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The Martian 'blueberries' and Earth's tektites

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Abstract

Enigmatic discoveries made by the Mars Rover Opportunity at the Meridiani Planum landing site are so-called 'blueberries spherules' [1]. They show similarities to terrestrial tektites, and in addition, strong spectral signature of hematite [1]. We assume that the formation mechanism of 'blueberries' is related to dense (rheo)ignimbrite currents, analogous to the formation of Earth's tektites [2]. Taking into account the Сoriolis force on Mars [3], a distal ignimbrite volcano can a cause of 'blueberries'[4]. As well as 'blueberries' on Mars, so-called 'red stones' in the Ries crater are associated with mantle hematites [4]. The double-layer ejecta and distinctions between inner and outer suevites in the Ries crater can be explained by blasts of anisotropic laminated mantlecrust layers beneath SW Germany since the lowermost Moldanubian Ostrong zone comprises [5] ancient ignimbrites (it points to volcanic blasts in the past). Thus, as in the Ries crater, double-layer ejecta of Mars craters are most likely not impactites [4]. [1] DiGregorio, B. (2004) SPIE 5555, 139. [2] German, B. (2019) EPSC-DPS Abstr. #1096. [3] Wrobel, K. & Shultz, P. (2004) JGR 109, E5. [4] German, B. (2019) ISBNs: 97839819526-05(russ.)/-12 (engl.), 164 p. [5] Miyazaki, T. et al. (2016) J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci. 111, 405.
The Martian 'blueberries' and Earth's tektites.
German, B.R. (1, 2), (1) Institute of Physics, Donetsk,
Ukraine, (2) Research scientist, Basler Landstr. 23-B,
Freiburg 79111, Germany, borisgerman@hotmail.com.
Enigmatic discoveries made by the Mars Rover
Opportunity at the Meridiani Planum landing site are
so-called 'blueberries spherules' [1]. They show
similarities to terrestrial tektites, and in addition,
strong spectral signature of hematite [1]. We assume
that the formation mechanism of 'blueberries' is
related to dense (rheo)ignimbrite currents, analogous
to the formation of Earth's tektites [2]. Taking into
account the Сoriolis force on Mars [3], a distal
ignimbrite volcano can a cause of 'blueberries'[4]. As
well as 'blueberries' on Mars, so-called 'red stones' in
the Ries crater are associated with mantle hematites
[4]. The double-layer ejecta and distinctions between
inner and outer suevites in the Ries crater can be
explained by blasts of anisotropic laminated mantle-
crust layers beneath SW Germany since the
lowermost Moldanubian Ostrong zone comprises [5]
ancient ignimbrites (it points to volcanic blasts in the
past). Thus, as in the Ries crater, double-layer ejecta
of Mars craters are most likely not impactites [4].
[1] DiGregorio, B. (2004) SPIE 5555, 139. [2] German, B.
(2019) EPSC-DPS Abstr. #1096. [3] Wrobel, K. & Shultz,
P. (2004) JGR 109, E5. [4] German, B. (2019) ISBNs:
97839819526-05(russ.)/-12 (engl.), 164 p. [5] Miyazaki, T.
et al. (2016) J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci. 111, 405.
Paneth Kolloquium Nördlingen (2019) | http://www.paneth.eu | abstract #0067
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Cite abstract as:
German, B.R. (2019) The Martian blueberries and Earth tektites. Paneth Kolloquium, Nördlingen (Germany),
abstract URL: http://www.paneth.eu/PanethKolloquium/2019/0067.pdf (abstract #0067).
... In support of this argument, they point out that: "Large impacts are known to produce condensation spherules" (see Lowe et al. 2003) and that spherules (aka tektites) have been found in the Ries Crater in Germany (Graup, 1981). However, impact-induced spherules are typically black (or dark red), and those in Ries Crater, and other craters are most likely secondary to volcanic activity (Bohor and Glass, 1995;Gaup, 1981;German, 2020). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Throughout its mission at Eagle Crater, Meridiani Planum, the rover Opportunity photographed thousands of mushroom-lichen-like formations with thin stalks and spherical caps, clustered together in colonies attached to and jutting outward from the tops and sides of rocks. Those on top-sides were often collectively oriented, via their caps and stalks, in a similar upward-angled direction as is typical of photosynthesizing organisms. The detection of seasonal increases and replenishment of Martian atmospheric oxygen supports this latter interpretation and parallels seasonal photosynthetic activity and biologically-induced oxygen fluctuations on Earth. Twelve "puffball" fungal-shaped Meridiani Planum spherical specimens were also photographed emerging from beneath the soil and an additional eleven increased in size over a three-day period in the absence of winds which may have contributed to these observations. Growth and the collective skyward orientation of these lichen and fungus-like specimens are indications of behavioral biology; though it is impossible to determine if they are alive without direct examination. Reports claiming these Eagle Crater spheres consist of hematite are reviewed and found to be based on inference as the instruments employed were not hematite specific. The hematite-research group targeted oblong rocks which were mischaracterized as spheres, and selectively eliminated spectra from panoramic images until what remained was interpreted to resemble spectral signatures of terrestrial hematite photographed in a laboratory, when it was a "poor fit." The Eagle Crater environment was never conducive to creating hematite and the spherical hematite hypothesis is refuted. By contrast, lichens and fungi survive in Mars-like analog environments. There are no abiogenic processes that can explain the mushroom-morphology, size, colors and orientation and growth of, and there are no terrestrial geological formations which resemble these mushroom-lichen-shaped specimens. Although the authors have not proven these are living organisms, the evidence supports the hypothesis that mushrooms, algae, lichens, fungi, and related organisms may have colonized the Red Planet and may be engaged in photosynthetic activity and oxygen production on Mars.
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