
  • Hiremanth
Rani, S. R. and Hiremanth, Text book of Industrial pharmacy,Drug delivery systems & Cosmetics & Herbal drug technology: Universities press (India) Ltd; 2nd Edition, (2002).
Cosmetics a practical manual
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Saraf S., and Saraf Sh., Cosmetics a practical manual, Pharmamed press, 2nd edition. (2005)., 126-129,
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Yadav N And Yadav R International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Vol. 6, Issue, 5, pp.4334-4337, May, 2015