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Towards an integrative design-oriented theory of sleep-onset and insomnolence from which a new cognitive treatment for insomnolence (serial diverse kinesthetic imagining, a form of cognitive shuffling) is proposed for experimentally testing this against alternatives

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  • Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej

Abstract

We present progress towards an integrative design-oriented (IDO) theory of sleep onset and insomnolence: the somnolent information-processing theory (SIPt; Beaudoin, 2013, 2014). We define “insomnolence” as difficulty falling (back) asleep — a key feature of insomnia (DSM-V). We argue that theories of human sleep onset and propensity require an IDO approach. By “design-oriented” we mean adopting the design stance (Dennett, 1982; Poggio, 2012; McCarthy, 2008) which is universally known in theoretical Artificial Intelligence and cognitive science but unused in theories of sleep onset and insomnolence, SIPt aside. Like other cognitive science, IDO involves interdisciplinary information-processing theories; but it is also integrative, aiming to specify how requirements of autonomous agency (competence) are realized by the interaction of diverse component processes (subsuming motivational, cognitive, executive and ancillary functions). The IDO approach requires that any appeal to key psychological constructs (“consciousness”, “arousal”, “emotion”, “attention”, “goals”, “intention”, etc.) be grounded in specific IDO theories. This approach is meant to contribute to a paradigm shift in research in insomnia, “emotion” and psychology more generally, in response to what Beaudoin, Hyniewska & Hudlicka (2017) and Muthukrishna & Henrich (2019) identified as the root of psychology’s replication crisis: lack of rigorous, ambitious, progressive, evolutionarily grounded theoretical integration. We claim control of human somnolence posed a significant evolutionary challenge particularly due to their abundant cortex. Leading theories of insomnia tend to explain insomnolence in terms of cognitive and/or physiological activity (Perlis, 2011) or “arousal” (Harvey, 2005). Cognitive theories of insomnia assume that attention, intention and effort to sleep are insomnolent (e.g., inhibiting “de-arousal”, Espie, 2006). Rejecting these assumptions, we argue that arousal is a problematically polymorphic concept unsuitable for IDO explanations of somnolence. In contrast, SIPt grounds its major concepts in specific IDO theories. In accordance with Moors' (2017) skepticism, SIPt replaces “emotion” with computational architectures of motivation. More precisely, we leverage the H-CogAff (Sloman, 2003) and LIDA (Franklin et al, 2013) architectures. We replace the concept of “emotion” and “arousal” with IDO concepts of perturbance and alarms. Perturbance is an emergent state in which an insistent motivator tends to control executive functions (Beaudoin, 1994; Wright, Sloman & Beaudoin, 1996). Perturbance is theoretical grounding for repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). Alarms (Oatley, 1992; Sloman, 2003; Baars & Franklin, 2009) are urgent global control signals which, we claim, also underlie the alarm reaction (Selye 1936). SIPt postulates that (1) chronobiological processes (Borbély, 2016) are the principal contributors to somnolence; (2) sleep-onset-like information-processing is pro-somnolent (increases sleep propensity); (3) perturbance is insomnolent; (4) alarms are insomnolent; (5) some perceptual states affect sleep propensity: sensing supineness, rocking (Bayer et al, 2011) or skin temperature, Romeijn et al (2011). We describe an effortful form of cognitive shuffling, serial diverse kinesthetic imagining (SDKI). It is suitable for an experiment pitting SIPt against other theories (eg, Espie, 2006 and Havey, 2005) since only according to SIPt should SDKI be both counter-insomnolent (per postulates 3 and 4) and pro-somnolent (per postulates 2 and 5). Yet more theoretical work is required towards an IDO theory of somnolence.
provided blood and urine samples for measurement of eGFR and ACR
respectively. OSA severity was established from the oxygen desaturation
index (ODI, 4% desaturation) and the mean nocturnal oxygen saturation
(SaO
2
). CKD progression risk was determined from a heat map incorpo-
rating both eGFR and ACR (KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline; normal
values: eGFR90 ml/min/1.73m
2
,ACR<3mg/mmol).
Results: Four hundred and ninety-ve patients (306 (62%) male, age:
55±12y, BMI: 35.9±8.6 kg/m
2
) were recruited, of whom 47 (9.5%) reported
a previous CKD diagnosis and 51 (10.3%) reported a history of albuminuria.
Objectively, 313 (63%) had eGFR<90, 58 (11.7%) had eGFR<60, and 94
(19%) had albuminuria (ACR>2.99 mg/mmol). The cohort was divided into
3 groups based on ODI: <15 (no or mild OSA, ODI: 6±5, n¼105), 15-30
(moderate OSA, ODI: 21±4, n¼162), and >30 (severe OSA, ODI: 56±21,
n¼228). Mean SaO
2
fell signicantly across the 3 groups (ODI<15: 92.1
(90.6-94.0); ODI 15-30: 90.4 (87.8-91.9); ODI>30: 86.7 (83.0-89.1), p<
0.001). BMI increased signicantly across the 3 groups (ODI<15: 32 ±6.8;
ODI 15-30: 33.9±7.8; ODI>30: 39.1±8.9 kg/m
2
,p<0.001). Although the
prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increased
with the severity of OSA, only diabetes reached statistical signicance
between the groups (p¼0.03). After stratication by OSA status, 11.4% of
the no or mild OSA group, 31.5% of the moderate OSA group, and 32.5% of
the severe OSA group were considered to be at moderate to high risk of
CKD progression independent of mean SaO
2
, BMI and diabetes (p for
trend<0.001). The risk of CKD progression was maintained when patients
with prior CKD diagnoses were excluded.
Conclusion: Patients with moderate to severe OSA have an increased risk
of CKD progression. Further investigation is required to determine if
treatment of OSA decreases this risk.
Acknowledgements: CIHR CSCN Network Grant.
Insomnia
TOWARDS AN INTEGRATIVE DESIGN-ORIENTED THEORY OF SLEEP-
ONSET AND INSOMNOLENCE FROM WHICH A NEW COGNITIVE
TREATMENT FOR INSOMNOLENCE (SERIAL DIVERSE KINESTHETIC
IMAGINING, A FORM OF COGNITIVE SHUFFLING) IS PROPOSED FOR
EXPERIMENTALLY TESTING THIS AGAINST ALTERNATIVES
L. Beaudoin
1
,
2
,
3
, A. Lemyre
4
, M. Pudlo
5
, C. Bastien
6
.
1
Cognitive Science and
Education, Simon Fraser University, Canada;
2
CogSci Apps Corp., Canada;
3
CogZest, Pitt Meadows, Canada;
4
Psychologie, Universit
e Laval, Laval,
Canada;
5
Department of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw,
Poland;
6
Psychologie, Universit
e Laval, Lava, Canada
Introduction: We present progress towards an integrative design-ori-
ented (IDO) theory of sleep onset and insomnolence: the somnolent
information-processing theory (SIPt; Beaudoin, 2013, 2014). We dene
"insomnolenceas difculty falling (back) asleep da key feature of
insomnia (DSM-V).
We argue that theories of human sleep onset and propensity require an
IDO approach. By "design-orientedwe mean adopting the design stance
(Dennett, 1982; Poggio, 2012; McCarthy, 20 08) which is universally known
in theoretical Articial Intelligence and cognitive science but unused in
theories of sleep onset and insomnolence, SIPt aside. Like other cognitive
science, IDO involves interdisciplinary information-processing theories;
but it is also integrative, aiming to specify how requirements of autono-
mous agency (competence) are realized by the interaction of diverse
component processes (subsuming motivational, cognitive, executive and
ancillary functions). The IDO approach requires that any appeal to key
psychological constructs ("consciousness", "arousal", "emotion", "atten-
tion", "goals", "intention", etc.) be grounded in specic IDO theories. This
approach is meant to contribute to a paradigm shift in research in
insomnia, "emotionand psychology more generally, in response to what
Beaudoin, Hyniewska &Hudlicka (2017) and Muthukrishna &Henrich
(2019) identied as the root of psychologys replication crisis: lack of
rigorous, ambitious, progressive, evolutionarily grounded theoretical
integration. We claim control of human somnolence posed a signicant
evolutionary challenge particularly due to their abundant cortex.
Leading theories of insomnia tend to explain insomnolence in terms of
cognitive and/or physiological activity (Perlis, 2011) or "arousal(Harvey,
2005). Cognitive theories of insomnia assume that attention, intention and
effort to sleep are insomnolent (e.g., inhibiting "de-arousal", Espie, 2006).
Rejecting these assumptions, we argue that arousal is a problematically
polymorphic concept unsuitable for IDO explanations of somnolence.
In contrast, SIPt grounds its major concepts in specic IDO theories. In
accordance with Moors(2017) skepticism, SIPt replaces "emotionwith
computational architectures of motivation. More precisely, we leverage the
H-CogAff (Sloman, 2003) and LIDA (Franklin et al, 2013) architectures. We
replace the concept of "emotionand "arousalwith IDO concepts of
perturbance and alarms. Perturbance is an emergent state in which an
insistent motivator tends to control executive functions (Beaudoin, 1994;
Wright, Sloman &Beaudoin, 1996). Perturbance is theoretical grounding
for repetitive thought (Watkins, 20 08). Alarms (Oatley, 1992; Sloman,
2003; Baars &Franklin, 2009) are urgent global control signals which, we
claim, also underlie the alarm reaction (Selye 1936).
SIPt postulates that (1) chronobiological processes (Borb
ely, 2016) are the
principal contributors to somnolence; (2) sleep-onset-like information-
processing is pro-somnolent (increases sleep propensity); (3) perturbance
is insomnolent; (4) alarms are insomnolent; (5) some perceptual states
affect sleep propensity: sensing supineness, rocking (Bayer et al, 2011) or
skin temperature, Romeijn et al (2011).
We describe an effortful form of cognitive shufing, serial diverse kines-
thetic imagining (SDKI). It is suitable for an experiment pitting SIPt against
other theories (eg, Espie, 2006 and Havey, 2005) since only according to
SIPt should SDKI be both counter-insomnolent (per postulates 3 and 4) and
pro-somnolent (per postulates 2 and 5).
Yet more theoretical work is required towards an IDO theory of somno-
lence.
Insomnia
PRE-SLEEP COGNITIVE ACTIVITY IN ADULTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
A. Lemyre
1
, F. Belzile-Marsolais
1
,M.Landry
1
,C.Bastien
1
,L.
Beaudoin
2
.
1
Universit
eLaval,Qu
ebec, Canada;
2
Simon Fraser
University, Vancouver, Canada
Introduction: Cognitive activity during the pre-sleep period has long been
hypothesized to be a critical determinant for insomnia. Unfortunately,
there is no comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. The pre-
sent study aims to ll this gap in the literature. More precisely, this sys-
tematic review focuses on three themes: 1) the nature of pre-sleep
cognitive activity in good sleepers and individuals with insomnia, 2) the
links between measures of pre-sleep cognitive activity and sleep onset
latency (SOL) or insomnia, and 3) the effect of manipulating pre-sleep
cognitive activity on SOL or insomnia.
Materials and methods: For each theme, a systematic search was con-
ducted in PsycInfo. In total, 1730 articles were sorted. The sorting pro-
cessed comprised four steps. In step-1, two authors independently sorted
the documents based on the titles and abstracts. In step-2, all disagree-
ments resulting from step-1 were resolved by mean of consensus between
the two authors and the main author. In step-3, the two authors inde-
pendently sorted the remaining documents after reading them in full. In
step-4, all disagreements resulting from step-3 were, again, resolved by
mean of consensus.
Results: Regarding the rst theme, mentation reports have been collected
in a sleep laboratory, with an ambulatory monitoring device, or using a
voice-activated tape-recorder. Normal transition to sleep is characterized
by sensorial imagery, inhibition of higher cognitive processes, hallucina-
tions, and changes in agency. Moreover, pre-sleep thoughts in individuals
with insomnia frequently relate to planning or problem-solving, and are
more unpleasant than in good sleepers. Regarding the second theme, ten
questionnaires and three interviews were identied. Insomnia is associ-
ated with more thoughts interfering with sleep, counterfactual processing,
worries, maladaptive thought control strategies, covert monitoring, and
cognitive arousal. Regarding the third theme, several strategies have been
tested: mental imagery, hypnosis, paradoxical intention, articulatory
suppression, ordinary suppression, and distraction. Their effect on sleep
onset is either benecial, negligible, or detrimental.
Conclusions: In conclusion, our understanding of the links between pre-
sleep cognitive activity and insomnia might be improved based on new
psychological theories explaining normal sleep onset. Such theories would
help in interpreting available data, in developing new measures of pre-
sleep cognitive activity, and in creating novel treatment strategies.
Abstracts / Sleep Medicine 64 (2019) S1eS359 S29
... For instance, the theory presented here is quite agentic. The somnolent information processing theory (Beaudoin, 2014c;Beaudoin et al. 2019;Lemyre, Belzile, Landry, Bastien, & Beaudoin, 2020), while addressing the sleep onset control system in an IDO manner is less agentic: it deals with specific functions which, while grounded in a broader, agentic IDO theory, are essential to autonomous agency (adaptively controlling the onset of sleep). ...
... Dominant cognitive theories of insomnia (Espie, 2007;Harvey, 2005) invoke affective terminology, such as 'arousal', without commitment to theories to interpret the terms (e.g., Russell, 2003), and do not appeal to fundamental IDO theories. Beaudoin (2014) and Beaudoin et al. (2019) have put forth a prolegomenon towards an IDO theory of sleep onset and insomnia based on H-CogAff, dubbed the somnolent information processing (SIP) theory, which attempts to reverse engineer the human sleep-onset control system. The theory postulates that perturbance is insomnolent, meaning that it tends to delay sleep onset. ...
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Full-text available
Understanding intrusive mentation, rumination, obsession, and worry, known also as "repetitive thought" (RT), is important for understanding cognitive and affective processes in general. RT is of transdiagnostic significance—for example obsessive-compulsive disorder, insomnia and addictions involve counterproductive RT. It is also a key but under-acknowledged feature of emotional episodes. We argue that RT cannot be understood in isolation but must rather be considered within models of whole minds and for this purpose we suggest an integrative design-oriented (IDO) approach. This approach involves the design stance of theoretical Artificial Intelligence (the central discipline of cognitive science), augmented by systematic conceptual analysis, aimed at explaining how autonomous agency is possible. This requires developing, exploring and implementing cognitive-affective-conative information-processing architectures. Empirical research on RT and emotions needs to be driven by such theories, and theorizing about RT needs to consider such data. Mental perturbance is an IDO concept that, we argue, can help characterize, explain, and theoretically ground the concept of RT. Briefly, perturbance is a mental state in which motivators tend to disrupt, or otherwise influence, executive processes even if reflective processes were to try to prevent or minimize the motivators’ influence. We draw attention to an IDO architecture of mind, H-CogAff, to illustrate the IDO approach to perturbance. We claim, further, that the intrusive mentation of some affective states— including grief and limerence (the attraction phase of romantic love) — should be conceptualized in terms of perturbance and the IDO architectures that support perturbance. We call for new taxonomies of RT and emotion in terms of IDO architectures such as H-CogAff. We point to areas of research in psychology that would benefit from the concept of perturbance.
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