Article

The evaluation of chemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial and sensory properties of kombucha tea beverage

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition (organic acids—acetic, tartaric, citric; sugars—sucrose, glucose, fructose; total acidity, alcohol content, pH—with FTIR instrument; content of selected mineral compounds—AAS instrument), antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity and sensory profiles of prepared kombucha tea beverage. Black tea with white sugar as a substrate for kombucha beverage was used as a control sample. The dominant organic acid in kombucha tea beverage was acetic acid (1.55 g/L), followed by tartaric and citric acids. The sucrose (17.81 g/L) was the dominant sugar from detected sugars. Antioxidant activity of beverage tested by reducing power method (1318.56 mg TEAC/L) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in comparison with black tea (345.59 mg TEAC/L). The same tendency was observed for total polyphenol content which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in kombucha beverage (412.25 mg GAE/L) than in black tea (180.17 mg GAE/L). Among mineral compounds, the amount of manganese (1.57 mg/L) and zinc (0.53 mg/L) was the highest in kombucha tea beverage. Results of antimicrobial activity of kombucha tea beverage showed strong inhibition of Candida krusei CCM 8271 (15.81 mm), C. glabrata CCM 8270 (16 mm), C. albicans CCM 8186 (12 mm), C. tropicalis CCM 8223 (14 mm), Haemophilus influenzae CCM 4454 (10 mm) and Escherichia coli CCM 3954 (4 mm). Sensory properties of prepared beverage were evaluated overall as good with the best score in a taste (pleasant fruity-sour taste). The consumption of kombucha tea beverage as a part of drinking mode of consumers due to health benefits is recommended.

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... Chemical composition of the fermented beverage is sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose), fiber, ethanol, tea polyphenols, organic food acids, amino acids including lysine and theanine, a derivative of glutamine, essential elements such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni, and Zn, water-soluble vitamins such as several B vitamins and vitamin C, carbon dioxide, antibiotic substances, and hydrolytic enzymes. Studies have shown that the amounts of polyphenols, B vitamins, vitamin C and essential mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ni) are increased during the fermentation of kombucha (Chu & Chen, 2006;Ivanišová et al., 2020;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Kaczmarczyk & Lochyński, 2014;Malbaša et al., 2011). Most of these substances have pharmacological effects and can be considered bioactive compounds. ...
... Few studies have reported the effect of single molecules with bioactive properties in kombucha with most only addressing the antioxidant activity of these compounds, or the content of total phenolic compounds and phenolic acids (Amarasinghe et al., 2018;Degirmencioglu et al., 2021). Mineral and vitamins quantifications in beverages are also scarce (Bauer-Petrovska & Petrushevska-Tozi, 2000; Buzia et al., 2018;Ivanišová et al., 2020;Tamer et al., 2021). ...
... Biologically active substances such as theobromine, caffeine, caffeic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, and ferulic acid (Azevedo et al., 2019;Miranda et al., 2016;Rahmani et al., 2019), soluble vitamins from complex B (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 ), vitamin C and the essential minerals iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, and calcium (Bauer-Petrovska & Petrushevska-Tozi, 2000; Buzia et al., 2018;Ivanišová et al., 2020;Malbaša et al., 2011;Tamer et al., 2021) have been identified in kombucha. Fluoride has also been detected in kombucha made with black, green, red and white tea with the latter two presenting in smaller amounts (Jakubczyk et al., 2020). ...
Article
Plant bioactive compounds have been studied mainly for their beneficial antioxidant properties. Kombucha is a fermented beverage traditionally obtained from fermentation of sweetened black or green tea by a characteristic consortium of yeasts and bacteria. The beverage naturally contains bioactive compounds from teas and their synthesis can be increased during fermentation. This review aims to explore the different bioactive compounds found in kombucha from different substrates, as well as the factors that influence on their synthesis and their amount in the final product. The results suggest phenolic compounds are the main bioactive compounds in kombucha. The substrate type contributes the most to increasing the content of bioactive compounds in the final product; fermentation time and type of sugar also increase the amount of these compounds. Further research suggestions include the combination of strategies to increase bioactive compounds in kombucha, quantification and characterization of the isolated compounds. Free access https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1emYm16Ds1s9uR
... The tea is left at room temperature to ferment for 7-21 days. Kombucha can be made with different types of tea, including green tea and fermented (oxidised) varieties, like red, black and yellow tea [1][2][3]. Still, black tea and white sugar (sucrose) are regarded as the traditional and at the same time the best ingredients, making for the optimal composition of the finished beverage and its health benefits. ...
... Studies demonstrated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of kombucha, lowering cholesterol and boosting the immune system, as well as stimulating liver detoxification [4]. Kombucha beverages were also found to contain minerals, mainly originating from the tea substrate (F, K, Mn), vitamins (E, K, B) and amino acids (notably theanine, a derivative of glutamine), as well as other compounds produced as a result of numerous reactions during tea fermentation [3]. During the oxidation of polyphenolic compounds, catechins, flavonoids and other compounds with health-promoting properties emerge [4,5]. ...
... Some authors have clearly proved that, the longer the tea brewing time, the higher the fluoride content in the tea [3,24,26]. Our findings also support the conclusion that longer fermentation is related to higher fluoride concentrations in the beverage. ...
Article
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Kombucha dates back thousands of years and is reported to have originated in East Asia. It is produced by fermenting tea with added sugar using SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast). Its health benefits can be attributed to the metabolites produced during the fermentation process. Valuable ingredients of this fermented tea beverage include acetic acid, glucuronic acid, vitamins, enzymes, sugars and polyphenols. Tea, and consequently kombucha, contains numerous minerals, and one of them is fluoride. Under physiological conditions, fluoride plays a significant role in hard tissue mineralisation processes. However, even at low concentrations with long-term exposure, fluorides may accumulate in the body and cause a range of detrimental effects. Kombucha is traditionally brewed with black tea, but these days it is becoming increasingly popular to use other types of tea to make it, which may significantly affect its composition and health-promoting effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the fluoride content in kombucha beverages derived from black, green, white and red tea. Fluoride content was measured at different time points during fermentation. The potentiometric method was used to determine the content of fluoride ions. It was demonstrated that kombucha is a major dietary source of fluoride (0.42–0.93 mg/L) and that the type of tea used has a significant effect on its chemical composition. Therefore, it recommended to make the beverage with white or red tea, due to the lowest fluoride content and ensure food safety. Graphical Abstract
... Parameters such as the type of tea, sugar content, fermentation temperature and its fermentation time can significantly affect the characteristics of the obtained product, including health-promoting. Ivanišová et al. (2020) reported that Kombucha after sevendays fermentation at 22 °C (no information on the SCOBY composition), was characterized by higher polyphenols (412.25 mg GAE/L) than black tea infusion (180.17 mg GAE/L). ...
... mg GAE/L). What is more, the antioxidant activities of the obtained beverage were also higher: 1318.56 mg TEAC/L (Kombucha) and 345.59 mg TEAC/L (tea) [71]. Jakubczyk et al. (2020) evaluated antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Kombucha obtained by the fermentation (28 ± 1 °C for up to 14 days, no specific composition of SCOBY) of green, black, white and red teas. ...
... (2017) acetic acid concentration after 7 days of fermentation at 25 °C equaled 1.26 g/L [79], while Ivanišová and others noted 1.55 g/L after 7 days at 22 °C [71]. In addition to the different SCOBYs and incubation temperatures used in these two studies, attention should also be paid to the raw materials. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a low alcoholic beverage with high content of bioactive compounds derived from plant material (tea, juices, herb extracts) and metabolic activity of microorganisms (acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts). Currently, it attracts an increasing number of consumers due to its health-promoting properties. This review focuses on aspects significantly affecting the bioactive compound content and biological activities of Kombucha tea. The literature review shows that the drink is characterized by a high content of bioactive compounds, strong antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Factors that substantially affect these activities are the tea type and its brewing parameters, the composition of the SCOBY, as well as the fermentation parameters. On the other hand, Kombucha fermentation is characterized by many unknowns, which result, inter alia, from different methods of tea extraction, diverse, often undefined compositions of microorganisms used in the fermentation, as well as the lack of clearly defined effects of microorganisms on bioactive compounds contained in tea, and therefore the health-promoting properties of the final product. The article indicates the shortcomings in the current research in the field of Kombucha, as well as future perspectives on improving the health-promoting activities of this fermented drink.
... The methods that were most commonly used to examine the antibacterial properties of kombucha were disc diffusion test (Ansari et al., 2017(Ansari et al., , 2019Greenwalt et al., 1998;Ivanišová, Meňhartová, Terentjeva, Harangozo, et al., 2019;Pure & Pure, 2016b;Steinkraus et al., 1996;Talawat et al., 2006;Vohra et al., 2019), agar-well diffusion method (Al-Kalifawi, 2014;Ansari et al., 2017Ansari et al., , 2019Battikh et al., 2012Battikh et al., , 2013Bhattacharya et al., 2016;Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Kaewkod et al., 2019;Sreeramulu et al., 2000Sreeramulu et al., , 2001Velićanski et al., 2007Velićanski et al., , 2014, and broth dilution method (Bhattacharya et al., , 2020Borkani et al., 2016;Cardoso et al., 2020;Deghrigue et al., 2013;Shahbazi et al., 2018;Vitas et al., 2018). The disc diffusion test and agar-well diffusion method are efficient ways to screen the antibacterial activities of kombucha, whereas broth dilution method could be used to determine the concentration that has the highest bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. ...
... The nonpathogenic, commensal E. coli plays multiple roles in maintaining the health of its human host, such as preventing the colonization of pathogenic E. coli (Leatham et al., 2009;Richter et al., 2018), facilitating iron uptake (Sewell et al., 2018), and the synthesis of vitamin K (Bentley & Meganathan, 1982). Nonpathogenic strains of E. coli are highly sensitive toward kombucha (Al-Kalifawi, 2014;Battikh et al., 2012Battikh et al., , 2013Bhattacharya et al., 2016;Cardoso et al., 2020;Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Deghrigue et al., 2013;Greenwalt et al., 2000;Ivanišová, Meňhartová, Terentjeva, Harangozo, et al., 2019;Kaewkod et al., 2019;Shahbazi et al., 2018;Sreeramulu et al., 2000Sreeramulu et al., , 2001Steinkraus et al., 1996 and there have been evidence of kombucha's bactericidal effects toward nonpathogenic E. coli as well Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Velićanski et al., 2007Velićanski et al., , 2014. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that continuous consumption of kombucha may disrupt the balance of commensal E. coli population in the human gastro-intestinal tract, potentially having a negative impact on human health. ...
... (Battikh et al., 2012Sreeramulu et al., 2000;Yuniarto et al., 2016). A similar phenomenon was observed with C. krusei-while one study demonstrated positive antifungal activity of black tea kombucha against the yeast (Ivanišová, Meňhartová, Terentjeva, Harangozo, et al., 2019), others showed otherwise (Battikh et al., 2012. The reason behind such discrepancies is uncertain, although it is clear that the methods employed in the studies and the amount of kombucha used could not have contributed to the antifungal activities. ...
Article
Kombucha is a traditional beverage of Manchurian origin, typically made by fermenting sugared black or green tea with the symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The beverage has gained increasing popularity in recent years, mainly due to its heralded health benefits. The fermentation process of kombucha also results in the production of various bioactive compounds with antimicrobial potential, making it a promising candidate in the exploration of alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, and may be helpful in combating the rising threat of antibiotic resistance. Literature survey performed on Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed revealed the extensive research that has firmly established the antimicrobial activity of kombucha against a broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. This activity could be attributed to the synergistic activities of the microbial species in the kombucha microbiota that led to the synthesis of compounds with antimicrobial properties such as acetic acid and various polyphenols. However, research thus far only involved screening for the antimicrobial activity of kombucha. Therefore, there is still a research gap about the molecular mechanism of the kombucha reaction against specific pathogens and its influence on human health upon consumption. Future research may focus on investigating this aspect. Further characterization of the biological activity of the microbial community in kombucha may also facilitate the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins produced by the microorganisms.
... The study presented by Ivanišová et al. (2020) reported sensory analysis of traditional kombucha black tea compared to black tea (not fermented by kombucha SCOBY). The objective of the sensory evaluation is to evaluate the acceptance of the product elaborated on a laboratory scale. ...
... Of the four studies that performed a sensory analysis of traditional kombucha, only Abel and Andreson (2020) had no positive results. Although the parameters used were similar to the other studies (Ivanišová et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020), the SCOBY can influence the higher production of organic acids and consequently led to the beverage rejection. The acidity of kombucha is the main parameter that leads to beverage rejection since if the production of acetic acid is intense, the beverage will taste like vinegar. ...
Article
Kombucha is a beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened green or black tea with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY), which claims nutritional characteristics. As demand for kombucha increased, alternative extracts to green or black tea such as herbs, fruits, milk, agro-industrial materials started to be used in fermentation, giving rise to kombucha-like beverages. The literature review shows that the procedure and conditions used to obtain kombucha-like beverages are similar to the traditional fermentation. However, some additional steps may be necessary to prepare the raw material for its use as an alternative to green or black tea, the main approaches being highlighted in this review. Bioactive compounds (mainly phenolics) are considered one of the main attractions of kombucha due to their antioxidant characteristics. It is observed that, regardless of the extract used, the bioactive compounds (mainly phenolics) and also the antioxidant activity tend to increase during the fermentation of these beverages. Thus, the use of alternative raw materials to tea for the preparation of kombucha is viable and tends to serve a wide range of products according to different regions of the world. These new beverages have similar characteristics to the traditional beverage and respect the diversity of consumer market trends.
... The fermentation promotes structural modification of tea polyphenols and increases the presence of low molecular weight components in the kombucha beverage, contributing a more significant antioxidant activity when compared to unfermented tea [6]. The reason for this difference is linked to variations in the number of infused herbs and antioxidant compounds in black tea and lemongrass [22]. Although kombucha's free radical scavenging properties are directly proportional to the fermentation time, prolonging it is not recommended due to the accumulation of organic acids, which can promote acidosis and may be harmful given direct consumption. ...
... The bio-absorbent effect of SCOBY during fermentation also can contribute to the production of a healthier kombucha beverage, considering that heavy metal environmental contaminants, such as arsenic, chromium, and copper, are highly decreased in kombucha [25,26]. Thus, these results reveal that kombucha does not represent potential health risks in terms of toxic element contents [22]. ...
Article
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Fermentation is one of the oldest biotechnological tools employed by mankind. Fermenting food gives them better sensory and nutritional qualities, the latter including vitamins, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. Kombucha is the result of the fermentation of a sweetened Camellia sinensis infusion by the action of a symbiotic community of yeasts and bacteria organized in a cellulosic biofilm called SCOBY and has gained great prominence among fermented foods and beverages, with a considerable increase in its popularity in the last decade, both among consumers and within the scientific community. This is explained by the particular functional and microbial characteristics of this beverage, such as its antioxidant and antimicrobial potential, long-term stable microbial communities, its suitability for fermentation under different conditions of time and temperature, and amenability to other carbon sources besides sucrose. Thus, this review aims to present and discuss the functional, microbial, and physicochemical aspects of kombucha fermentation, covering the many challenges that arise in its production, in domestic, commercial, and legislation contexts, and the next steps that need to be taken in order to understand this drink and its complex fermentation process.
... The reason was suggested as that polymerized and large structures form a cloudy appearance as water solubility decreases (Zofia et al., 2020). In a study by Ivanisova et al. (2020), antioxidant capacity was determined by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method in the kombucha obtained by fermentation of black tea (1318.56 ± 5.02 mg TEAC/L), which had 4 times higher antioxidant activity compared with unfermented black tea (345.59 ± 3.58 mg TEAC/L). The authors concluded that higher antioxidant activity after fermentation was related to the distinct rise in phenolic amount. ...
... acetic, gluconic, glucuronic, lactic, tartaric, citric, and malic acids). It has also been shown to contain formic acid, etc. as well as minerals such as manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium, cadmium, etc. (Ivanisova et al., 2020;La Torre et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Kombucha, originated in China 2000 years ago, is a sour and sweet-tasted drink, prepared traditionally through fermentation of black tea. During the fermentation of kombucha, consisting of mainly acidic compounds, microorganisms, and a tiny amount of alcohol, a biofilm called SCOBY forms. The bacteria in kombucha has been generally identified as Acetobacteraceae. Kombucha is a noteworthy source of B complex vitamins, polyphenols, and organic acids (mainly acetic acid). Nowadays, kombucha is tended to be prepared with some other plant species, which, therefore, lead to variations in its composition. Pre-clinical studies conducted on kombucha revealed that it has desired bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-hypercholestorelomic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, etc. Only a few clinical studies have been also reported. In the current review, we aimed to overhaul pre-clinical bioactivities reported on kombucha as well as its brief compositional chemistry. The literature data indicate that kombucha has valuable biological effects on human health.
... The samples and the control (original grape juice) were stored at 3 • C and served after homogenization. Two different series of grape juice were analyzed, following accepted methodology [29]. Each series included a different natural bioactive extract, MecolbalActive ® or red grape extract, and three different concentrations of each extract were tested (Table 1) in three different session days. ...
Article
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Neurodegenerative diseases pose a major health problem for developed countries. Stress, which induces oxidation in the brain, has been identified as the main risk factor for these disorders. We have developed an antioxidant-enriched drink and have examined its protective properties against acute oxidative stress. We found that addition of red grape polyphenols and MecobalActive® to grape juice did not provoke changes in juice organoleptic characteristics, and that the pasteurization process did not greatly affect the levels of flavonoids and vitamin B12. Out of all combinations, grape juice with red grape polyphenols was selected by expert judges (28.6% selected it as their first choice). In vivo, oral administration of grape juice supplemented with red grape polyphenols exerted an antioxidant effect in the brain of stressed mice reducing two-fold the expression of genes involved in inflammation and oxidation mechanisms and increasing three-fold the expression of genes related to protection against oxidative stress. In addition, we found that this drink augmented antioxidant enzyme activity (17.8 vs. 8.2 nmol/mg), and prevented lipid peroxidation in the brain (49.7 vs. 96.5 nmol/mg). Therefore, we propose supporting the use of this drink by the general population as a new and global strategy for the prevention of neurodegeneration.
... Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, improve many nutritional and digestive functions [1,2]. After a long history of safe use of probiotics in fermented food products and an increased recognition of their beneficial human health effects, in addition to their significant potential use as therapeutic options for a variety of diseases, the food industry has become increasingly interested in these types of microorganisms [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotics are likely to be multifactorial. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a traditional beverage of sweetened black tea fermented with a symbiotic association of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. In this study, kombucha fermented beverage (KFB) appeared to include nine chemical groups (alcohols, acids, lactones, condensed heterocyclic compounds , antibiotics, esters, aldehydes, fatty acids, and alkaloids) of many bioactive metabolites, as elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and IR spectra. The fermented metabolic components of KFB seem collectively to act in a synergistic action giving rise to the an-timicrobial activity. Four types of kombucha preparations (fermented, neutralized, heat-treated and unfermented) were demonstrated with respect to their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains using agar well diffusion assay. KFB exerted the strongest antimicrobial activities when compared with neutralized and heat-treated kombucha beverages (NKB and HKB). Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli ATCC11229 (E. coli) were the organisms most susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of kombucha beverage preparations. Finally, the KFB preparation showed remarkable inhibitory activity against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in a brain heart infusion broth and in some Egyptian fruit juices (apple, guava, strawberry , and tomato). These data reveal that kombucha is not only a prophylactic agent, but also appears to be promising as a safe alternative biopreservative, offering protection against patho-genic bacteria and fungi.
... Similarly, ellagic acid is thought to neutralize the effects of oxidative stress by acting as an antioxidant directly or indirectly through induction of antioxidant systems in the cell to counter the stress [70]. Other organic acids such as acetic acid, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, caffeic acid, gluconic acid, chlorogenic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and derivatives of benzoic acid found in these traditional fermented teas play typical roles as intermediaries in metabolism and directly or indirectly impact the antioxidant potentials of teas [6,71,72]. ...
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The study investigated the impact of the fermentation process on the phenolic contents and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in extracts of Miang, an ethnic fermented tea product of northern Thailand. The acetone (80%) extraction of Miang samples fermented by a non-filamentous fungi-based process (NFP) and filamentous fungi-based process (FFP) had elevated levels of total polyphenols, total tannins, and condensed tannins compared to young and mature tea leaves. The antioxidant studies also showed better the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for fermented leaves in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assays as well as improved ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to young and mature tea leaves. Extracts of NFP and FFP samples at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm showed better protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HT-29 colorectal cells without exerting cytotoxicity. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (a proinflammatory mediator as well as a reactive nitrogen species) was also inhibited by these fermented Miang extracts with an IC50 values of 17.15 μg/mL (NFP), 20.17 μg/mL (FFP), 33.96 μg/mL (young tea leaves), and 31.33 μg/mL (mature tea leaves). Therefore, both NFP-Miang and FFP-Miang showed the potential to be targeted as natural bioactive functional ingredients with preventive properties against free radical and inflammatory-mediated diseases.
... Kombucha is said to be well accepted in a sensory way by providing a unique drink that has an element of sweetness, while giving fruitiness and sour and acidic flavours. Ivanišová et al. [2] found that their Kombucha had a slightly better sensory preference overall compared to the sweetened black tea control, as well as improvements in taste and flavour intensity. Common flavours that are described by sensory panels seem to include lemon, vinegar, sour, and yeast flavours and aromas [3,4]. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a yeast and bacterially fermented tea that is often described as having an acetic, fruity and sour flavour. There is a particular lack of sensory research around the use of Kombucha with additional ingredients such as those from the pepper family, or with hops. The goal of this project was to obtain a sensory profile of Kombucha beverages with a range of different ingredients, particularly of a novel Kombucha made with only Kawakawa (Piper excelsum) leaves. Other samples included hops and black pepper. Instrumental data were collected for all the Kombucha samples, and a sensory focus group of eight semi-trained panellists were set up to create a sensory profile of four products. Commercially available Kombucha, along with reference training samples were used to train the panel. Kawakawa Kombucha was found to be the sourest of the four samples and was described as having the bitterest aftertaste. The instrumental results showed that the Kawakawa Kombucha had the highest titratable acidity (1.55 vs. 1.21–1.42 mL) as well as the highest alcohol percentage (0.40 vs. 0.15–0.30%). The hops sample had the highest pH (3.72 vs. 3.49–3.54), with the lowest titratable acidity (1.21), and, from a basic poll, was the most liked of the samples. Each Kombucha had its own unique set of sensory descriptors with particular emphasis on the Kawakawa product, having unique mouthfeel descriptors as a result of some of the compounds found in Kawakawa. This research has led to a few areas that could be further studied, such as the characteristics of the Piperaceae family under fermentation and the different effects or the foaminess of the Kawakawa Kombucha, which is not fully explained.
... It indicated that both tea samples treated with tannase were higher acceptability in terms of flavor (overall), taste, after taste, overall acceptability and appearance. The finding of this study is comparable with results from published studies by Ivanisova et al. (2020) where they were reported that the enzyme-treated kangra orthodox tea beverages have an acidic and satisfying taste. Similarly, Neffe-Skocinska et al. (2017) indicated the higher acceptability of treated tea in terms of the sensory characteristics. ...
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Tannase is a widely used enzyme that improves the quality of tea by facilitating the release of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds, as well as reduces the formation of tea creams. The microbial tannase enzymes are often employed for tea biotransformation by hydrolyses esters of phenolic acids, including the gallated polyphenols found in blacks teas. The study was focused to investigate the tannase enzyme mediated biotransformation of black tea such as CTC-(Crush, tear, curl) & Kangra orthodox which are commonly used by the south Indian peoples. HPLC spectral analysis revealed that tannase treatment on tea cream formation (CTC & Kangra orthodox tea) allows the hydrolysis of the EGC, GA, ECG, and EGCG. A significant reduction in the formation of tea cream and increased antioxidant activity has been observed in the CTC (1.62 fold) and Kangra orthodox (1.55 fold). The results revealed that tannase treatment helps to improve the quality of black tea infusions with respect to cream formation, the intensity of colour, and sensory characteristics of tea. The result of this study indicates that E. cloacae 41 produced tannase can be used to improve the quality of both tea samples.
... The images of representative tea were displayed on the reverse of the respective sensory wheel, but are not shown here. Flavor studies [35,36] utilizing chemometric technologies combined with sensory description and consumer perception can provide more reliable criteria for authentication of Taiwan specialty teas. Establishment of easily accessible and stable reference materials is a topic that requires urgent follow-up research. ...
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In the context of fair trade and protection of consumer rights, the aim of this study was to combat adulteration, counterfeiting, and fraud in the tea market, and rebuild the image of high-quality Taiwan teas. Experts at the Tea Research and Extension Station, Taiwan (TRES), are engaged in promotion of the systems of origin identification (AOC) and grading for authentication of Taiwan’s premium teas. From tea evaluation competitions (bottom-up quality campaign), the flavor descriptions and consumers’ perceptions were deconvoluted and characterized for the eight Taiwan specialty teas, namely, Bi-Luo-Chun, Wenshan Paochong, High-Mountain Oolong, Dongding Oolong, Tieh-Kuan-Yin, Red Oolong, Oriental Beauty, and Taiwan black tea. Then, according to the manufacturing processes, producing estates and flavor characters, the specialty teas were categorized into six sensory wheels. The flavor descriptors of the sensory wheels were also recognized in consumers’ feedback. In recent years, the performance of international trade in tea also demonstrates that the policy guidelines for authentication of specialty teas are helpful to the production and marketing. Furthermore, the development of sensory wheels of Taiwan’s specialty teas is the cornerstone to the establishment of the Taiwan-tea assortment and grading system (TAGs) for communication with the new generation consumers, enthusiasts, sellers, and producers.
... Mayser et al. (1995) identified yeast-like fungi belonging to Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces, and Candida in fermented kombucha drinks. During the fermentation process, these microorganisms produce a number of compounds with antimicrobial properties (Ivanišová et al. 2020). Sreeramulu et al. (2001) identified numerous substances in fermented kombucha drink that exhibit potential bactericidal activity. ...
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Effects were assessed for the post-culture liquid medium originating from the cultivation of microorganisms that are present in the ecosystem called symbiotic consortium bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The effectiveness of protecting Scotch pine wood samples against decomposition caused by the fungus Coniophora puteana was evaluated. The obtained results confirmed that impregnation of wood with post-culture medium reduces the possibility of decomposition of this wood by the test fungus. The potential biocidal effect of the post-culture medium from SCOBY was attributed to the presence the substances of a potential fungicidal nature, which were synthesized in the culture medium during metabolic processes occurring in the culture. The obtained results encourage further studies on the potential use of metabolites obtained from SCOBY breeding to protect wood against biodegradation.
... Kombucha has a slight sweet, sourly, and refreshing taste with high acceptability by the consumers worldwide (Teoh et al., 2004). Several studies reported that kombucha demonstrated biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities (Villarrealsoto et al., 2018;Gaggìa et al., 2019;Ivanišová et al., 2019). The biological activity of kombucha has strong interaction with the SCOBY that is also known as "tea fungus." ...
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Kombucha is a slightly alcoholic beverage produced using sugared tea via fermentation using the symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). This study aimed to optimize the production of soursop kombucha and determine the effects of different storage conditions on the quality, metabolites, and biological activity. The response surface method (RSM) results demonstrated that the optimum production parameters were 300 ml soursop juice, 700 ml black tea, and 150 g sugar and 14 days fermentation at 28 • C. The storage conditions showed significant (P < 0.05) effects on the antioxidant activity including the highest antioxidant activity for the sample stored for 14 days at 25 • C in light and the highest total phenolic content (TPC) for the sample stored for 7 days at 4 • C in the dark. No significant effects were observed on the antimicrobial activity of soursop kombucha toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The microbial population was reduced from the average of 10 6 CFU/ml before the storage to 10 4 CFU/ml after the storage at 4 and 25 • C in dark and light conditions. The metabolites profiling demonstrated significant decline for the sucrose, acetic acid, gluconic acid, and ethanol, while glucose was significantly increased. The storage conditions for 21 days at 25 • C in the dark reduced 98% of ethanol content. The novel findings of this study revealed that prolonged storage conditions have high potential to improve the quality, metabolites content, biological activity, and the Halal status of soursop kombucha.
... The low "stinging flavor" score could be explained by a lack of secondary fermentation in closed vessels. Recent studies incorporated sensory analysis but did not bring further detailed descriptive elements (Ivanišová et al., 2019;Shahbazi, Hashemi Gahruie, Golmakani, Eskandari, & Movahedi, 2018). ...
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Kombucha is a beverage made from sugared tea transformed by yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. Being originally homemade, it has become an industrially produced soft drink whose quality standards are poorly defined and whose production process is still not fully controlled. Based on current knowledge in beverages, links between kombucha's chemical composition and sensorial compounds are drawn. Macromolecules create turbidity, whereas uncharacterized tea pigments derivatives participate in the color. Residual sugars bring sweetness and organic acids produced by acetic acid bacteria form its characteristic sour taste. Acetic acid is also part of its aroma profile, although little data are available on the smell of kombucha. Carbon dioxide, potentially polyphenols, and residual ethanol are involved in the mouthfeel. In this review, after defining the key compounds that shape the characteristic sensory properties of kombucha, the impact of different production parameters is discussed. Water composition is determinant in the extraction of tea compounds along with the tea type and infusion duration and temperature. The type and amount of sweeteners play a role in the sweetness and influences the production kinetics. Similarly, the amount of inoculum and its microbial composition have an effect on the production, but the role of the vessels' geometry and temperature are also essential parameters that can be used to adjust the acidification phase's duration. Despite the amount of research carried out, further investigations of kombucha's sensory characteristics are needed. Such research could lead to a better definition of kombucha's quality and to an improved control over its production process.
... The inhibitory activity of black tea prepared kombucha has been shown against C. albicans, but not against Zygosaccharomyces bailii [21,22]. A 21-day fermented beverage of green and black tea inhibited the growth of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, C. glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida sake, except C. krusei [23]. Acetic acid, which could be major antimicrobial compound, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of kombucha [17,24]. ...
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Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sweetened tea with a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. Literature data indicate that the kombucha beverage shows many health-promoting properties such as detoxification, chemo-preventive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, and general strengthening. The research conducted focuses on the analysis of polyphenolic compounds formed in the fermentation process using ultra-efficient liquid chromatography, as well as on checking the antimicrobial properties of kombucha against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts found in food. Analysis of the composition of the tea mushroom (SCOBY) microflora using the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometer showed 8 species of bacteria and 7 species of yeasts. In vitro studies confirm the bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties of fermented kombucha beverages, with white and green tea beverages showing the highest antibacterial activity. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and yeast Candida albicans were the most sensitive to the effects of kombucha tea beverages. UPLC chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of 17 bioactive compounds in kombucha beverages that can affect human health. The analyses conducted were aimed at indicating the best recipe and conditions to prepare a kombucha beverage, which allowed the selection of the version with the best health-promoting properties. Fermented kombucha teas contain many elements such as aluminium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, and sulphur.
... Kombucha drinks also feature minerals originating mainly from tea (potassium, manganese, fluoride ions), vitamins (E, K, B), amino acids (especially theanine, a derivative of glutamine), as well as other compounds that are formed as the result of numerous reactions occurring during the fermentation of the tea. During the oxidation of polyphenolic compounds, catechins, flavonoids and other compounds with health benefits for the organism are formed [8,10,11]. ...
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Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage prepared as a result of the symbiotic nature of bacterial cultures and yeast, the so-called SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeasts). Kombucha is characterised by rich chemical content and healthy properties. It includes organic acids, minerals and vitamins originating mainly from tea, amino acids, and biologically active compounds-polyphenols in particular. Kombucha is prepared mainly in the form of black tea, but other tea types are increasingly often used as well, which can significantly impact its content and health benefits. This work shows that the type of tea has a significant influence on the parameters associated with the antioxidant potential, pH, as well as the content of acetic acid, alcohol or sugar. Red tea and green tea on the 1st and 14th day of fermentation are a particularly prominent source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, including flavonoids. Therefore, the choice of other tea types than the traditionally used black tea and the subjection of these tea types to fermentation seems to be beneficial in terms of the healthy properties of kombucha.
... Different agricultural and food wastes have been used as a carbon source for the production of BNC [93][94][95][96]. With respect to the use of residual biomass from the banana value chain, rotten banana [83], as well as banana peel [44,81], have been used as a carbon source in the fermentation stage to obtain this biopolymer. ...
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Bananas are one of the most important crops worldwide. However, a large amount of residual lignocellulosic biomass is generated during its production and is currently undervalued. These residues have the potential to be used as feedstock in bio-based processes with a biorefinery approach. This work is based on the valorization of banana leaf and has the following objectives (i) to determine the effect of certain physical and environmental factors on the concentration of glucose present in banana leaf extract (BLE), using a statistical regression model; (ii) to obtain Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC), using BLE (70% v/v) and kombucha tea as fermentation medium. In addition, the physicochemical properties of BNC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that storage time, location, leaf color, and petiole type are factors related to BLE concentration, which is reduced by approximately 28.82% and 64.32% during storage times of five days. Regarding BNC biosynthesis, the results indicate that the highest yield, 0.031 g/g, was obtained at 21 days. Furthermore, it was determined that the highest production rate was 0.11 gL−1h−1 at 11 days of fermentation. By FTIR, it was determined that the purification step with NaOH (3M) should be carried out for approximately two hours. This research supports the development of a circular bioeconomy around the banana value chain, as it presents a way of bioprocessing residual biomass that can be used to produce bioproducts.
... The antioxidant activity, including ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and total phenolic content (TPC) of samples were measured based on the published literature [9,[16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a popular beverage with various bioactivities (such as antioxidant activity), which can be attributed to its abundant bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols. Kombucha is conventionally prepared by fermentation of a sugared black tea infusion without tea residue. In this study, the effects of black tea residue and green tea residue on kombucha were studied, and its antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents, as well as concentrations of polyphenols at different fermentation stages were evaluated using ferric-reducing antioxidant power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu method and high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. The results showed that fermentation with tea residue could markedly increase antioxidant activities (maximum 3.25 times) as well as polyphenolic concentrations (5.68 times) of kombucha. In addition, green tea residue showed a stronger effect than black tea residue. Overall, it is interesting to find that fermentation with tea residues could be a better strategy to produce polyphenol-rich kombucha beverages.
... The fermentation process in kombucha uses the main source of carbon in the form of sucrose, which involves the activity of yeast invertase enzymes present in the kombucha consortium. This homemade product produces acetic acid, ethanol and CO2 in small amounts and tastes of the product slightly sour, carbonated and sweet (Ivanisova et al., 2019). ...
Article
Shallots (Allium cepa) is an important aromatic plant, with a level of consumerity that is directly proportional to the increase in shallot skin waste. Whereas the skin of shallots contains flavonoids (quercetin) that are 3-5 times higher than the tubers. This research focuses on the use of shallot skin ingredients fermented by Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) into kombucha drinks. With the aim to explore the influence of long fermentation of shallot skin kombucha on the parameters of the chemical characteristics of pH and Total Titrable Acid (TTA); the presence of flavonoids; and organoleptic flavors, colors, aromas. The result is the length of fermentation affecting the decrease in the pH value, and had a very noticeable effect on the increase in the Total Titrable Acid value. Flavonoids were qualitatively tested by 3 reagents (10% NaOH, AlCl3 1%, H2SO4 judging by discoloration. At show all samples show positive results of flavonoid presence. The length of fermentation for organoleptic assessment has a significant effect on taste and aromas, but has no significant effect on the kombucha color. The recommendation for a good fermentation time with high acceptance is 8 days of fermentation.
... Ayed et al. [48] came to a similar conclusion regarding their investigation of the antimicrobial activity of kombucha tea against a range of bacteria. Kombucha has also been shown to exert antifungal activity against yeasts such as C. albicans, C. krusei, C. galbrata and A. fumigatus [94,95]. Moreover, the fermented tea has even been characterised as possessing antiviral potential against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) [96]; however, no other studies to date have documented the antiviral effect of kombucha. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a carbonated, slightly acidic beverage traditionally produced by the fermentation of sweetened tea by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The microbial community of kombucha is a complex one, whose dynamics are still not fully understood; however, the emergence of culture-independent techniques has allowed a more comprehensive insight into kombucha microbiota. In recent times, advancements have been made towards the optimisation of the fermentation process, including the use of alternative substrates, defined starter cultures and the modification of fermentation parameters, with the aim of producing an innovative beverage that is improved in terms of its physiochemical, sensory and bioactive properties. The global kombucha market is rapidly increasing, with the rising popularity of the tea attributed in part to its purported health benefits, despite the lack of research in human subjects to substantiate such claims. Accordingly, the incidence of kombucha home-brewing has increased, meaning there is a requirement for individuals to recognise the potential hazards associated with fermentation and the relevant preventative measures to be undertaken to ensure the safe preparation of kombucha. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the current knowledge of kombucha production, microbiology, safety and marketing.
... Citric acid is namely involved in the TCA cycle, whereas gluconic acid is a biomarker for the oxidative metabolism of acetic acid bacteria and highlights their activity during P1, the acidification phase of kombucha production [9,19]. Finally, increase of gallic acid during kombucha production has been reported in other studies [20][21][22]. Along with the increase in epigallocatechin, this suggests the release of gallic acid through hydrolysis of gallate groups attached to polyphenols via ester bonds (for example epigallocatechin gallate). ...
Article
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Kombucha is a traditional fermented beverage obtained from the transformation of sugared black tea by a community of yeasts and bacteria. Kombucha production recently became industrialized, but its quality standards remain poorly defined. Metabolomic analyses were applied using FT-ICR-MS to characterize the impacts of production phases and the type of tea on the non-volatile chemical composition of kombucha. Independently from tea type, the first phase of acidification in open vessel was characterized by the release of gluconate and gallate from acetic acid bacteria metabolism and probably from polymeric polyphenols, respectively. The second phase of carbonation in closed vessel induced a consumption or transformation of oleic acid that could be consecutive of oxygen limitation. The first phase had the most impact on molecular diversity, but tea type mainly influenced the global composition in polyphenol profile. Black tea polyphenols were more impacted by microbial activity compared to green tea polyphenols.
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Kombucha, also known as the Manchurian mushroom, is a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast, the so-called SCOBY. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the ferments obtained from green coffee beans after different fermentation times with kombucha. Results for the ferments were compared to the green coffee extract that was not fermented. In this study, the antioxidant potential of obtained ferments was analyzed by assessing the scavenging of external and intracellular free radicals and the assessment of superoxide dismutase activity. Cytotoxicity of ferments on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines was assessed as well as anti-aging properties by determining their ability to inhibit the activity of collagenase and elastase enzymes. In addition, the composition of the obtained ferments and the extract was determined, as well as their influence on skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after application of samples on the skin. It has been shown that the fermentation time has a positive effect on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties. The highest values were recorded for the tested samples after 28 days of fermentation. After 14 days of the fermentation process, it was observed that the analyzed ferments were characterized by low cytotoxicity to keratinocytes and fibroblasts. On the other hand, the short fermentation time of 7 days had a negative effect on the properties of the analyzed ferments. The obtained results indicate that both green coffee extracts and ferments can be an innovative ingredient of cosmetic products
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In the food and beverage industries, implementing novel methods using digital technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), sensors, robotics, computer vision, machine learning (ML), and sensory analysis using augmented reality (AR) has become critical to maintaining and increasing the products’ quality traits and international competitiveness, especially within the past five years. Fermented beverages have been one of the most researched industries to implement these technologies to assess product composition and improve production processes and product quality. This Special Issue (SI) focused on the latest research on the application of digital technologies on beverage fermentation monitoring and the improvement of processing performance, product quality and sensory acceptability.
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Five different tea varieties (white, green, oolong, black and pu-erh) were infused, drained and used for kombucha production. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and bioaccessibility values were determined. Extractable, hydrolysable and bioaccessible fractions were used for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) and expressed as lmole TEAC/mL and mg GAE/ 100 mL, respectively. Antioxidant capacity and TPC were determined by Folin Ciocalteu's, ABTS and CUPRAC methods. In vitro digestion enzymatic extraction was used to determine bioaccessible fractions. It has found that kombucha fermentation with the tea extracts caused to elevate antioxidant capacity, TPC, and bioaccessibility. The green tea kombucha had the highest antioxidant capacity (4153.23 lmole TEAC/mL) and bioaccessibility (50.18%). Therefore, it can be suggested as a good supplement with high nutritional value in kombucha production. In general, TPC content increased significantly. The extractable fractions and bioaccessibility values of the kombucha tea varieties increased due to the fermentation, while the hydrolysable fractions decreased. Antioxidant capacity in the extractable fractions of the green tea kombucha samples was measured to increase by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. Bioaccessibility values of pu-erh tea by ABTS and white tea by CUPRAC were found to increase by the kombucha production.
Article
[Background] The growing consumption of kombucha beverages in the last decade has motivated an increase in the number of scientific studies investigating their biological activities. Their specific microbiological and chemical composition led to the generation of interesting bioactive fractions. [Scope and approach] Although many in vitro analyses have been described regarding bioactivities of kombucha and kombucha ingredients, a significantly lower amount of in vivo tests have been published and, moreover, clinical trials are particularly missing. In this revision, several biological activities were reviewed through the scientific literature (antioxidant, immune-modulatory, antiproliferative, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial), describing the utilized experimental model, the reported results and their potential implications on human health. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the current evidences around kombucha bioactivities were pointed out. [Key findings and conclusions] It can be concluded that, despite of the interesting results obtained in vitro, further research is required including more in vivo tests, bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessment and clinical trials, as well as the isolation of bioactive compounds allowing the study of single molecules and their functionality.
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Microbiological, chemical, and sensory analyses were coupled to understand the origins of kombucha organoleptic compounds and their implication in the flavor of the kombucha beverage. By isolating microorganisms from an original kombucha and comparing it to monocultures and cocultures of two yeasts (Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Hanseniaspora valbyensis) and an acetic acid bacterium (Acetobacter indonesiensis), interaction effects were investigated during the two phases of production. 32 volatile compounds identified and quantified by Headspace-Solid Phase-MicroExtraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) were classified according to their origin from tea or microorganisms. Many esters were associated to H. valbyensis, while alcohols were associated to both yeasts, acetic acid to A. indonesiensis, and saturated fatty acids to all microorganisms. Concentration of metabolites were dependent on microbial activity, yeast composition, and phase of production. Sensory analysis showed that tea type influenced the olfactive perception, although microbial composition remained the strongest factor. Association of B. bruxellensis and A. indonesiensis induced characteristic apple juice aroma.
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Kombucha, also known as the Manchurian mushroom, is a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast, the so-called SCOBY. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the ferments obtained from green coffee beans after different fermentation times with kombucha. Results for the ferments were compared to the green coffee extract that was not fermented. In this study, the antioxidant potential of obtained ferments was analyzed by assessing the scavenging of external and intracellular free radicals and the assessment of superoxide dismutase activity. Cytotoxicity of ferments on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines was assessed as well as anti-aging properties by determining their ability to inhibit the activity of collagenase and elastase enzymes. In addition, the composition of the obtained ferments and the extract was determined, as well as their influence on skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after application of samples on the skin. It has been shown that the fermentation time has a positive effect on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties. The highest values were recorded for the tested samples after 28 days of fermentation. After 14 days of the fermentation process, it was observed that the analyzed ferments were characterized by low cytotoxicity to keratinocytes and fibroblasts. On the other hand, the short fermentation time of 7 days had a negative effect on the properties of the analyzed ferments. The obtained results indicate that both green coffee extracts and ferments can be an innovative ingredient of cosmetic products.
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Kombucha is a tea beverage obtained from the fermentation of sugared tea by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast. Kombucha is known to have many beneficial effects in health due to its chemical content and a high source of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria and yeast. This study aimed to investigate the effect of kombucha supplementation in feed on growth performance and feed efficiency of catfish ( Clarias sp.). Four hundred fish were distributed randomly into five feeding treatment groups includes a basal diet (control) and kombucha supplementation in the fish diet at 4 mL, 6 mL, 8 mL, and 10 mL/kg of feed. The feed was administered for 30 days. Results showed that the administration of kombucha in feed significantly improved the growth performance of catfish (P<0.05). Fish fed with kombucha supplementation at 8 mL produced the highest weight gain, absolute growth rate, and specific growth rate. Feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency ratio were significantly enhanced in the administration of 8 mL kombucha in a fish diet compared to the control diet. This study indicated that administration of kombucha in fish diet had a potential for enhancing the growth performance and feed efficiency of catfish ( Clarias sp.)
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In recent years, an unstoppable trend toward minimally processed foods has increased the popularity of fermented foods as a beneficial nutritional and functional strategy. Within food fermentations, complex microbial communities trigger different biochemical reactions that result in the release of multiple bioactive compounds with beneficial effect on human health. In the present review the latest studies on fermented foods are summarized. Special attention has been paid on the health benefits of main fermented foods available nowadays, the principal bioactive compounds responsible for such properties as well as the future trends of research studies regarding their potentialities. This review emphasizes the need of clinical evidence to ensure that fermented foods may entail a significant improvement on well-being. Fermented foods may represent a non-invasive strategy to face multiple disorders, as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and multiple cognitive disordes, among others. Release of bioactive compounds, microbial enzymatic conversions or probiotic activities are the main responsible for such interesting properties. However, the need of well-designed clinical trials is a must in order to obtain conclusive results. Bioavailability and biodisponibility of bioactive compounds as well as the design of precision probiotics are also another focus of interest in which it must be deepen.
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Food contamination by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites have significant implications for the environment and human health. According to the World Health Organization, 350,000 deaths are related to forborne diseases, like salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and listeriosis. The most common symptoms of diseases caused by contaminated food are nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea, which range from mild to life threatening. Although all types of food can be affected, animal products, especially meat and eggs, are the predominant sources of foodborne diseases. Foodborne illnesses can either occur through the ingestion of hazardous microorganisms or through microbial toxins. Bacterial species, such as Pseudomonas spp., and fungal strains, such as Aspergillus spp., are potent food spoilage agents, which make food unacceptable and increase food waste. Hence, physical (cooling, heating, radiation) and chemical (preservatives, essential oils, extracts) preservation techniques are used to avoid microbial contamination. However, common preservation methods have disadvantages, such as resistance mechanisms by bacterial strains or no activity against a broad spectrum of microorganism. Therefore, to enhance food safety and reduce food waste, the development of novel preservatives affecting a wide range of microorganisms is highly important. Furthermore, the increase of consumer standards requires food additives from natural sources with high safety standards for human health. Bioactive peptides are already known for their antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial effects. The Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD) has included 3,257 antimicrobial peptides (AMP) from animals, plants, bacteria, fungi, protists, and archaea sources. Basically, antibacterial activity of peptides can result in two ways. The inhibition of bacterial growth is called bacteriostatic activity, while the bactericidal effect describes the complete inactivation of bacteria. AMPs, especially cationic peptides with amphipathic α-helical structures, interact with the negatively charged bacterial membrane and cause membrane destabilization, followed by membrane disruption. Therefore, virtual screening can be performed to identify potential antibacterial peptides. The first peptide preservative, which was approved for preservation in 60 countries is nisin (E 234), is formed by lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis) and mainly used for the preservation of cheese. Furthermore, nisin is particularly effective against Gram positive bacterial strains. In addition to antibacterial activity, peptides effective against yeasts, fungi, and molds have also been identified. The APD currently contains 1,204 antifungal peptides and 673 peptides active against yeast. The predominant properties of antifungal peptides and those active against yeast, for example net charge and amphipathic structure, show similarities to the AMPs. These similarities of the structure-activity relationship increase the likelihood that a peptide can be simultaneously antifungal and antibacterial. However, since the membrane composition differs greatly within yeast and fungal strains, the antimycotic action can differ within the fungal strains. Furthermore, antioxidative activity of compounds is used in the food industry to extend the shelf life and improve food quality. Peptides, particularly those containing hydrophobic amino acids such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and valine, are known to exhibit antioxidative activity. However, since the antioxidative mechanism of peptides has not yet been identified, the prediction of the antioxidative activity based on peptide sequence and structure alone is not possible. The food industry prefers the use of substances with multiple bioactivities to improve food quality and safety. Peptides are mainly produced with peptide synthesis and recombinant synthesis; however, they can also be extracted from natural sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation can be used to extract peptides from the food proteins. Nevertheless, especially the purification of the food-derived peptides is labor intensive and cost-effective. In comparison, chemical synthesis, which is the gold standard for peptide production, is expensive and requires several chemicals. Therefore, a promising alternative is the biotechnological production using recombinant synthesis in host cells. The aim of this project was the identification of antimicrobial peptides from plant sources, which can be used as preservatives in food production. Since the antimicrobial peptides are derived from food sources, they are considered as non-toxic and are thus compatible with the clean label strategy. Thus, storage proteins were extracted from wheat, soybean, and chickpea and peptides were generated with enzymatic hydrolysis using the enzyme chymotrypsin. The resulting peptide profiles were comprehensively analyzed by ultra performance micro LC ESI-TripleTOF-MS/MS. The numbers of unique identified peptides were 650 for the soybean glycinin fraction (93 from glycinin), 625 for the soybean β-conglycinin fraction (49 from β conglycinin), 549 for the wheat globulin fraction (43 from globulin), 549 for the wheat gliadin fraction (192 from gliadin), and 1,279 for the chickpea globulin fraction (334 from legumin, 111 from vicilin). Subsequently, antimicrobial peptide candidates were identified by virtual screening using the APD and the structure prediction software I Tasser and Helical Wheel Projection. The main selection criteria were a positive or neutral net charge, a hydrophobic content equal or higher to 20%, the ability to form an amphipathic helical structure, and a good water solubility. Virtual screening was conducted for all storage proteins, however further experiments were limited to chickpea legumin peptides. Therefore, 21 antimicrobial peptide candidates were identified in the peptide profile of the storage protein legumin from chickpea. These peptides were purchased as synthesized peptides produced by solid phase peptide synthesis. Afterwards, the antibacterial activity of the peptides was experimentally tested against the Gram-negative strain Escherichia (E.) coli and the Gram positive strain Bacillus subtilis. Eighteen of the 21 peptides showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli and 17 against Bacillus subtilis. The peptides Leg1 (RIKTVTSFDLPALRFLKL) and Leg2 (RIKTVTSFDLPALRWLKL) had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µM against E. coli and 15.6 µM against Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, Leg1 and Leg2 were 10 – 1,000 times more active compared to the preservatives sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite. Further studies showed that the two peptides are additionally active against food pathogens, e.g., Clostridium perfringens, antibiotic resistant bacteria, particularly Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast strains. To test whether the peptides act bacteriostatic or bactericidal, the microdilution experiments were transferred to agar plates. While the conventional preservatives only inhibit bacterial growth (bacteriostatic activity), the incubation with peptides Leg1 and Leg2, as well as the peptide preservative nisin, showed no bacterial growth on agar and, therefore, have a bactericidal effect. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of eight randomly selected peptides from chickpea legumin were tested to validate the virtual screening. Four of the peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 500 µM and 1,000 µM. In comparison, virtual screening, which was performed to identify the peptide candidates in this study, detected AMPs with MIC values less than 100 µM and a hit rate of 76%. In addition, cell toxicity experiments were performed against human colorectal cancer cells. Leg1 and Leg2 showed no cytotoxic effect up to a concentration of 1,000 µM, which is more than 16 times higher compared to the MIC against E. coli. This finding was further confirmed with molecular dynamic simulations. Additionally, to test whether the AMPs Leg1 and Leg2 can be used in combination with commercially used preservatives, the checkerboard assay was performed. The simultaneous application of the antimicrobial peptides Leg1/Leg2 with organic acids, in the present case sodium benzoate, allows a reduced dose of chemical preservatives and may address a wider spectrum of microorganisms. Furthermore, the antioxidative activity was investigated using a radical scavenging and a reducing power assay. Both peptides act antioxidative, however, especially Leg2 showed antioxidative activity, which was comparable to the antioxidant ascorbic acid. The consistent antimicrobial activity of AMPs is important for their use as peptide preservatives. Hence, the MIC was determined with the focus on different extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including storage time, temperature, and pH value. Furthermore, the influence of the counterions trifluoroacetate, acetate, and chloride from peptide synthesis were examined. Leg1 was additionally applied on meat to test the simultaneously effects of pH, water content, salt concentration, and proteases. Leg1 and Leg2 indicated stable antimicrobial activity in solution with slight losses within four weeks and stable activity under food conditions. The antimicrobial activity was consistent within the use of different pH values and counterions. Accordingly, Leg1 and Leg2 can be used in a slightly acidic pH with the non-toxic counterions acetate or chloride. Almost all foods are stored at or below room temperature (20 to 22 °C). Incubation temperatures lower than 37 °C increased Leg1/Leg2 activity and consequently reduced the MIC value. Therefore, a lower peptide concentration is needed at room temperature to ensure microbiological safety. To increase the peptide yield from chickpea legumin, the protocol of the enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized. A shorter digestion time of 4 h and the direct protein hydrolysis without pretreatment, significantly increased the yield by 30 to 110 fold. However, for high scale production in the food industry, the recombinant synthesis may be a good alternative to lower the production costs and time. Thus, Leg1 and Leg2 are novel chickpea-derived antimicrobial peptides with antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidative, and additive antimicrobial activities. They exhibited no cytotoxicity to human cells and, therefore, may be suitable for food preservation, to maintain food safety and to reduce food waste.
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Background‐ Fecal contamination from dairy farm effluent is a major risk to water quality in New Zealand. In this experiment we have tested the efficacy of Kombucha SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast), to reduce the concentration of Escherichia coli in dairy shed effluent (DSE). Results‐ Kombucha SCOBY was highly effective in lowering the number of E. coli colony forming units (CFUs) to levels that were undetectable. The decrease in CFUs occurred rapidly within 48 hours of Kombucha SCOBY being inoculated to the effluent matrix and was accompanied by a corresponding decline in pH. Conclusion‐ We conclude that Kombucha SCOBY was effective in reducing the abundance of E. coli in DSE due to its effect on solution pH. Further work is required to assess the practicality of treating DSE with Kombucha SCOBY within a farm environment where effluent management and climatic complexities are important. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Kombucha has been gaining prominence around the world and becoming popular due to its good health benefits. This beverage is historically obtained by the tea fermentation of Camellia sinensis and by a biofilm of cellulose containing the symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The other substrates added to the C. sinensis tea have also been reported to help kombucha production. The type as well as the amount of sugar substrate, which is the origin of SCOBY, in addition to time and temperature of fermentation influence the content of organic acids, vitamins, total phenolics, and alcoholic content of kombucha. The route involved in the metabolite biotransformation identified in kombucha so far and the microorganisms involved in the process need to be further studied. Some nutritional properties and benefits related to the beverage have already been reported. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and antidiabetic and anticarcinogenic effects are some of the beneficial effects attributed to kombucha. Nevertheless, scientific literature needs clinical studies to evaluate these benefits in human beings. The toxic effects associated with the consumption of kombucha are still unclear, but due to the possibility of adverse reactions occurring, its consumption is contraindicated in infants and pregnant women, children under 4-years-old, patients with kidney failure, and patients with HIV. The regulations in place for kombucha address a number of criteria, mainly for the pH and alcohol content, in order to guarantee the quality and safety of the beverage as well as to ensure transparency of information for consumers.
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Kombucha is a SCOBY-fermented tea beverage known for its taste, sensorial qualities, and high endogenous microbial load. In recent years, kombucha has become a popular functional food with a compound annual growth rate of 25% from 2015 to 2020 in American kombucha sales alone, and sales are predicted to keep increasing significantly over the next decade. However, kombucha is lacking in scientific research, and there is still much to be explored regarding its safety and native probiotic content. This research looked into the various routes of contamination of several kombucha systems as well as the feasibility of the producing a kombucha beverage with health-promoting characteristics derived from the inclusion of lactic probiotics. Although bacterial spore contamination and survival in the kombucha SCOBY have been documented, it is unknown whether spores can survive in the liquid, or whether they can be transmitted to daughter SCOBYs. The foodborne pathogen and spore-former Bacillus cereus was inoculated into the SCOBY, unfermented liquid, and fermented liquid of three different kombucha systems. Data suggest that neither the route of contamination nor the kombucha system influenced the transmission or survival of B. cereus spores. The spread of the spores between culture and liquid across generation was shown to be sporadic but possible, so hygienic handling of kombucha cultures and raw materials throughout the entire production process is crucial to prevent uptake of pathogenic organisms. There was no survival of B. cereus spores after short-term storage or secondary fermentation, indicating that implementation of a holding step may mitigate potential food safety threats. Kombucha is perceived to contain probiotics, but not all live cultures comprise probiotics. Some commercial kombucha products have validated probiotic strains added to them post-fermentation, but this can be costly. If probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria, are inoculated into sweet tea prior to fermentation, they may be able to acidify the tea, replacing the need for utilizing previous kombucha or acetic acid, or survive and/or produce beneficial metabolites during fermentation in great enough amounts to convey a health benefit upon consumption. The survivability of six probiotic Lactobacillus sp. in acidified, sweetened tea at 25ºC during kombucha fermentation was established, and the medium (tea) and temperature (25ºC) were both revealed to affect the growth rates of the bacteria. Differences in pH indicated that the probiotics were unable to acidify the tea pre-fermentation. Although survival during fermentation was possible for four out of the six probiotics, it was concluded that probiotic Lactobacillus sp. are not well suited for a probiotic kombucha beverages, but out of the tested probiotics, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum were the most promising candidates.
Article
Kombucha is a fermented beverage composed of a range of natural compounds such as sugars, ethanol, organic acids, and complex microbial communities of bacteria and yeasts. Based on this several biological properties are attributed to this drink. However, the production of kombucha is not standardized and the final composition of the beverage is highly dependent on the raw materials used and the physicochemical parameters adopted in the process. As a consequence, kombuchas not only vary from one producer to another but also from different batches of the same producer, making the assumptions of quality and properties questionable. In this review, we explore the largely unchecked relations between kombucha and its claimed health benefits. A systematic review was also performed to specifically discuss the potential probiotic and prebiotic effects of kombucha. Although several studies report that kombucha present antimicrobial, antioxidant, detoxifying, and hepatoprotective activities, among others, whereas others classify kombucha as a probiotic drink, there is a lack of scientific evidence about the content of probiotics in this drink and its possible role in the intestinal microbiota. These facts highlight the opportunities in researching and modifying the microbiome composition of kombucha, possibly improving the general qualities of this so-called functional drink.
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Background In order to balance human health and environmental sustainability, plant-based diets have been attracting increasing attention. Plant-based fermented foods are produced using vegetables or fruits as the main raw materials. Thereafter, microorganisms and their metabolites convert these into the final products, which are often covered by biofilms during production and storage. The biofilms are composed of various microbial flora and extracellular metabolites produced during fermentation, which is generally considered as a shortcoming of fermentation. However, growing evidence suggests that these complex microbial ecosystems are sources of both probiotic substances and antimicrobial compounds, which can benefit health and improve food processing. Scope and approach Advanced studies have established relationships between the representative film-forming microorganisms in biofilms and the quality and safety of fermented foods. Inhibition and elimination strategies have also been proposed by targeting biofilm control methods from the food and medical industries towards the formation mechanisms and compositional characteristics of the biofilms. Key findings and conclusions Based on the data generated from previous control measures, this review introduces the key elements pertaining to biofilm formation as function of substrate and metabolic conditioning and summarizes the potential benefits of biofilms, especially in plant-based fermented foods. Further, this review highlights strategies surrounding the utilization and modulation of biofilms in plant-based fermented foods. The re-design and functionalization of biofilms are therefore discussed for a wide range of applications.
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Kombucha fermentation is traditionally carried out by inoculating a previously grown tea fungal mat into a freshly prepared tea broth and incubating under aerobic conditions for 7–10 days. In this study, four kombucha beverages were prepared by placing the tea fungal mats in sugared Sri Lankan black tea at varying concentrations for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant activities, physicochemical, and qualitative properties were monitored prior to the commencement of the fermentation process, one day after the inoculation with the microorganisms and subsequently on a weekly basis. All samples displayed a statistically significant decrease (p < .05) in the antioxidant activity at the end of 8 weeks, which was indicative of the decreasing functional properties of the beverage. The physicochemical properties indicated increased acidity and turbidity, which might decrease consumer appeal of the fermented beverage. Further studies are necessary to test the accumulation of organic acids, nucleic acids, and toxicity of kombucha on human organs following the extended period of fermentation.
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Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. Kombucha consumption has been associated with some health effects such as: the reduction of cholesterol levels and blood pressure, reduction of cancer propagation, the improvement of liver, the immune system, and gastrointestinal functions. The beneficial effects of kombucha are attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that act synergistically. Bacteria contained in kombucha beverage belongs to the genus Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and the yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces along with glucuronic acid, contribute to health protection. This review focuses on recent findings regarding beneficial effects of kombucha and discusses its chemical compounds, as well as the metabolites resulted by the fermentation process. Besides, some contraindications of kombucha consumption are also reviewed.
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Kombucha is a healthy beverage which is a final result of tea fermentation by adding a starter culture of the acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. The effect of fermentation conditions on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Kombucha tea beverages was evaluated with emphasis placed on determining sugars and organic acids content, including pro-health glucuronic acid. Fermentation process was conducted for 10 days at 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. The optimal conditions for the fermentation of Kombucha tea beverages were a temperature of 25°C and a period of 10 days which allowed to retrieve a product with good physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality. The content of glucuronic acid increased during fermentation at all temperatures reaching the highest, on the 10th day of fermentation at 25°C. It was observed that all beverages were a good overall quality, whereas Kombucha fermented at 25°C was assessed as the highest.
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Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent) and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being used as substrate to make antioxidant kombucha beverage. .
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Functional foods have been identified as whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced products which have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. As consumer awareness on functional food escalates, the interest towards conducting scientific studies in this field has also proportionately increased. Many of the traditional food products are known to possess bioactive components, thus qualifying as functional food. Kombucha tea is produced by fermenting sugared black tea with a mixed culture of yeast and bacteria. Kombucha tea has gained immense popularity in recent times due to many associated health benefits. The therapeutic effects of this beverage are thought to be derived from the chemical composition of this beverage, mainly the polyphenols and secondary metabolites which are produced during fermentation. However, the safety aspects of the beverage also need to be taken into account when qualifying the beverage as a functional food. Nevertheless, Kombucha tea could be easily recognized as a beverage which is able to replace the consumption of carbonated beverages due to its possession of health benefits and therapeutic properties.
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Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a bioreactor at 28±1 °C for nine days. The results showed that the CoffeeBerry® extract contributed to a faster fermentation of cultivation medium. Some individual polyphenolic compounds and catehins in fermentation broth samples were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the bioactive compounds present in investigated samples obtained during Kombucha fermentation of the sweetened black tea enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract, chlorogenic acid (188.94-458.56 μg/mL) was the predominant. The antioxidant activity of investigated samples was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were increased with the duration of fermentation. IC50 values for Kombucha fermentation broth enriched with CoffeBerry®, based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, were in the ranges 26.33- -170.13 and 11.33-102.22 μL/mL, respectively.
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Introducing of the DNA metabarcoding analysis of probiotic microbial communities allowed getting insight into their functioning and establishing a better control on safety and efficacy of the probiotic communities. In this work the kombucha poly ‑ microbial probiotic community was analysed to study its flexibility under different growth conditions. Environmental DNA sequencing revealed a complex and flexible composition of the kombucha microbial culture (KMC) constituting more bacterial and fungal organisms in addition to those found by cultural method. The commu‑ nity comprised bacterial and yeast components including cultured and uncultivable microorganisms. Culturing the KMC under different conditions revealed the core part of the community which included acetobacteria of two genera Komagataeibacter (former Gluconacetobacter ) and Gluconobacter , and representatives of several yeast genera among which Brettanomyces/Dekkera and Pichia (including former Issatchenkia ) were dominant. Herbaspirillum spp. and Halo - monas spp., which previously had not been described in KMC, were found to be minor but permanent members of the community. The community composition was dependent on the growth conditions. The bacterial component of KMC was relatively stable, but may include additional member—lactobacilli. The yeast species composition was sig‑ nificantly variable. High ‑ throughput sequencing showed complexity and variability of KMC that may affect the quality of the probiotic drink. It was hypothesized that the kombucha core community might recruit some environmental bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, which potentially may contribute to the fermentative capacity of the probiotic drink. As many KMC ‑ associated microorganisms cannot be cultured out of the community, a robust control for community composition should be provided by using DNA metabarcoding.
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Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.
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Kombucha is a health-promoting fermented beverage worldwide. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and total reducing power (TRP) of kombucha prepared from low-cost green tea (LGTK), black tea (BTK), and tea powder (TPK). LGTK had the highest scavenging abilities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, while BTK showed the highest TRP. Changes in content of probiotics in LGTK were investigated during storage as well. The number of acetic acid bacteria decreased moderately up to 10 days of storage. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased significantly, and their survival rate was only 0.98% at the 8th day of storage.
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Arsenic contamination in water poses a serious threat on human health. The tea fungus known as Kombucha is a waste produced during black tea fermentation. The objective of this study was to examine the main aspect of a possible strategy for the removal of arsenates employing tea fungal biomass. The pretreatment of biomass with FeCl3 was found to improve the biosorption efficiency. Arsenics uptake was found to be rapid for all concentrations and reached to 79% of equilibrium capacity of biosorption in 20 min and reached equilibrium in 90 min. The pseudo second-order and first-order models described the biosorption kinetics of As (V) with good correlation coefficient (R2>0.93) and better than the other equations. The data obtained from the experiment of biosorption isotherm were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The equation described the isotherm of As (V) biosorption with relatively high correlation coefficient (R2>0.93). According to the Langmuir model, the maximum uptake capacities (qm) of tea fungal biomass for As (V) were obtained 3.9810-3 mmol/gr. The effect of Na+, K+, Mg+2 and Ca+2 on equilibrium capacities of As was not significant. The variation of sorption efficiency with pH showed that optimum biosorption takes place in the pH ranges of 6 to 8. Promising results were obtained in laboratory experiments and effective As (V) removals were observed.
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Kombucha beverages were produced by fermentation of new types of substrates – yarrow infusions and yarrow subcritical water extracts (SWE). Fermentation process parameters (pH, total acidity and yield of biomass), chemical composition (organic acids, total phenols and flavonoids and vitamin C content) and sensory analysis indicated that SWE were more suitable substrates for successful fermentation. Products obtained on infusions had more pronounced anticancer and antimicrobial properties whereas beverages produced on SWE had higher antioxidant potential.
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Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Practical application: Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production.
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Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and –independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids.
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Objective: In general, infectious diseases still known as a major contributor to the number of morbidity and mortality in the worldwide beside other diseases. Infections are ordinarily caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Several human pathogenic fungi involving Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Microsporum gypseum have responsible against infectious diseases. The objective of the research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of kombucha tea against human pathogenic fungi such as A. flavus, C. albicans, and M. gypseum. Methods: The antifungal activity of the kombucha tea against A. flavus, C. albicans, and M. gypseum were tested by disc diffusion method with duration of fermentation in 6, 12, and 18 days. Results: Based on the present study, inhibitory diameter of A. flavus, C. albicans, and M. gypseum are 16.83, 15.36, and 25.06 mm, respectively. The inhibitory diameter was obtained from kombucha tea activity with duration of fermentation in 6 days. Conclusion: The results provide support for the use of kombucha tea as a potential antifungal source against human pathogenic fungi involving A. flavus, C. albicans, and M. gypseum. © 2016, Innovare Academics Sciences Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeast (tea fungus) yields kombucha tea which is consumed worldwide for its refreshing and beneficial properties on human health. Important progress has been made in the past decade concerning research findings on kombucha tea and reports claiming that drinking kombucha can prevent various types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, promote liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Considering the widespread reports on kombucha, we recognized the need to review and update the research conducted in relation to kombucha tea, its products and tea fungus. Existing reports have suggested that the protective effects of kombucha tea are as good as those of black tea, however, more studies on kombucha tea and its composition are needed before final conclusions can be made.
Article
Kombucha is widely consumed as black tea fermented for 7–14 days. The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial activities of two kombucha beverages originating from green and black teas fermented for 21 days and to characterize the antimicrobial compounds (heat resistance and pH stability). Green and black tea infusions were fermented with a traditional kombucha culture. The resulting kombucha antibacterial/antifungal activities against some pathogenic microorganisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and clinical Candida species, were investigated using the agar diffusion method. The results showed interesting antimicrobial potentials of both experimented kombucha teas against the tested microorganisms, except Candida krusei. The green fermented tea exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential. Indeed, it showed large inhibition zones against Staphylococcus epidermidis (22 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (22 mm) and Micrococcus luteus (21.5 mm). Furthermore, interesting anti-Candida potential was revealed by the reaction of green tea kombucha against Candida parapsilosis.
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Polyphenols and organic acids were the important constitutes in the cider because they greatly contribute to organoleptic quality. The determination of their changes is important for monitoring the fermentation process for purposes of quality control. In this study, evolution of polyphenols and organic acids was monitored throughout the cider fermentation process. The samples were taken periodically and the polyphenols and organic acids contents were determined using HPLC methods. The contents of polyphenols and organic acids were in constant change. After fermentation, the content of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and phloridzin decreased by different degrees, while protocatechuic acid increased after fermentation. The content of organic acids was also affected by fermentation. Malic acid, lactic acid, quinic acid, pyruvic acid and citric acid showed different levels of increase, but succinic acid content decreased. The content of polyphenols and organic acids were affected by fermentation. The changing profiles of them during fermentation process were dependent on the type of phenolic compounds and organic acids studied.
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Summary Biologically active substances (water soluble vitamins and minerals) were analyzed in ‘Kombucha’—a curative liquor, produced by the so-called ‘Kombucha cultivation’ (Macedonian collection of microorganisms, No 734) in sweet black tea decoct. The water soluble vitamins in the Kombucha drink were separated and identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified by the comparison of their chromatographic UV spectra with the reference compounds. Four soluble vitamins have been determinated to have the following concentrations: vitamin B1 0.74 mg ml−1, vitamin B6 0.52 mg ml−1, vitamin B12 0.84 mg ml−1 and vitamin C 1.51 mg ml−1. Mineral elements of nutritional and toxicological importance were determined in dissolved ash using atomic absorption chromatography (AAS). Mineral composition content involved determination of the essential elements: zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt. Investigations of some toxic elements showed that lead and chromium were present in very small amounts, whereas cadmium was not found.
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Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Tea polyphenols which includes (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) have been reported to possess various biological activities. The present study focused on changes in content of organic acid and tea polyphenols in kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea manufacture waste (TWK) during fermentation. Concentration of acetic acid has reached maximum up to 9.5 g/l in GTK on 15th day and glucuronic acid concentration was reached maximum upto 2.3 g/l in BTK on 12th day of fermentation. Very less concentration of lactic acid was observed during the fermentation period and citric acid was detected only on 3rd day of fermentation in GTK and BTK but not in TWK. When compared to BTK and TWK very less degradation of EGCG (18%) and ECG (23%) was observed in GTK. TF and thearubigen (TR) were relatively stable when compared to epicatechin isomers. The biodegradation of tea catechins, TF and TR during kombucha fermentation might be due to some unknown enzymes excreted by yeasts and bacteria in kombucha culture.
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In recent times, there has been an increased interest to adapt healthy diets, which help in preventing diseases, and as a consequence, the study and development of new functional foods has gained much importance. Food additives as probiotics and prebiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and are subject of intensive research. The allergy to dairy products affect negatively some persons. Lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content are two major drawbacks related to the fermented dairy products. Traditions and economic reasons that limit the use of dairy fermented products in some developing countries promote the idea of reduction of milk components as vehicles for the probiotic agents. At present, some non-dairy probiotic beverages are being commercialized and are discussed in this review. Probably, beverages such as fruit and vegetable juices would be the next food category where the healthy probiotic bacteria will make their mark.
Article
Changes in major components and microbes in tea fungus broth (or kombucha; teakwass) prepared from nine different sources during a prolonged fermentation of up to 60 days were investigated. Cell concentrations of both yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in broth were generally higher than those in the cellulosic pellicles. The residual sucrose concentration decreased linearly with time, although the rate fell after the first month. Metabolic fates of glucose and fructose produced as a result of the hydrolysis of sucrose were different. Glucose was not produced in parallel with fructose (0.085 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)) but was produced with a lower initial rate (0.041 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)). Both titratable acidity and gluconic acid increased steadily with time for all samples, although gluconic acid was not generated for 6 days until the fermentation had begun. Acetic acid increased slowly to a maximum value of 1.1 g 100 ml(-1) after 30 days; thereafter, it decreased gradually. Gluconic acid contributed to the titratable acidity and thus, the taste of tea fungus broth, during the final stage of fermentation. It is concluded that the desired quality or composition of kombucha can be obtained through the proper control of fermentation time.
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