ArticlePDF Available

Health Benefits of Ganoderma lucidum as a Medicinal Mushroom

Authors:

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., known as “Lingzhi” in China or “Reishi” in Japan, is a well-known medicinal mushroom and traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for the prevention and treatment of bronchitis, allergies, hepatitis, immunological disorders and cancer. G. lucidum is rarely collected from nature and mostly cultivated on wood logs and sawdust in plastic bags or bottles to meet the demands of international markets. Diverse groups of chemical compounds with pharmacological activities, isolated from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of G. lucidum are triterpenoids, polysaccharides (β-D-glucans), proteins, amino acids, nucleosides, alkaloids, steroids, lactones, lectins, fatty acids, and enzymes. The biologically active compounds as primarily triterpenoids and polysaccharides of G. lucidum have been reported to possess hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic effects and antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antiangiogenic activities. Several formulations have been developed, patented and used as nutraceuticals, nutriceuticals and pharmaceuticals from G. lucidum’s water or ethanol extracts and rarely purified active compounds. As the result of clinical trials, various products have commercially become available as syrup, injection, tablet, tincture or bolus of powdered medicine and an ingredient or additive in dark chocolate bars and organic fermented medicinal mushroom drink mixes such as green teas, coffees, and hot cacaos. This review has intended to give and discuss recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials, and commercial products of G. lucidum.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v7isp1.84-93.2728
Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology
Available online, ISSN: 2148-127X | www.agrifoodscience.com | Turkish Science and Technology
Health Benefits of Ganoderma lucidum as a Medicinal Mushroom#
Sanem Bulam1,a,*, Nebahat Şule Üstün2,b, Aysun Pekşen3,c
1Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Giresun University, Güre Campus, 28200 Giresun/Turkey
2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Kurupelit Campus, 55139 Atakum/Samsun, Turkey.
3Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Kurupelit Campus, 55139 Atakum/Samsun, Turkey.
*Corresponding author
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
#This study was presented as an oral presentation
at the 4th International Anatolian Agriculture,
Food, Environment and Biology Congress
(Afyonkarahisar, TARGID 2019)
Review Article
Received : 30/05/2019
Accepted : 23/08/2019
Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., known as “Lingzhi” in China or “Reishi” in Japan, is a well-
known medicinal mushroom and traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for the
prevention and treatment of bronchitis, allergies, hepatitis, immunological disorders and cancer. G.
lucidum is rarely collected from nature and mostly cultivated on wood logs and sawdust in plastic
bags or bottles to meet the demands of international markets. Diverse groups of chemical
compounds with pharmacological activities, isolated from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of G.
lucidum are triterpenoids, polysaccharides (β-D-glucans), proteins, amino acids, nucleosides,
alkaloids, steroids, lactones, lectins, fatty acids, and enzymes. The biologically active compounds
as primarily triterpenoids and polysaccharides of G. lucidum have been reported to possess
hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic effects and antioxidant,
antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antiangiogenic activities. Several formulations have been
developed, patented and used as nutraceuticals, nutriceuticals and pharmaceuticals from G.
lucidum’s water or ethanol extracts and rarely purified active compounds. As the result of clinical
trials, various products have commercially become available as syrup, injection, tablet, tincture or
bolus of powdered medicine and an ingredient or additive in dark chocolate bars and organic
fermented medicinal mushroom drink mixes such as green teas, coffees, and hot cacaos. This review
has intended to give and discuss recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological
compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials, and commercial products of G. lucidum.
Keywords:
Clinical trials
Ganoderma lucidum
Medicinal
Pharmacological
Bioactive compound
Türk Tarım – Gıda Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
Tıbbi Mantar Olarak Ganoderma lucidum’un Sağlık Üzerine Faydaları
Ö Z
Çin’de “Lingzhi” veya Japonya'da “Reishi” olarak bilinen Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.,
bronşit, alerji, hepatit, immünolojik bozukluklar ve kanser gibi çeşitli hastalıkların önlenmesi ve
tedavisinde kullanılan, tanınmış bir tıbbi mantar ve geleneksel Çin ilacıdır. G. lucidum nadiren
doğadan toplanmakta ve uluslararası pazarların taleplerini karşılamak için çoğunlukla kütüklerde ve
plastik torbalar veya şişeler içinde talaşlarda yetiştirilmektedir. G. lucidum’dan izole edilmiş
farmakolojik aktiviteye sahip kimyasal bileşik grupları, triterpenoidler, polisakkaritler (β-D-
glukanlar), proteinler, aminoasitler, nükleozitler, alkaloitler, steroidler, laktonlar, lektinler, yağ
asitleri ve enzimlerdir. G. lucidumun triterpenoidleri ve polisakkaritleri gibi biyolojik aktif
bileşiklerinin hepatoprotektif, antihipertensif, hipokolesterolemik, antihistaminik etkileri ve
antioksidan, antitümör, immünomodülatör ve antianjiyogenik aktiviteleri olduğu rapor edilmiştir.
Başta G. lucidum’un meyve veren organları ve sporları, su veya etanol ekstraktları ve nadiren
saflaştırılmış aktif bileşikleri ile çeşitli formülasyonlar geliştirilmiş, patenti alınmış ve nutrasötikler,
nutrisötikler ve farmasötikler olarak kullanılmıştır. Klinik denemeler sonucunda, ticari olarak şurup,
enjeksiyon, tablet, tentür veya kapsül ve bitter çikolatalarda ve yeşil çaylar, kahveler ve cak
kakaolar gibi organik fermente edilmiş tıbbi mantar içecek karışımlarında bir bileşen veya katkı
maddesi olarak kullanılabilmektedir. Bu derleme G. lucidumun fitokimyasal ve farmakolojik
kompozisyonları, terapötik ve yan etkileri, klinik denemeleri ve ticari ürünleri hakkında son bilgileri
vermeyi ve tartışmayı amaçlamıştır.
a
sanem.bulam@giresun.edu.tr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8069-760X
b
sustun@omu.edu.tr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2165-9245
c
aysunp@omu.edu.tr
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9601-5041
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
85
Introduction
Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., also known as
Ling Zhi, Reishi, Mannentake is a medicinal, wood-
degrading basidiomycete with numerous pharmacological
effects in addition to its key role in the environment as
decomposer in nutrient cycle. G. lucidum is considered as
“the king of herbs” which grows on the decaying and dead
logs of deciduous trees like willow, oak, sweet gum, maple,
elm and coniferous trees (larix, picea and pinus) (Khatian
and Aslam, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018). The most
important pharmacologically active constituents of G.
lucidum are triterpenoids and polysaccharides.
Triterpenoids have been reported to possess
hepatoprotective, anti-hypertensive, hypocholesterolemic
and anti-histaminic effects, anti-tumor and anti-engiogenic
activities, effects on platelet aggregation and complement
inhibition. Polysaccharides, especially β-D-glucans, have
been known to have anti-tumor effects through
immunomodulation and anti-angiogenesis. In addition,
polysaccharides have a protective effect against free
radicals and reduce cell damage caused by mutagens. In
general, G. lucidum triterpenes could directly suppress
growth and invasive behaviour of cancer cells, whereas G.
lucidum polysaccharides could synergistically stimulate
the immune functions, resulting in the activation of
anticancer activities of immune cells and production of
cytokines (Paterson, 2006; Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini,
2011; Boh, 2013; Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b; Sohretoglu
and Huang, 2018; Zhao et al., 2019). G. lucidum is
distributed in green ecosystems both in tropical and
temperate geographical regions in Asia, Africa, America
and Europe (Wang et al., 2012b). It is also common in the
mycobiota of Turkey (Sesli and Denchev, 2014).
G. lucidum is not classified as edible mushroom and not
used in cooking because of its bitter taste and a wooden
texture, however it is used in other various forms
(Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a). In terms of ethnomedicinal
knowledge, it has been widely used to promote health and
longevity in Traditional Chinese Medicine as special teas or
concoctions in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for
over two millennia (Sudheer et al., 2018). It was both
considered as the “herb of spiritual potency” or “plant of
immortality” that extended the lifetime because of its
medicinal properties by Chinese people and symbolized
sanctity, success, goodness, happiness, fortune, immortality,
and good health in these countries (Paterson, 2006; Sanodiya
et al., 2009; Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011; De Silva et al., 2012;
Hapuarachchi et al., 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018). It was first
indexed in Shen Nong’s Materia Medica (206 BC-8 AD),
known as the “Father of Chinese medicine”, as a longevity
promoting and tonic herb of the non-toxic superior class
(Zhu et al., 2007; Sharma et al., 2019). It is currently listed
in the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Chinese
Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium (Wu et al.,
2013). Today, this species is sold on the traditional local
markets or supermarkets (Tibuhwa, 2018) and still used as
medicine in traditional health care for the treatment of
anthritis, neoplasia, cancer (alone or in combination with
chemotherapy and radiotherapy), general disorders,
genitourinary, dermatological, and respiratory systems, and
in boosting the immune system by the indigenous people
worldwide (Chang and Lee, 2004; Oyetayo, 2011; Valverde
et al., 2015; Khastini et al., 2018; Tibuhwa, 2018).
Therapeutic administration has been realized as oral,
topical application, and powder swallowing, cleaning
wounds, tea extracts with other herbs, and tonics for long
illness, and cancer treatment, and herbal soup with ginseng
after drying. The most common preparation has been hot
water extraction technique. Bioavailability of mushroom’s
active metabolite depends on the preparation technique
(Khastini et al., 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Tibuhwa,
2018). Since the mushroom is very rare in the nature,
fruiting bodies are artificially cultivated on wood logs and
sawdust in plastic bags or bottles. G. lucidum can also be
organically cultivated (Perumal, 2009). G. lucidum
cultivation generally has at least three important
contributions: production of health food, manufacture of
nutraceuticals, and reduction of environmental pollution.
Today, G. lucidum-based products have been generally
divided into three types of products, including fruiting
bodies, mycelia, and spore powder (Zhou et al., 2012;
Hapuarachchi et al., 2018). G. lucidum mycelia, spores,
and fruiting bodies-derived drugs, nutraceuticals, and
dietary supplements as beverages, teas, powdered extracts,
capsules, oral liquids, and chewable tablets (Hyde et al.,
2010; Taofiq et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016) are currently
available and widely spread on the world market especially
in China, Japan and North America (Lindequist et al.,
2005; Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011; Boh, 2013;
Rathore et al., 2017; Reis et al., 2017; Hapuarachchi et al.,
2018; Khatian and Aslam, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Zhao
et al., 2019). In addition, various in vivo and clinical studies
have shown that the extracts, spore preparations and
dietary supplements of G. lucidum have no or little side
effects (Boh, 2013; Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b; Khatian
and Aslam, 2018; Sohretoglu and Huang, 2018; Sudheer et
al., 2018; Zeng et al., 2018). Since there has been an
increasing interest in G. lucidum, it was aimed to give
recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological
compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials,
and commercial products of this species in this review.
Phytochemical, Pharmacological Composition and
Therapeutic Properties of G. lucidum
G. lucidum includes polysaccharides, flavonoids, and
alkaloids, amino acids, steroids, oligosaccharides, proteins,
mannitol, vitamins B1, B2, B6, choline, and inositol (Cör
et al., 2018). The water content of this mushroom has been
reported as 90% and its dry matter consists of 10-40%
protein, 2-8% fat, 3-28% carbohydrate, 3-32% fiber, 8-
10% ash, minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn and Se), and
some vitamins. All the essential amino acids are present in
G. lucidum. Proteins are particularly rich in leucine and
lysine (Cör et al., 2018; Khatian and Aslam, 2018). In
another study, G. lucidum was considered to be useful as
source of protein (7-8%), carbohydrates (3-5%), crude fat
(3-5%), crude fiber (59%), ash (1.8%), and other trace
elements on dry weight basis (Mau et al., 2001). G. lucidum
was reported to have 16 amino acids, among them,
glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, and alanine showed
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
86
the highest relative abundance, whereas methionine
showed the least (Wang et al., 2002). Tokul-Olmez et al.
(2018) concluded that the host tree affected the fatty acid
constituents and fatty acid concentration regarding higher
palmitic acid and oleic acid among others in wild G.
lucidum samples where the negligible effect was observed
for the altitude. G. lucidum also contains a higher amount
of chitin which makes it hard to chew and digest (Wachtel-
Galor et al., 2011; Sudheer et al., 2018).
G. lucidum has a high proportion of polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFA) (Sanodiya et al., 2009; Wachtel-Galor et
al., 2011). Stojkovic et al. (2014) compared the nutritional
composition of wild G. lucidum from Serbia and cultivated
G. lucidum from China. As a result, the amounts of proteins
(11.34 g/100 g dw), total tocopherols (104.75 µg/100 g dw),
and sugars (9.14 g/100 g dw) were higher in samples from
Serbia while the amounts of organic acids (4.57 g/100 g dw),
PUFA (42.42%), ergosterol (766.18 mg/100 g dw), and total
phenolic compounds (3.30 mg/100 g dw) were higher in the
samples from China. Yıldız et al. (2015) reported that
protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin,
chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric
acid, rutin, and t-cinnamic acid were determined in high
amounts as the major phenolic compounds in wild G.
lucidum. Turfan et al. (2018) reported total soluble protein,
total free amino acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids,
glucose, fructose, sucrose, and total soluble carbohydrates
contents of cultivated G. lucidum as 83.68, 3.14, 55.47,
30.66, 37.55, 1.09, 0.26 and 245.42 mg/g, respectively. In
addition, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P and Se amounts were 246.21,
109.42, 1345.07, 16.19, 6.46, 1662.06 and 2.47 mg/kg,
respectively. Approximately 400 different bioactive
compounds were reported in the fruiting bodies, mycelia,
and spores of G. lucidum in various researches (Xu et al.,
2011 a, b; Boh, 2013; Cör et al., 2018; Hapuarachchi et al.,
2016a, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Sharma et al., 2019; Zhao
et al., 2019). According to Karthikeyan et al. (2009), Pekşen
and Yakupoğlu (2009), and Turfan et al. (2016), the
differences in the chemical composition of wild and
cultivated G. lucidum extracts were attributed to different
sites of collection, quality of the strain, origin, cultivation
conditions, stages of harvesting, and extraction processes of
cultivated ones.
G. lucidum has been considered to be a therapeutic
fungal biofactory for bioactive compounds which can reduce
the lethal effects of cancer. All parts of G. lucidum were
indicated to contain polysaccharides, triterpenoids, and
peptidoglycans and polyphenols as anticancer compounds
(Paterson, 2006; Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011; Sudheer et al.,
2018; Sharma et al., 2019). Anti-angiogenic polysaccharides
(mainly α-1,3, β-1,3 and β-1,6-D-glucans, Ganoderan) and
cytotoxic, antitumor, antimetastatic triterpenes/triterpenoids
(mainly ganodermic acids, ganodermic alcohols and
lucidenic acids) of G. lucidum are main bioactive
components to inhibit cancer development via suppressing
cancer cells proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, as well
as promoting cancer cells apoptosis. They work by different
molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in different
cancers. All of the G. lucidum polysaccharides contain
heteropolymer structures with glucose as the major sugar
component and are responsible for the structural analysis of
anti-tumor polysaccharides to strengthen the immune
system rather than direct cytocidal effects. In G. lucidum, the
chemical structure of the triterpenes is based on lanostane
(mainly C30), a metabolite of lanosterol, and its biosynthesis
is based on cyclization of squalene and extract of G. lucidum
tastes bitter due to the presence of these triterpenoids.
Triterpenoids of G. lucidum have been reported to have
many enzyme inhibitory activities that are useful as
chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover, G. lucidum
polysaccharides and triterpenes have immunomodulating,
immunostimulating, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and
radio-protective activities related to cancer (Dinesh Babu
and Subhasree, 2008; Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011; Xu et al.,
2011b; Wiater et al., 2012; Boh, 2013; Kao et al., 2013;
Zhang et al., 2007; Zhou et al., 2012; Cheng and Sliva, 2015;
Duru and Tel Çayan, 2015; Ferreira et al., 2015; Valverde et
al., 2015; Cao et al., 2018; Cör et al., 2018; Sohretoglu and
Huang, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Ye, 2018). Liu et al.
(2007) isolated a compound (Ganoderol B) from the fruiting
body of G. lucidum and showed its anti-androgen effect
against prostate cancer. However, the polysaccharides and
triterpene contents change according to the parts and
growing stages of the mushroom. Also, branching
conformation and solubility characteristics were reported to
affect the antitumorigenic properties of these
polysaccharides (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011; Nakagawa et
al., 2018). Anticancer effects of polysaccharides, terpenes
and proteins of G. lucidum existed the immunomodulatory
effect including activation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocytes,
macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and
other immune cells along with their secretory products like
tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reactive nitrogen, oxygen
intermediates, and interleukins (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6);
antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumor cells via
the promotion of the in vitro proliferation of undifferentiated
spleen cells, and the production of cytokines and antibodies.
Within the anticancer and antimetastatic activities, NF-κB
and MAPK, the most comprehensively investigated major
pathways were shown to be activated and released cytokines
that subsequently inhibited the growth of tumor cells. In
addition, TLR-4 was an effective receptor involved in the
host defense mechanism of the immune response to
polysaccharides (Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011; Boh,
2013; Kao et al., 2013; Cheng and Sliva, 2015; Cao et al.,
2018; Sohretoglu and Huang, 2018). In addition, other active
compounds from G. lucidum have been described, such as
ergostane sterols and ergosterol (provitamin D2; range,
189.1-1453.3 μg/g), nucleosides, and nucleotides (T, U, I, A
and G; 303-1217 μg/g in the mushroom cap and 22-334 μg/g
in the stem) with platelet aggregation effect, fatty acids
(palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid) with
potential effect of tumour cell proliferation inhibition, and
fatty acids (nonadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic
acid, palmitic acid) with inhibitory activity, alkaloids
(choline, betaine, saponin, flavonoid, tannin), vitamins
(riboflavin, vitamin C), essential and nonessential minerals
(selenium (Se) up to 72 μg/g dw; germanium (Ge) 489 μg/g,
Cu, Zn, P), hydrocarbons, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes
(Paterson, 2006; Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011; Boh, 2013; Cör
et al., 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018). G. lucidum can
biotransform 20-30% of inorganic Se present in the growth
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
87
substrate into Se-containing proteins and organic Ge is not
an essential element at low doses but it has been credited
with immunopotentiating, antitumor, antioxidant, and
antimutagenic activities (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Sudheer et al., 2018). Lu et al. (2016) determined that water
extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (A.
blazei, A. cinnamomea, G. lucidum and H. sinensis)
enhanced NK cell cytotoxic activity against cancer cells and
G. lucidum might produce both stimulatory and inhibitory
effects on immune cells, depending on the conditions. Boh
(2013) emphasized that the anticancer activity of G. lucidum
might be attributed to at least five groups of mechanisms: (1)
activation/modulation of the immune response of the host,
(2) direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells, (3) inhibition of tumor-
induced angiogenesis, (4) inhibition of cancer cells
proliferation and invasive metastasis behaviour, and (5)
carcinogens deactivation with protection of cells.
On the other hand, a reversible and a highly specific
competitive α-glucosidase inhibitor known as SKG-3 was
also found in G. lucidum with an IC50 of 4.6 µg/mL (Kim
and Nho, 2004). In an animal study (diabetic rats),
nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidant levels increased and
lipid peroxidation levels decreased with G. lucidum
treatment (Jia et al., 2009). Furthermore, the alcoholic
extract of G. lucidum was found to minimize oxidative
stress, restore cellular viability, and aid in maintaining
cellular redox balance under hypoxia (Kirar et al., 2017).
Stojkovic et al. (2014) reported that samples from China
revealed slightly better results for lipid peroxidation
inhibition (EC50 0.23 mg/mL), while the samples from
Serbia exhibited inhibitory potential against human breast
(GI50 309.66 µg/mL) and cervical carcinoma (GI50 311.19
µg/mL) cell lines. No cytotoxicity in non-tumour liver
primary cell culture was observed for the different samples.
Bal (2019) detected total antioxidant status (5.509
mmol/L), total oxidant status (10.177 µmol/L), and
oxidative stress index (0.185 µmol/L). It was concluded
that G. lucidum was a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial
agent. Table 1 shows the common pharmacological effects
of major bio compounds and various extracts of G.
lucidum.
Table 1 Common pharmacological effects of G. lucidum major bioctive compounds/various extracts
Pharmacological effects
Major bioactive compounds/various extracts
References
Anti-cancer, (anti-
angiogenic, cytotoxic,
anti-tumour, anti-
metastatic)
Polysaccharides (1→3, 1→4, and 1→6-linked β and α-D
(or L)-glucans)
Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Ferreira et al., 2015
Glycopeptides and peptidoglycans
Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Ferreira et al., 2015; Cör et
al., 2018; Hapuarachchi et al.,
2018; Sudheer et al., 2018
Triterpenoids (ganoderic, ganodermic, ganolucidic acids,
ganoderals, ganoderiols, lucidumol, lucialdehyde,
lucidenic acids)
Yuen and Gohel, 2005;
Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Boh, 2013; Duru and Tel
Çayan, 2015
Immunomodulatory,
anti-cancer and anti-
tumour
Protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8), lectin, ribosome inactivating
proteins, antimicrobial proteins, glycopeptides/glycoproteins,
peptidoglycans/ proteoglycans, ganodermin A, ribonucleases,
proteinases, metalloproteases, laccases
Zhou et al., 2007, 2012;
Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Xu et al., 2011a; Boh, 2013;
Cao et al., 2018; Sudheer et
al., 2018
Antidiabetic
Polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins (LZ-8) and
triterpenoids
Ma et al., 2015
Anti-inflammatory
Ganoderic acids T-Q and lucideinic acids A, D2, E2, and P
Sliva et al., 2003
Antioxidant
Triterpenes, polysaccharides, polysaccharide-peptide
complex and phenolic component; Methanolic extracts;
Phenolic and polysaccharide extracts
Mehta, 2014; Kana et al.,
2015; Yıldız et al., 2015;
Kumari et al., 2016; Heleno et
al., 2012
Cardiovascular
problems
Polysaccharides (Ganopoly)
Gao et al., 2004
Antiviral
Triterpenoids against Enterovirus 71; Ganoderic acid
derivatives against H5N1 and H1N1 influenza;
Ganoderiol F, ganodermanontriol against HIV-1
Zhang et al., 2014; Zhu et al.,
2015; Bishop et al., 2015
Antimicrobial
Polysaccharides; Triterpenoids (ganoderic acids,
ganodermin, ganoderic acid A, ganodermadiol,
ganodermanondiol, lucidumol B, ganodermanontriol,
ganoderic acid B, ganolucidic acid B)
Mehta, 2014; Cör et al., 2018;
Hapuarachchi et al., 2018
Aqueous and methanolic extracts; methanolic extracts;
MeOH and DCM extracts; Triterpenes, ganomycein, and
other aqueous extracts
Sudheer et al., 2018;
Sanodiya et al., 2009;
Stojkovic et al., 2014; Bal,
2019; Hleba et al., 2014
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
88
Ganoderma presents three characteristics for prevention
or treatment of diseases: (1) it does not produce any toxicity
or side effects; (2) it does not act on a specific organ and (3)
it promotes the improvement of normalization of the organ
function (Valverde et al., 2015). Because of its biologically
active compounds, modern pharmacological tests have
generally demonstrated some important pharmacological
effects of G. lucidum such as anxiolytic, anti-angiogenic,
antidepressant, antitumor, anticancer, cytotoxic, anti-
metastatic, hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-
histaminic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, anti-
hypertensive, anti-allergic, antihistaminic, antiradiation,
hepatoprotective, chemopreventive, immunomodulating,
anti-anemic, anti-androgenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant,
antiparasitic, antihepatitis, anti-aging, anti-androgenic,
anti-arthritic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral anti-HIV,
prebiotic, neuro-protective, dermatocosmetic,
acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, acute gastric ulcer
mucoprotective, cytokine production inductive, inhibition
of lipid peroxidation/oxidative DNA damage, maintenance
of gut health, stimulation of probiotic, urinary tract in men,
atherosclerosis, liver and kidney protective, cardiovascular
potential activities in addition to other activities against
such as fibromyalgia in women, platelet aggregation, and
topical sarcoidosis (Zhou et al., 2012; Sanodiya et al.,
2009; Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011; Wachtel-Galor
et al., 2011; Boh, 2013; Bishop et al., 2015; Duru and Tel
Çayan, 2015; Ferreira et al., 2015; Valverde et al., 2015;
Cör et al., 2018; Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b, 2017, 2018;
Khatian and Aslam, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Ye, 2018;
Sharma et al., 2019; Zhao et al., 2019). Moreover, the
effects of G. lucidum and its extracts such as
polysaccharides, triterpenes, and acids on the protection of
neurological diseases as abnormal neurogenesis, epilepsy,
spinal cord injury, neural tube defects, neurasthenia,
depression, and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and
cerebrovascular diseases, have been previously established
(Ye, 2018; Zhao et al., 2019).
Clinical Trials, Side Effects and Toxicity of G. lucidum
In addition to various in vitro and in vivo studies
previously conducted on therapeutic and medicinal
properties of G. lucidum (Gao et al., 2005; Wachtel-Galor
et al., 2011; Boh, 2013; Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b,
2017, 2018; Cao et al., 2018; Cör et al., 2018; Khatian and
Aslam, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Zeng et al., 2018), the
pharmacological effectiveness of G. lucidum and its
extracts, drugs, spores, tablets, capsules etc. have
confirmed and proved by clinical trials, mostly in Asian
countries, such as China, Japan, and Korea in addition to
USA and Malaysia (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011; Boh, 2013;
Nahata, 2013; Cheng and Sliva, 2015; Hapuarachchi et al.,
2016a, b; Cao et al., 2018; Cör et al., 2018; Sohretoglu and
Huang, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018; Zeng et al., 2018;
Sharma et al., 2019; Zhao et al., 2019). However, due to
the difficulty in obtaining large amounts of the pure
triterpenoids and polysaccharides, double-blind clinical
data of the active components are limited. No natural
products or extracts from Ganoderma have been reported
to enter clinical trial (Hapuarachchi et al., 2017). Although
the data from recent in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate
promising anti-cancer effects, a need was identified for
further (1) isolation and purification of compounds, with
deeper understanding of their individual and synergistic
pharmacological effects, (2) molecular level studies of the
antitumor and immuno-supportive mechanisms, (3) well
designed in vivo tests and controlled clinical studies, and
(4) standardisation and quality control for G. lucidum
strains, cultivation processes, extracts, and commercial
formulations (Boh, 2013). With regard to the effective
components, fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs)
and polysaccharides were dominant of which LZ-8 and
polysaccharides from G. lucidum were the mostly
researched (Cao et al., 2018). Although the results of
human studies provided some evidence that the antitumor
effects of G. lucidum were mediated via effects on the
immune system, all studies were conducted by the same
research group and that other direct antitumor effects of G.
lucidum had not been studied on humans in vivo, yet
(Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011). Hapuarachchi et al. (2016b)
concluded that most of the clinical trials were successful
with G. lucidum preparation, however factors like small
sample size, lack of a placebo control group, lack of
information regarding long term treatment of the drug, age,
patient’s gender and side effects, standard method of
extraction of G. lucidum, standard dosage, and the number
of patients treated undermine the validity of the results. For
this reason, Hapuarachchi et al. (2016a) emphasized that
the efficiency of G. lucidum in clinical treatments could be
proven by systematic translational research programs using
only standardized, preclinically evaluated and biologically
active G. lucidum extracts in alternative treatments. Hence,
studies on G. lucidum should focus on improving methods
and further clinical research on human subjects should be
performed with more scientific reproducibility. Boh (2013)
listed the examples of published medical investigations
with G. lucidum preparations including case studies and
clinical trials with different dosages. The researcher
emphasized that methodologies in the described cases were
not often scientifically rigorous and the results were not
statistically relevant. In addition, the experimental settings
varied a lot and systematically designed double-blind
placebo-controlled randomized trials. According to Cheng
and Sliva (2015), complete safety analysis on G. lucidum
was necessary. Although the efficacy of G. lucidum in
cancer patients was reported, clinical observations were
needed and it should be used with caution in patients when
combined with chemotherapy. Moreover, although there
were generally no serious side effects of using G. lucidum
(Boh, 2013; Cao et al., 2018), patients should be monitored
for liver toxicity (Yuen et al., 2004), chronic watery
diarrhea (Wanachiwanawin et al., 2006), and fatal
fulminant hepatitis (Wanmuang et al., 2007) that were
previously reported as adverse side effects of commercial
G. lucidum products consumption. In addition, Gill and
Rieder (2008) reported that exposure of cells to higher
levels of G. lucidum extracts caused significant reduction
in cell viability in some cell lines. A few human
sensitization to G. lucidum antigen and allergy and skin
reactivity to spore and whole body extracts of G. lucidum
cases were also previously reported. Patients with
hypoglycemia, gastric ulcers, and active gastrointestinal
bleeding, tendency for bleeding, blood disorders like
thrombocytopenia, and patients who were on
anticoagulants or antiplatelets medication, and under
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
89
treatments for hypertension should be cautious since it
lowered the blood sugar level, had anticoagulant effects, an
additive effect on clotting factors and prolongation of
prothrombin time, and hypotensive properties. G. lucidum
was not recommended for breastfeeding and pregnant
women since no scientific data was found about effects on
lactation (Hapuarachchi et al., 2016b; Sohretoglu and
Huang, 2018).
Products of G. lucidum from Traditional Knowledge to
Modern Commercial Perspective
All Traditional Chinese Medicine specialists believe
that G. lucidum is the most highlighted one amongst the
most powerful available adaptogens (Khatian and Aslam,
2018). The “mushroom of immortality” has been utilized
as herbal extract like concoctions of tea and tonics and a
remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve health
and longevity for thousands of years, as well as in the
treatment of neurasthenia, hypertension, hepatopathy,
carcinoma, fatigue, coughing, chronic hepatitis, bronchitis,
asthma, insomnia, indigestion, high cholesterol, nephritis,
and neurosis in China, Japan, and Korea (Wang et al.,
2012b; Khatian and Aslam, 2018; Sudheer et al., 2018). In
Asia, Ganoderma has been administered as drugs in the
treatment of cancer for centuries since it exhibits anticancer
effect alone or in combination with chemotherapy and
radiotherapy in addition to reducing the side effects and
pain of cancer patients during the treatment via immune
system suppression and fatigue (Boh, 2013; Valverde et al.,
2015; Sudheer et al., 2018). Jiaogulan (Gynostemm
pentaphyllum) is mixed with G. lucidum and made
“Lingzhi Jiaogulan oral liquid” which helps in relieving
palpitation, shortness of breath, and insomnia (Yan, 2015).
In vitro and in vivo studies, using combinations of green
tea extract and G. lucidum have proven its synergistic
effects in cancer prevention and treatment (Thyagarajan et
al., 2007). In addition, traditional remedies known as
“Lingzhi Bao” like China G. lucidum essence have been
utilized with an increase by the people (Zhou et al., 2012).
There are nearly 200 medicines and compounded
medicines containing Ganoderma available within China
(Chen et al., 2016). Nowadays, G. lucidum has been
recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the prevention and
treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, heart disease,
hypertension, hepatitis, neurasthenia, and diabetes, as well
as an immune system enhancer with health benefits. It can
also clean the blood, detoxify and regulate endocrine
function and help for promoting longevity and
strengthening health (Zhou et al., 2012; Sanodiya et al.,
2009; Ye, 2018). More than 100 brands of different
products based on G. lucidum can be found in the world
market (Lai et al., 2004). Various products such as dried
powder and aqueous/ethanol extracts of G. lucidum are
prepared from its cultivated fruiting bodies, mycelia, and
spore powder and have been commercialized as drugs,
dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional foods,
mycopharmaceuticals, and cosmetology products
worldwide (Lai et al., 2004; Zhou et al., 2012; Bishop et
al., 2015; Valverde et al., 2015; Hapuarachchi et al., 2018).
These include crushed fruiting bodies, fermentation broth,
crude extracts, and isolated bioactive constituents in
various formulations, which are marketed all over the
world in the form of G. lucidum slices, powdered spore
solution for injection, pills, tablet, oral liquid, health drink,
granule, tincture, bolus; soup, yogurt, black/ green tea,
coffee, cocoa powder (Lindequist et al., 2005;
Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011; Bishop et al., 2015;
Zhao et al., 2019); spore oils in capsule, soft capsule,
cream, hair tonic, and syrup (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Hapuarachchi et al., 2018) in addition to alcoholic
beverages (Bishop et al., 2015; Veljovic et al., 2019),
herbal and Sanqi wines (Hapuarachchi et al., 2018), tonic
liquor (Xu, 2001), beer, traditional rice wine (Yakju),
ginseng G. lucidum Sihe liquor and healthy wine of
germanium-enriched Ganoderma and Cordyceps (Zhou et
al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2019) and ointments, antiseptic
creams, and herbal soaps (Sudheer et al., 2018). Over 1,000
Ganoderma health food products were certified by Chinese
government (Chen et al. 2016). In addition, G. lucidum
could be considered as natural preservatives of food
industry (Kana et al. 2015). Functional food studies for
emulsion type sausage (Ghobadi et al., 2018), smoked fish
sausage (Wannasupchue et al., 2011), yogurt (Li et al.,
2011), bread (Chung et al., 2004), and alcoholic beverages
(Veljovic et al., 2019) have been also conducted. GanoPoly
and Immulink MBG as G. lucidum nutraceuticals are
aqueous polysaccharide fractions isolated with patented
methods (Bishop et al., 2015). In addition,
BreastDefend™, MycoPhyto® Complex, New Chapter®,
LifeShield® Immunity, and ReishiMax capsules are
examples of marketed products of G. lucidum extracts with
or without other mushrooms claiming diverse biological
activities (De Silva et al., 2013). Many pharmaceutical,
cosmetology, and beauty products made from this
mushroom such as day and night cream, whitening cream,
anti-aging facial mask, face serum, toothpaste, lotion, and
shampoo are available in the markets and demand high
price (Taofiq et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Hapuarachchi et
al., 2018). Giavasis (2014) reported that, Lentinan, an
acidic proteoglucan from G. lucidum has been used as anti-
HIV drug. The annual sale of products derived from G.
lucidum was estimated to be more than US$ 2.5 billion in
Asian countries, including China, Japan, and South Korea
(Li et al. 2013; Bishop et al., 2015). Li et al. (2016) showed
that China was the largest producer and exporter with a
capacity over 110,000 MT/year of fruiting bodies, slices,
and spore powders as most popular products among
consumers. Meanwhile, many patented products have
emerged which include the preparation of anti-tumor, liver
function accelerant, lowering of blood pressure,
hypoglycemic activity, lowering of cholesterol levels,
treatment of chronic bronchitis, immunomodulator,
lysozyme as antibiotic, and shampoo, body shampoo, etc.
(Zhou et al., 2012). Boh (2013) established the patent
documents on G. lucidum spores and dry pulverised
mycelia, diverse production and disclosing isolation
methods of triterpenes, clinical, in vivo and in vitro tests,
immunostimulation and disclosing isolation methods of
pharmacologically active polysaccharides, proteins,
glycopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, and peptidoglycans
isolated from G. lucidum, preparation methods of crude
extracts from G. lucidum with complex compositions and
anticancer pharmaceutical formulations containing G.
lucidum.
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
90
The simplest manufacturing type consists of intact
fruiting bodies dried and ground to powder and then
processed to capsule or tablet form. Other “nonextracted”
products are prepared from the following three sources: (1)
dried and powdered mycelia harvested from submerged
liquid cultures grown in fermentation tanks; (2) dried and
powdered combinations of substrate, mycelia, and
mushroom primordia, following inoculation and incubation
of a semisolid medium with fungal mycelia; and (3) intact
fungal spores or spores that have been broken by mechanical
means or have had the spore walls removed (Wachtel-Galor
et al., 2011). Generally, for other products preparing with
biocompounds “extracted”, most polysaccharides are
extracted by using hot water-extract-alcohol or water-
extract-alkali precipitation methods. Novel technologies
using ultrasound, microwave, and enzymatic methods have
recently been developed to increase the yield in shorter
extraction times. The extracted polysaccharides are further
isolated and purified by fractional precipitation, acidic
precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration,
affinity chromatography, and TLC. Triterpenes are usually
extracted by using organic solvents such as methanol,
ethanol, acetone, chloroform, ether, or a mixture of these
solvents followed by different separation methods.
Ultrasonic, normal and reverse-phase HPLC, and silica gel
column chromatography techniques are currently being used
to enhance the rate of extraction of triterpenes by destroying
the dense structure in the cells. G. lucidum proteins,
peptidoglycans, and glycoproteins are extracted with the
processes containing preparative chromatographic
techniques, such as gel filtration and ion exchange
chromatographies in addition to initial extractions with
water or alkaline aqueous solutions (Wachtel-Galor et al.,
2011; Boh, 2013; Kao et al., 2013; Ferreira et al., 2015;
Sudheer et al., 2018). Moreover, supercritical CO2 with or
without co-solvent, subcritical water, and subcritical
petroleum ether were previously used to extract various
biocompounds such as ganoderic acids, ganoderic alcohols,
β-glucans, and other polysaccharides, chitins, ergosterol,
and fatty acids of G. lucidum (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011;
Boh, 2013; Morales et al., 2018). The use of nanotechnology
to administer extracts of G. lucidium might also improve the
bioavailability of the drugs and effectiveness (Li et al.,
2010). After extraction of biocompounds, they were
evaporated to dryness and tabulated/encapsulated either
separately or integrated together in designated proportions.
Several other products have been prepared as binary,
ternary, or more complex mixtures of powdered G. lucidium
and other mushrooms and even with other medicinal herbs
(Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011).
However, the amount and percentage of each component
could be very diverse in natural and commercial products
(Wachtel-Galor et al, 2011; Zhou et al., 2012). Chang and
Buswell (2008) randomly selected 11 samples of
commercial G. lucidum products purchased in Hong Kong
shops and evaluated for the two major active components,
triterpenes and polysaccharides. The triterpene content
ranged from undetectable to 7.8% and the polysaccharide
content varied from 1.1-15.8%. Boh (2013) and Zeng et al.
(2018) underlined that the major obstacle for the acceptance
of natural products, such as G. lucidum, in the doctrines of
Western pharmaceutical and medical systems, is the
complexity and variability of preparations from natural
sources. If complex mixtures were of a standardised high
quality and the homogeneity, they could bring significant
advantages due to synergistic effects. Paterson (2006)
informed that in the United States, the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) does not regulate the marketing of
fungal medicinal products. Thus, Wu et al. (2017) evaluated
19 batches of products of G. lucidum herbal/mushroom
supplements purchased in the United States based on their
bioactive components including triterpenes and
polysaccharides by using chromatographic methods and
saccharide mapping. The results showed that the measured
ingredients of only 5 tested samples (26.3%) were in
accordance with their labels. Loyd et al. (2018) analyzed 20
manufactured products (e.g., pills, tablets, teas, etc.) and 17
grow your own (GYO) kits labeled as containing G.
lucidum. They identified the majority (93%) of the
manufactured reishi products and almost half of the GYO
kits as G. lucidum. Their results indicated that the content of
these products varied and a better labeling was needed to
inform consumers before these products were ingested or
marketed as medicine. In addition, some researchers have
developed methods to aid with assessment of the
bioavailability of various ganoderic acids, while others have
studied factors that may influence the bioavailability
(Bishop et al., 2015). Although the pharmacokinetics of
other fungal polysaccharides were previously evaluated,
how to figure out the pharmacodynamics, standardize the
quality and perform reliable pharmacokinetic and
bioavailability studies of G. lucidum polysaccharides
remained to be determined (Cheng and Sliva, 2015; Ferreira
et al., 2015; Cao et al., 2018; Zeng et al., 2018). In
phytotherapeutic approach, a fraction of an active extract or
mixture of such fractions might prove better therapeutically,
less toxic, and inexpensive compared to pure isolated
compounds. However, some problems have been with G.
lucidum based products because of low reproducibility and
poor quality control. Hence, it has been important to develop
acceptable and reproducible protocols for manufacturing,
extraction and purification processes to ensure high quality,
effective, standard, and safe crude G. lucidum products and
preparations (Zhou et al., 2012; Nahata, 2013; Hapuarachchi
et al., 2018).
Conclusion
G. lucidum has long been reputed to extend the life span
and to increase youthful vigour and vitality. The specific
reported attributes of G. lucidum include lowering the risk
of cancer, heart disease, and infection. These health-
promoting effects are believed to be mediated via the
antioxidant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and
immunomodulatory properties of the mushroom. The data
obtained from the research studies demonstrate the effect
of G. lucidum only on the molecular level. Hence, more
preclinical and clinical studies are necessary for the
validation of this natural product in the prevention and/or
therapy of cancer. In addition, G. lucidum-derived products
could not meet the demand of consumers and achieve the
goals of development not only in the technology content
but also in the product quality. Therefore, it is necessary to
deeply study the bioactive components from different G.
lucidum and identify their structures and their affecting
mechanisms. Then, based on the chemistry and
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
91
pharmacodynamics research, the new control standard and
production process of G. lucidum products should be
developed in addition to modern cultivation methods. The
application of standard pharmaceutical methods to the
quality assurance, safety assessment, and efficacy testing
of G. lucidum compounds will be the first step in the
process of bringing them from the field into the health
establishments.
References
Bal C. 2019. Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of Ganoderma
lucidum. J Bacteriol Mycol Open Access, 7(1): 5-7.
Bishop KS, Kao CHJ, Xu Y, Glucina MP, Paterson RRM,
Ferguson LR. 2015. From 2000 years of Ganoderma lucidum
to recent developments in nutraceuticals. Phytochemistry,
114: 56-65.
Boh B. 2013. Ganoderma lucidum: A potential for
biotechnological production of anti-cancer and
immunomodulatory drugs. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug
Discov, 8: 255-287.
Cao Y, Xu X, Liu S, Huang L, Gu J. 2018. Ganoderma: A cancer
immunotherapy review. Front Pharmacol, 9: 1217.
Chang ST, Buswell JA. 2008. Safety, quality control and
regulational aspects relating to mushroom nutriceuticals.
Proc. 6th Intl. Conf. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom
Products. GAMU Gmbh, Krefeld, Germany. pp. 188-95.
Chang YS, Lee SS. 2004. Utilisation of macrofungi species in
Malaysia. Fungal Divers, 15: 15-22.
Chen RY, Kang J, Du GH. 2016. Construction of the quality
control system of Ganoderma products. Edi and Med Mushr,
24(6): 339-344.
Cheng S, Sliva D. 2015. Ganoderma lucidum for cancer
treatment: We are close but still not there. Integr Cancer Ther,
14(3): 249-257.
Chung H, Lee J, Kwon O. 2004. Bread properties utilizing
extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (GL). J. Korean Soc. Food
Sci., Nutr. 33: 1201-1205.
Cör D, Knez Z, Hrnčič MK. 2018. Antitumour, antimicrobial,
antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase effect of Ganoderma
lucidum terpenoids and polysaccharides: A review.
Molecules, 23: 649.
De Silva DD, Rapior S, Fons F, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD. 2012.
Medicinal mushrooms in supportive cancer therapies: an
approach to anticancer effects and putative mechanisms of
action. Fungal Divers, 55: 1-35.
De Silva DD, Rapior S, Sudarman E, Stadler M, Xu J, Alias SA,
Hyde KD. 2013. Bioactive metabolites from macrofungi:
ethnopharmacology, biological activities and chemistry.
Fung Divers, 62: 1-40.
Deepalakshmi K, Mirunalini S. 2011. Therapeutic properties and
current medical usage of medicinal mushroom: Ganoderma
lucidum. IJPSR, 2(8): 1922-1929.
Dinesh Babu P, Subhasree RS. 2008. The sacred mushroom
“Reishi”-A review. American-Eurasian J Bot, 1(3):107-110.
Duru ME, Tel Çayan G. 2015. Biologically active terpenoids from
mushroom origin: A review. Rec. Nat. Prod., 9(4): 456-483.
Ferreira ICFR, Heleno SA, Reis FS, Stojković D, Queiroz MJ,
Vasconcelos MH, Soković M, 2015. Chemical features of
Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and
antimicrobial activities. Phytochemistry, 114: 38-55.
Gao H, Chan E, Zhou F. 2004. Immunomodulating activities of
Ganoderma, a mushroom with medicinal properties. Food
Rev Int, 20: 123-161.
Gao Y, Gao H, Chan E, Tang W, Xu A, Yang H, Huang M, Lan
J, Li X, Duan W, Xu C, Zhou S. 2005. Antitumor activity and
underlying mechanisms of Ganopoly, the refined
polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in mice.
Immunol Invest, 34: 171-198.
Ghobadi R, Mohammadi R, Chabavizade J, Sami M. 2018. Effect
of Ganoderma lucidum powder on oxidative stability,
microbial and sensory properties of emulsion type sausage.
AdvBiomed Res,7: 24.
Giavasis I. 2014. Polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms for
potential use as nutraceuticals. In: Benkeblia N (Ed.),
Polysaccharides: Natural Fibers in Food and Nutrition, 1st
Edition, CRC Press. pp.171-206.
Gill SK, Rieder MJ. 2008. Toxicity of a traditional Chinese
medicine, Ganoderma lucidum, in children with cancer. Can
J Clin Pharmacol, 15(2): 275-85.
Hapuarachchi KK, Cheng CR, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Kakumyan P.
2017. Mycosphere Essays 20: Therapeutic potential of
Ganoderma species: Insights into its use as traditional
medicine. Mycosphere, 8(10): 1653-1694.
Hapuarachchi KK, Elkhateeb WA, Karunarathna SC, Cheng CR,
Bandara AR, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Daba GM, Wen TC.
2018. Current status of global Ganoderma cultivation,
products, industry and market. Mycosphere, 9(5): 1025-1052.
Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC, Hyde
KD. 2016a. Mycosphere Essays 7. Ganoderma lucidum-are
the beneficial anti-cancer properties substantiated?
Mycosphere, 7(3): 305-332.
Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC. 2016b.
Mycosphere Essays 15. Ganoderma lucidumare the
beneficial medical properties substantiated? Mycosphere,
7(6): 687-715.
Heleno SA, Barros L, Martins A, Ferreira ICFR. 2012. Fruiting
body spores and in vitro produced mycelium of G. lucidum
from Northeast Portugal: a comparative study of the
antioxidant potential of phenolic and polysaccharidic
extracts. Food Res Int, 46: 135-140.
Hleba L, Vuković, Petrová J, Kačániová M. 2014. Antimicrobial
activity of crude methanolic extracts from Ganoderma
lucidum and Trametes versicolor. Anim Sci Biotechno, 47:
89-93.
Hyde KD, Bahkali AH, Moslem MA. 2010. FungiAn unusual
source for cosmetics. Fungal Divers, 43: 1-9.
Jia J, Zhang XI, Hu YS, Wu Y, Wang QZ, Li NN, Guo QC, Dong
XC. 2009. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activities of G.
lucidum polysaccharides in STZ-diabetic rats. Food Chem,
115: 32-36.
Kana Y, Chen T, Wu Y, Wu J. 2015. Antioxidant activity of
polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using
response surface methodology. Int J Biol Macromol, 72: 151-
157.
Kao CHJ, Jesuthasan AC, Bishop KS, Glucina MP, Ferguson LR.
2013. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active
ingredients and pathways. Functional Foods in Health and
Disease, 3(2): 48-65.
Karthikeyan M, Radhika K, Bhaskaran R, Mathiyazhagan S,
Velazhahan R. 2009. Rapid detection of Ganoderma lucidum
and assessment of inhibition effect of various control
measures by immunoassay and PCR. Afr J Biotechnol, 8:
2202-2208.
Khastini RO, Wahyuni I, Saraswati I. 2018. Ethnomycology of
bracket fungi in Baduy Tribe Indonesia. Biosaintifika: J Biol
Educ, 10(2): 424-432.
Khatian N, Aslam M. 2018. A review of Ganoderma lucidum
(Reishi): A miraculous medicinal mushroom. Inventi Rapid:
Ethnopharmacology, 2018(4): 1-6.
Kim SD, Nho HJ. 2004. Isolation and characterization of alpha-
glucosidase inhibitor from the fungus G. lucidum. J
Microbiol, 42(3): 223-227.
Kirar V, Nehra S, Mishra J, Rakhee R, Saraswat D, Misra K 2017.
Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum
(Agaricomycetes), as a cardioprotectant in an oxygen-
deficient environment. Int J Med Mushrooms, 19(11): 1009-
1021.
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
92
Kumari K, Prakash V, Rana S, Sagar A. 2016. In vitro antioxidant
activity of methanolic extract of G. lucidum (Curt.) P. Karst.
IJASR, 1(5): 51-54.
Lai T, Gao Y, Zhou SF. 2004. Global marketing of medicinal
Ling Zhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.)
Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) products and safety
concerns. Int J Med Mush, 6: 189-194.
Li J, Chen W, Li XY, Cheng F. 2011. Ganoderma yogurt and
changes in colonies, physical and chemical properties during
storage. China Dairy Ind, 5: 18.
Li J, Zhang J, Chen H, Chen X, Lan J, Liu C. 2013. Complete
mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom
Ganoderma lucidum. Plos One, 8(8): e72038.
Li N, Hu YL, He CX, Hu CJ, Zhou J, Tang GP, Gao JQ. 2010.
Preparation, characterisation and anti-tumour activity of
Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide nanoparticles. J Pharm
Pharmacol, 62(1): 139-44.
Li S, Dong C, Wen HA, Liu X. 2016. Development of Ling-zhi
industry in Chinaemanated from the artificial cultivation in
the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
(IMCAS). Mycology, 7: 74-80.
Lindequist U, Niedermeyer TH, lich WD. 2005. The
pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med., 2(3): 285-299.
Lisiecka J, Rogalski J, Sobieralski K, Siwulski M, Sokol S, Ohga
S. 2015. Mycelium growth and biological efficiency of
Ganoderma lucidum on substrate supplemented with
different organic additives. J Fac Agr, Kyushu Univ, 60(2):
303-308.
Liu J, Shimizu K, Konishi F, Kumamoto S, Kondo R. 2007. The
anti-androgen effect of ganoderol B isolated from the fruiting
body of Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorganic Med Chem, 15(14):
4966-4972.
Loyd AL, Richter BS, Jusino MA, Truong C, Smith ME,
Blanchette RA, Smith JA. 2018. Identifying the “Mushroom
of Immortality”: Assessing the Ganoderma Species
Composition in Commercial Reishi Products. Front.
Microbiol., 9: 1557.
Lu CC, Hsu YJ, Chang CJ, Lin CS, Martel J, Ojcius DM, Ko YF,
Lai HC, Young JD. 2016. Immunomodulatory properties of
medicinal mushrooms: differential effects of water and
ethanol extracts on NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Innate
Immun, 22(7): 522-533.
Ma HT, Hsieh JF, Chen ST. 2015. Anti-diabetic effects of
Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry, 114: 109-113.
Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. 2001. Non-volatile components of
several medicinal mushrooms. Food Res Int, 34(6): 521-526.
Mehta S. 2014. Studies on genetic variability and bioactive
molecules production by Ganoderma species. Ph.D. Thesis,
Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management
Sciences Bajhol, Solan (HP), India.
Morales D, Ruiz-Rodriguez A, Soler-Rivas C. 2018. The use of
pressurized fluid technologies to obtain commercially
interesting compounds from edible mushrooms. (Taylor, ed.).
Advances in Chemistry Research. New York. Nova Science
Publishers, Inc. pp. 1-42.
Nahata A. 2013. Ganoderma lucidum: A potent medicinal
mushroom with numerous health benefits. Pharmaceut Anal
Acta, 4: e159.
Nakagawa T, Zhu Q, Tamrakar S, Amen Y, Mori Y, Suhara H,
Kaneko S, Kawashima H, Okuzono K, Inoue Y, Ohnuki K,
Shimizu K. 2018. Changes in content of triterpenoids and
polysaccharides in Ganoderma lingzhi at diferent growth
stages. J Nat Med, 72: 734-744.
Oyetayo OV. 2011. Medicinal uses of mushrooms ın Nigeria:
towards full and sustainable exploitation. Afr J Tradit
Complement Altern Med, 8(3): 267274.
Paterson RRM. 2006. Ganoderma-A therapeutic fungal
biofactory. Phytochem, 67: 1985-2001.
Pekşen A, Yakupoğlu G. 2009. Tea waste as a supplement for the
cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum. World J of Microbiol and
Biotech, 25(4): 611-618.
Perumal K. 2009. Indigenous technology on organic cultivation
of Reishi. AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, 1-12.
Rathore H, Prasad S, Sharma S. 2017. Mushroom nutraceuticals
for improved nutrition and better human health: A review.
PharmaNutrition, 5: 35-46.
Reis FS, Martins A, Vasconcelos MH, Morales P, Ferreira ICFR.
2017. Functional foods based on extracts or compounds derived
from mushrooms. Trends Food Sci Techn., 66: 48-62.
Roy S, Ara M, Jahan A, Das KK, Munshi SK, Noor R. 2015.
Artificial cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi
Medicinal Mushroom) using different sawdusts as substrates.
American J BioSci, 3(5): 178-182.
Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Baghel RK, Prasad GBKS, Bisen PS.
2009. Ganoderma lucidum: A potent pharmacological
macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 10: 717-742.
Sesli E, Denchev CM. 2014. Checklists of the myxomycetes,
larger ascomycetes, and larger basidiomycetes in Turkey. 6th
edn. Mycotaxon Checklists Online
(http://www.mycotaxon.com/resources/checklists/sesli-
v106-checklist.pdf): 1-136.
Sharma C, Bhardwaj N, Sharma A, Tuli HS, Katyal P, Beniwal
V, Gupta GK, Sharma AK. 2019. Bioactive metabolites of
Ganoderma lucidum: Factors, mechanism and broad
spectrum therapeutic potential. J Herbal Med, xx(x): xx-xx.
Sliva D, Sedlak M, Slivova V, Valachovicova T, Lloyd FP Jr, Ho
NW. 2003. Biologic activity of spores and dried powder from
Ganoderma lucidum for the inhibition of highly invasive
human breast and prostate cancer cells. J Altern Complement
Med, 9: 491-497.
Sohretoglu D, Huang S. 2018. Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides as an anti-cancer agent. Anticancer Agents
Med Chem, 18: 667-674.
Stojkovic DS, Barros L, Calhelha RC, Glamočlija J, Ćirić A, Van
Griensven LJLD, Soković M, Ferreira ICFR. 2014. A detailed
comparative study between chemical and bioactive properties
of Ganoderma lucidum from different origins. Int J Food Sci
Nutr, 65(1): 42-47.
Sudheer S, Alzorqi I, Manickam S, Ali A. 2018. Bioactive
compounds of the wonder medicinal mushroom Ganoderma
lucidum”. (Mérillon, Ramawat, eds.). Bioactive Molecules in
Food, Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Switzerland.
Springer International Publishing AG. 31 p. Online ISBN:
978-3-319-54528-8.
Taofiq O, González-Paramás AM, Martins A, Barreiro MF,
Ferreira ICFR. 2016. Mushrooms extracts and compounds in
cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and nutricosmeticsA review. Ind
Crop Prod, 90: 38-48.
Thyagarajan A, Zhu J, Sliva D. 2007. Combined effect of green
tea and Ganoderma lucidum on invasive behavior of breast
cancer cells. Int J Oncol, 30(4): 963-9.
Tibuhwa, DD. 2018. Edible and medicinal mushrooms sold at
traditional markets in Tanzania. Res J For, 12: 1-14.
Tokul-Olmez O, Kaplaner E, Ozturk M, Ullah Z, Duru ME. 2018.
Fatty acid profile of four Ganoderma species collected from
various host trees with chemometric approach. Biochem Sys
and Ecol, 78: 9197.
Turfan N, Karadeniz M, Ünal S. 2016. Doğadan toplanan ve
portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis.)
P. Karst mantar türünün bazı kimyasal içeriklerinin
karşılaştırılması. Turkish JAF Sci Technol, 4(3): 158-162.
Turfan N, Pekşen A, Kibar B, Ünal S. 2018. Determination of
nutritional and bioactive properties in some selected wild
growing and cultivated mushrooms from Turkey. Acta Sci
Pol Hortorum Cultus, 17(3): 57-72.
Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O. 2015.
Edible mushrooms: Improving human health and promoting
quality life. Int J Microbiol, 2015: 1-14.
Bulam et al., / Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 7(sp1): 84-93, 2019
93
Veljović S, Nikićević N, Nikšić M. 2019. Medicinal fungus
Ganoderma lucidum as raw material for alcohol beverage
production. (Grumezescu and Holban, eds.). Alcoholic
Beverages. Volume 7: The Science of Beverages. Elsevier /
Woodhead Publish. pp. 161-197.
Wachtel-Galor S, Yuen J, Buswell JA, Benzie IFF. 2011.
Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A medicinal
mushroom. (Benzie and Wachtel-Galor, eds.). Herbal
Medicine, 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL). CRC
Press/Taylor&Francis. 53 p. ISBN-13: 978-1-4398-0713-2.
Wanachiwanawin D, Piankijagum A, Chaiprasert A, Lertlaituan
P, Tungtrongchitr A, Chinabutr P. 2006. Ganoderma
lucidum: a cause of pseudoparasitosis. Southeast Asian J Trop
Med Public Health, 37: 1099-102.
Wang JL, Gu T, Zhong JJ. 2012a. Enhanced recovery of
antitumor Ganoderic Acid T from Ganoderma lucidum
mycelia by novel chemical conversion strategy. Biotechnol
Bioeng, 109(3): 754-762.
Wang XC, Xi RJ, Li Y, Wang DM, Yao YJ. 2012b. The species
identity of the widely cultivated Ganoderma, ‘G. lucidum’
(Lingzhi), in China. PLoS One, 7(7): e40857.
Wang YY, Chen ST, Lin CC, Wong CH, Lin CH. 2002. Studies
on the immunomodulation and antitumor activities of G.
lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: functional and proteomic
analysis of fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction
responsible for the activities. Bioorg Med Chem, 10: 1057-
1062.
Wanmuang H, Leopairut J, Kositchaiwat C, Wananukul W,
Bunyaratvej S. 2007. Fatal fulminant hepatitis associated
with Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) mushroom powder. J
Med Assoc Thai, 90: 179-181.
Wannasupchue W, Siriamornpun S, Huaisan K, Huaisan J, Meeso
N. 2011. Effect of adding Ling-zhi (Ganoderma lucidum) on
oxidative stability, textural and sensory properties of smoked
fish sausage. Thai J Agric Sci, 5: 505-12.
Wiater A, Paduch R, Choma A, Pleszczyn´ska M, Siwulski M,
Dominik J, Janusze G, Tomczyk M, Szczodrak J. 2012.
Biological study on carboxymethylated (1→3)-α-D-glucans
from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Int J Biol
Macromol, 51: 1014-1023.
Wu GS, Guo JJ, Bao JL, Li XW. 2013. Anti-cancer properties of
triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum - A review.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 22: 981-992.
Wu Y, Choi MH, Li J, Yang H, Shin HJ. 2016. Mushroom
cosmetics: The present and future. Cosmetics, 3(3): 22.
Wu, DT, Deng Y, Chen LX, Zhao J, Bzhelyansky A, Li SP. 2017.
Evaluation on quality consistency of Ganoderma lucidum
dietary supplements collected in the United States. Sci. Rep.
7: 7792.
Xu X, Yan H, Chen J, Zhang X. 2011a. Bioactive proteins from
mushrooms. Biotechnol Adv, 29(6): 667-674.
Xu Y. 2001. Perspectives on the 21st century development of
functional foods: Bridging Chinese medicated diet and
functional foods. Int J Food Sci Technol, 36: 229-242.
Xu Z, Chen X, Zhong Z, Cheny L, Wang Y. 2011b. Ganoderma
lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential
anti-tumor activities. The Amer J Chine Medic, 39: 15-27.
Yan L. 2015. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino
(Jiaogulan, Five leaf Gynostemma). In: Liu Y, Wang Z,
Zhang J. (Eds) Dietary Chinese Herbs Chemistry:
Pharmacology and Clinical Evidence. Springer, London pp.
615-622.
Ye H. 2018. Healthy benefits of Ganoderma lucidum as herb
medicinal mushroom. CPQ Nutrition, 1(5): 01-07.
Yıldız O, Can Z, Laghari AQ, Şahin H, Malkoç M. 2015. Wild
edible mushrooms as a natural source of phenolics and
antioxidants. J Food Biochem, 39: 148-154.
Yuen MF, Ip P, Ng WK, Lai CL. 2004. Hepatotoxicity due to a
formulation of Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi). J Hepatol, 41:
685-90.
Yuen WMJ, Gohel MDI. 2005. Anti-cancer effects of
Ganoderma lucidum: A review of scientific evidence. Nutr
Cancer, 53: 11-17.
Zeng P, Guo Z, Zeng X, Hao C, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Liu Y, Li
H, Li J, Zhang L. 2018. Chemical, biochemical, preclinical
and clinical studies of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide as
an approved drug for treating myopathy and other diseases in
China. J Cell Mol Med, 22: 3278-3297.
Zhang M, Cui SW, Cheung PCK, Wang Q. 2007. Antitumor
polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on their isolation
process, structural characteristics and antitumor activity.
Trends Food Sci Technol, 18(1): 4-19.
Zhang W, Tao J, Yang X, Yang Z, Zhang L, Liu H, Wu K, Wu J.
2014. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum
triterpenoids against Enterovirus 71 infection. Biochem
Biophys Res Commun, 449(3): 307-12.
Zhao C, Zhang C, Xing Z, Ahmad Z, Li J-S, Chang M-W. 2019.
Pharmacological effects of natural Ganoderma and its
extracts on neurological diseases: A comprehensive review.
Int J Biol Macromol, 121: 1160-1178.
Zhou XW, Lin J, Li QZ, Yin YZ, Sun XF, Tang KX. 2007. Study
progress on bioactive proteins from Ganoderma spp. Nat
Prod Res Develop, 19: 916-924.
Zhou XW, Su KQ, Zhang YM. 2012. Applied modern
biotechnology for cultivation of Ganoderma and
development of their products. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol,
93: 941-963.
Zhu Q, Bang TH, Ohnuki K, Sawai T, Sawai K, Shimizu K. 2015.
Inhibition of neuraminidase by Ganoderma triterpenoids and
implications for neuraminidase inhibitor design. Sci Rep, 5:
13194.
Zhu XL, Chen AF, Lin ZB. 2007. Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides enhance the function of immunological
effector cells in immunosuppressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol,
111: 219-226.
... Long known as the "mushroom of immortality", Ganoderma lucidum, also known as ling zhi or reishi, is one of the most widely used medicinal mushrooms in the world today. It has been used to promote well-being and longevity since ancient times in traditional Chinese medicine, as it was included in Shen Nong's Materia Medica (206 BC-8 AD), and it is now listed in the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and Therapeutic Compendium, and is also widely used as an adjuvant in the treatment of various types of cancer [20]. More than 100 reishi-based products are currently marketed, such as the nutraceuticals Ganopoly and Immunlink MBG, containing aqueous polysaccharide fractions, as well as a wide range of supplements often also containing other mushroom species extracts, functional foods, mycopharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals, prepared from carpophores, mycelia, or spore powder. ...
... Triterpene compounds are derivatives from lanosterol, including ganoderic acids, ganodermic acid, ganodermic alcohols, lucidones, and lucinedic acids, and they possess marked antitumor, antimetastatic, cytotoxic, and enzyme inhibitory properties. The main polysaccharides are α-1,3, β-1,3 and β-1,6-D-glucans and ganoderan with glucose as a major sugar component, characterized by a strong antiangiogenic and immune system-strengthening properties [20,21]. These two categories of molecules are primarily responsible for the anticancer properties of reishi, both by suppressing cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion and by promoting apoptosis, combined with its immunomodulating, immunostimulating, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. ...
... In particular, concerning immunomodulatory action, it has been observed that this occurs through multiple mechanisms, such as the activation of cytotoxic T cells, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells, the TLR-4 pathway, and other immune cells, as well as their by-products TNF-α, interleukins IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-6, and active nitrogen and oxygen intermediates [20]. Lee et al. [22] found that the G. lucidum triterpenes butyl ganoderate A and B and butyl lucidenate A and N exert an inhibitory effect on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal mushrooms have important health benefits and exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antiallergic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, cytotoxic, immunomodulating, antidepressive, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, digestive, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, osteoprotective, and hypotensive activities. The growing interest in mycotherapy requires a strong commitment from the scientific community to expand clinical trials and to propose supplements of safe origin and genetic purity. Bioactive compounds of selected medicinal mushrooms and their effects and mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo clinical studies are reported in this review. Besides, we analyzed the therapeutic use and pharmacological activities of mushrooms.
... Essas moléculas bioativas são de grande interesse terapêutico, de modo que nesta espécie já foram constatadas propriedades hepatoprotetoras, antihipertensivas, hipocolesterômicas, antihistamínicas, antioxidantes, antitumorais, imunomodulatórias e antiangiogênicas. O extrato de G. lucidum pode ser incorporado em produtos nutracêuticos, como chás, chocolate, tabletes, entre outros (BULAM; ÜSTÜN;PEKŞEN, 2019). ...
... Essas moléculas bioativas são de grande interesse terapêutico, de modo que nesta espécie já foram constatadas propriedades hepatoprotetoras, antihipertensivas, hipocolesterômicas, antihistamínicas, antioxidantes, antitumorais, imunomodulatórias e antiangiogênicas. O extrato de G. lucidum pode ser incorporado em produtos nutracêuticos, como chás, chocolate, tabletes, entre outros (BULAM; ÜSTÜN;PEKŞEN, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
O Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Krast é um basidiomiceto pertencente à família Ganodermataceae, cuja produção é de crescente interesse devido às suas propriedades medicinais. Entretanto, a maior parte das pesquisas publicadas no Brasil em periódicos científicos está relacionada às propriedades nutracêuticas e medicinais do G. lucidum e muito pouco diz respeito à tecnologia de cultivo. Assim, analisar a potencialidade do bagaço de malte, um resíduo proveniente da indústria cervejeira, no cultivo do G. lucidum é uma forma de viabilizar o uso deste material para a produção de um alimento de alto valor agregado (cogumelo). Foi testado o potencial do bagaço de malte em diferentes proporções (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20%, em base seca, tratamentos T1, T2, T3, T4 e T5, respectivamente) na composição de substratos para o cultivo de Ganoderma lucidum, para avaliar a massa do basidioma fresco e a caracterização química do substrato. Quanto à massa produzida, os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4 não diferiram estatisticamente, com valores entre 40,0 a 47,6 g, acima do tratamento T5, que obteve uma média de 23 g, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais. A caracterização química do substrato evidenciou um aumento no pH em função da utilização do bagaço de malte, que pode ter sido responsável pela queda na produtividade no tratamento T5. Assim, concluiu-se que o bagaço de malte, nas condições experimentais propostas, pode ser utilizado como suplemento até uma proporção de 15%, mantendo assim uma produtividade satisfatória de G. lucidum.
... It has been found that the anticancer properties of G. lucidum are primarily attributed to its triterpenes. These properties are mainly because of two major groups of metabolites occur in G. lucidum, such as triterpenoids and triterpenes.Triterpene are derivatives from lanosterol, as well as ganodermic acid, ganoderic acids, lucidones, lucinedic acids and ganodermic alcohols etc. Due to they have remarkable property of antimetastatic, cytotoxic and antitumor (Bulam et al., 2019). Triterpenes butyl lucidenate A and N and butyl ganoderate A and B has shown a suppressed proliferation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells (Lee et al., 2010), Ganodermanondiol potent down regulated the cell proliferation for B16F10 skin cancer cells . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cancer is a class of disorders that is characterized by the abnormal growth of cells in an uncontrolled manner. In cancer progression, tumor cells have become highly heterogeneous, and they create a mixed population of cells with different molecular characteristics. The mushroom bioactive compounds have a rich biological activity including immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory, etc. Besides, conventional anticancer drugs and applied therapy have tremendous challenges and limitations such as poor solubility, narrow therapeutic window, cytotoxicity to normal tissues, etc., which may be the causes of treatment failure in cancer. A previous study reported mushroom bioactive compounds against cancer treatment. The chapter focuses on mushroom-derived bioactive compounds and possible implications in nanotechnology and, further, will be utilized for new advanced nanoemulsion techniques for the promising treatment of cancer.
... In Chinese, "Lingzhi" is designated as G. lucidum or red "Lingzhi," whereas "Zizhi" as G. sinense or purple "Lingzhi." It is also known as "Reishi," "Munnertake," or "Sachitake" in Japan and "Youngzhi" in Korea (Bulam et al. 2019;Zeng et al. 2018;Zhang et al. 2019;Kumar and Yadav 2019). Ancient Chinese believed that it could cure various diseases and worshipped it as "Mushroom of Immortality," "Herb of spiritual potency," and "Celestial Herb" that symbolizes happiness, sanctity, success, goodness, and longevity (Lin 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Today mankind confronts a heap of challenges for survival due to the advent of health-related issues, drug resistances, and imbalances in the ecosystems. In the era of technology, man has perpetually been endeavoring to search for diverse biotic components that can potentially be addressing the complicated life troubling issues. In this context, the fungi in general and mushrooms in particular have played an indispensable role in protecting and curing various health problems. Macrofungi or mushrooms are contemplated as biological and genetic resources with high nutritional, medicinal, and biotechnological potential. The interest in mushrooms has cultivated momentously in the last few decades, being promoted by the discovery of a repertoire of chemically disparate biologically active compounds having biopharmaceutical applications arbitrated through defined mechanisms (anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative hepatoprotective, anti-viral, immunomodulating hypocholesterolemic, and anti-bacterial). The escalating knowledge about chemistry, biotechnology, and molecular biology of mushrooms as well as an improvement in screening methods has led to rapid surge in the application of mushrooms for medicinal purposes which in turn, have galvanized the development of several novel mycopharmaceuticals based on mushroom bioprospection. Taking into consideration the importance of mushrooms, this chapter aims to zero in on the nutritive value, functionalities of mushrooms, and potential applications in food industry.
... These compounds have anti-inflammatory, radical oxygen scavenging, immuneenhancing, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities (Boh et al. 2007;Jin et al. 2012;Russell and Paterson 2006;Sanodiya et al. 2009;Devi et al. 2020;Kour et al. 2019). Additionally, compounds also possess antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, and antihistaminic effects and antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and immunomodulatory activities (Bulam et al. 2019;Obodai et al. 2017;Rajoriya et al. 2015;Rawat et al. 2013). The presence of flavonoids and triterpenes in Ganoderma species has detoxification, anti-inflammatory, and curing activities for various cardiovascular diseases (Le Marchand 2002). ...
Chapter
Ganoderma species are some of the best known fungi due to their significant role as traditional medicine in numerous cultures, especially in Asia. Their medicinal significance has been verified by science, with novel compounds and applications continuing to be discovered. However, their utility for humans is not only limited to health and medicine. Due to their ecological roles as wood-decaying fungi and plant pathogens, additional uses exist in mycoremediation and agriculture, while the various ethnomycological roles they play provide further clues as to their potential in industry and allied sectors. Complementation with nanotechnology further provides novel opportunities. This chapter summarizes the potential of Ganoderma as exploited currently by humans and how species impact our daily lives, and also investigates novel applications and further opportunities. A staggering number of publications exist on Ganoderma species and this chapter is not at all meant to be exhaustive, but does aim to summarize as comprehensively as possible the diversity of uses these versatile fungi can provide.
... These mushroom species except for Ganoderma lucidum are commonly grown and consumed in Turkey (Pekşen and Akdeniz, 2012). G. lucidum is the most important medicinal mushroom species both in the world and in Turkey (Bulam et al., 2019). The sporocarps of wild edible (Boletus edulis, Craterellus cornucopioides, Lactarius deliciosus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Marasmius oreades, Morchella conica, Ramaria botrytis, Tricholoma terreum) and cultivated mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus-1, 2, 3 and 4) were collected from different locations of Turkey in spring and autumn of 2015-2016. ...
... In a recent study, Oluba [14] demonstrated that terpenoids extracted from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum exhibited antiplasmodial activity in P. berghei-infected mice via its antilipidemic action. In addition, several studies [15] have suggested that the immune-potentiating property of G. lucidum could be ascribed to its antioxidative and free radical-scavenging effects. Ganoderma terpenoid extract (GTE) has been shown to possess anti-oxidant properties [16]. ...
Article
Objective To understand the protective effects of Ganoderma terpenoid extract (GTE) against Plasmodium berghei-malarial infection in mice, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of GTE in combination with chloroquine disulphate (CQ) on erythrocyte-selected inflammatory markers and antioxidant defense status in P. berghei-infected mice. Methods P. berghei-infected mice were divided into six groups: infected control (IC) group, administered 1 mL Tween 20; GTE100 and GTE250 groups, administered 100 and 250 mg/kg GTE, respectively; GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups, co-administered 100 and 250 mg/kg GTE plus 30 mg/kg CQ, respectively; and CQ group, administered 30 mg/kg CQ. A separate group of non-infected mice were given 1 mL Tween 20, and served as a normal control group (NC). Extract and drug were dissolved in Tween 20 and administered orally once daily for 12 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, mice were anesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Plasma was prepared from blood obtained from each mouse. Parameters evaluated at the end of the treatment period include parasitemia, red blood cell count, hematocrit, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Results Infected mice treated with a combination of GTE and CQ (GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups) showed significantly reduced parasitemia levels (P < 0.05) compared to those administered GTE alone as well as IC. Significant improvement in body weight (P < 0.05) was also observed in infected mice treated with a combination of GTE and CQ (GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups), compared to mice receiving GTE alone (GTE100 and GTE250 groups). Plasma MDA and TNF-α concentrations were significantly lowered, and IL-10 concentration was significantly increased in GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups, relative to the IC group (P < 0.05). GSH concentration and SOD, CAT and GPx activities were significantly higher in GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups compared to the GTE100, GTE250, IC and NC groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Data generated in this study showed that GTE enhanced the anti-plasmodial action of CQ in mice through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.
... Because of ancient remedy and potential pharmacologically active compounds, it has drawn the interest of scientists and researchers toward different medicinal applications against numerous diseases Cai T et al., 2017;Ahmad, 2018;Sobowale et al., 2019). Several experiments have been done against various types of cancer such as prostate cancer (Zhao et al., 2018), lung cancer (Gill et al., 2017;Guo et al., 2018;Zolj et al., 2018), breast cancer (Chen and Seleen, 2007;Suarez-Arroyo et al., 2017;Zhang, 2017;Acevedo-Díaz et al., 2019), colon cancer (Thyagarajan et al., 2010;Zhu et al., 2018) and cervical cancer (XiaoPing et al., 2009) as well as other pharmacological actions such as immunomodulator (Ishimoto et al., 2017;Cor et al., 2018;Cör et al., 2018), antioxidant Krishna et al., 2016;Rahman and Abdullah, 2018), anti-inflammatory (Barbieri et al., 2017;Hu et al., 2020), hypoglycaemic (Gurovic et al., 2018), hypocholesterolemic (Rahman and Abdullah, 2018), antimicrobial (Geng et al., 2017;Sarnthima et al., 2017), cardioprotective (Lasukova et al., 2015;Zeng et al., 2018), hepatoprotective (Susilo et al., 2019), anti-HIV (Akbar and Yam, 2011), inhibition of hyperpigmentation (Kozarski et al., 2019), antiarthritic (Pan et al., 2017), antiandrogenic (Fujita et al., 2005), proapoptotic , antiallergic (Ji et al., 2007;Bulam et al., 2019), improve physical frailty (Zeng et al., 2019) and antinociceptive properties (Sheena et al., 2005b). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been broadly used for health endorsement as well as longevity for over 2000 years in Asian countries. It is an example of an ancient remedy and known as immortality mushroom. It has been employed as a health promoting agent owing to its broad pharmacological and therapeutical approaches. It has been confirmed that G. lucidum exhibits significant potency to prevent and treat different types of cancers such as breast, prostate, colon, lung and cervical. Aim of the study To explore anticancer effects of various pharmacologically active compounds obtained from G. lucidum and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Goggle Scholar, Saudi Digital Library and Cochrane Library until October 11, 2019. Search was made by using keywords such as anticancer evidence, mechanism of action, pharmacology, antioxidant, toxicity, chemotherapy, triterpenoids and polysaccharides of G. lucidum. Results Various chemical compounds from G. lucidum exhibit anticancer properties mainly through diverse mechanism such as cytotoxic properties, host immunomodulators, metabolizing enzymes induction, prohibit the expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in cancer cells. Among the various compounds of G. lucidum triterpenoids and polysaccharides are under the major consideration of studies due to their several evidence of preclinical and clinical studies against cancer. Conclusion Natural alternatives associated with mild side effects are the basic human need of present therapy to eradicate the new emerging disorders. This review is an attempt to compile pharmacologically active compounds of G. lucidum those exhibit anti cancer effects either alone or along with chemotherapy and anticancer mechanisms against various cancer cells, clinical trials, chemotherapy induced toxicity challenges with limitations. It acts as a possible substitute to combat cancer growth with advance and conventional combination therapies as natural alternatives.
Article
Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) main attractive pharmacological characteristics are antitumor and immunomodulatory activities which are chiefly associated with its two principal bioactive compounds, those are polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Ganoderic acids (GAs) are one of the most discovered triterpenoids of G. lucidum among various triterpenoids. The prominent medicinal mushroom G. lucidum possesses GAs as essential bioactive constituents that are highly oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids. GAs exhibit diverse potential action against numerous diseases such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, cardioprotective, antiallergic, antihepatotoxic, neuroprotective and antinociceptive properties. GAs act through different mechanisms that include cytotoxic, apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest, inhibition of topoisomerases, antiproliferation, anti-invasion, inhibition of NF-kB AP1/uPA, farnesyl protein transferase and JAK-STAT3 pathway. The miraculous effects of GAs fascinate the researchers for their production. Various environmental factors such as biochemical signals, nutritional and physical that influence the biosynthesis of GA. However, the scarcities of pure compounds or accurately characterized extracts are the main problem of clinical studies. Substantial steps are required for characterized extracts of active compounds. This review contributes a thorough insight into the mode of actions of GAs and their possible reinforcements to overcome various diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Ganoderma lucidum is a type of fungus which grows on dead and deciduous trees. Ganoderma lucidum has a vast history of utilization as a supplement for propelling life span and the advancement of a healthier life in Asian region i.e. in China, Japan and Korea. All Traditional Chinese Medicine specialists believe that Ganoderma lucidum is the most highlighted one amongst the most powerful available adaptogens. Adaptogens are the herbal supplements that have capability of developing the body's impenetrability to stress and offer some assistance with defeating all the troubles and difficulties which are against health and this process is done in the most rapid and fast fashion. Ganoderma products are widely spread in America in the latest couple of years, practically as they have been surely believed and utilized in traditional medicine system of China for an extensive period.
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and antimicrobial activities of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom collected in Oguzeli region (Gaziantep province, Turkey). Rel Assay Diagnostics kits were used to determine TAS, TOS and OSI levels. Antimicrobial activity was determined using 9 different bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) using modified agar dilution method. The study findings demonstrated that G. lucidum had high antioxidant potential. Antimicrobial activity of the mushroom was also found to be normal. Thus, the consumption of G. lucidum as a natural source of antioxidants and an antimicrobial resource could be suggested.
Article
Full-text available
Ganoderma is a significant source of natural fungal medicines and has been used for the treatment of various diseases for many years. However, the use of Ganoderma in cancer immunotherapy is poorly elucidated. In this study, we have analyzed 2,398 English-language papers and 6,968 Chinese-language papers published between 1987 and 2017 by using bibliometrics. A steady growth in the number of publications was observed before 2004, followed by an exponential increase between 2004 and 2017. The most common category for publications about Ganoderma was “Pharmacology & Pharmacy,” in which immunomodulation (25.60%) and cancer treatment (21.40%) were the most popular subcategories. Moreover, we have provided an overview of the bioactive components and combinatorial immunomodulatory effects for the use of Ganoderma in the treatment of cancer, including the major pathways of immune cells. Immunomodulatory protein and polysaccharides are the key bioactive factors responsible for cancer immunotherapy, and the NF-κB and MAPK pathways are the most comprehensively investigated major pathways. Our results indicate that Ganoderma has a broad-spectrum application for the treatment of cancer through the regulation of the immune system. This review provides guidance for future research into the role of Ganoderma in cancer immunotherapy.
Article
Full-text available
Among many traditional medicines, Ganoderma has been used in Asian countries for over two millennia as a traditional medicine for maintaining vivacity and longevity. Research on various metabolic activities of Ganoderma have been performed both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, it is debatable whether Ganoderma is a food supplement for health maintenance or a therapeutic “drug” for medical purposes. Over the past two decades, the Ganoderma industry has developed greatly and today offers thousands of products to the markets. Despite the large market, there are problems with the industry which prevent it from establishing an effective market. This paper describes the current status of the world Ganoderma cultivation, products, industry and provides suggestions for facilitating further research
Article
Full-text available
Inhabitants of the Kendeng mountain region depend on the biodiversity of the forest resources for their livelihood. Mushrooms are important resource that provide benefits to mankind. The aim on this research was to document traditional knowledge in bracket fungi utilization to treat health problems in Baduy tribe community. The results described in this paper were obtained through the exploration and identification of bracket fungi as well as the interview to determine their cultural significance for Baduy people. Quantitative approaches were used to determine the Use Values (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values. A total of 6 species that were identified as bracket fungi were included to Basidiomycota. The Baduy community considers the main use of bracket fungi as a medicine for several ailments. The highest UV, ICF and FL value were obtained by Ganoderma lucidum. This study provides the information regarding bracket fungi species with the high use values that could be employed in pharmacological research and further biotechnological approaches in order to achieve an adequate revenue.
Article
Full-text available
Species of Ganoderma, commonly called reishi (in Japan) or lingzhi (in China), have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, and their use has gained interest from pharmaceutical industries in recent years. Globally, the taxonomy of Ganoderma species is chaotic, and the taxon name Ganoderma lucidum has been used for most laccate (shiny) Ganoderma species. However, it is now known that G. lucidum sensu stricto has a limited native distribution in Europe and some parts of China. It is likely that differences in the quality and quantity of medicinally relevant chemicals occur among Ganoderma species. To determine what species are being sold in commercially available products, twenty manufactured products (e.g., pills, tablets, teas, etc.) and seventeen grow your own (GYO) kits labeled as containing G. lucidum were analyzed. DNA was extracted, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1α) were sequenced with specific fungal primers. The majority (93%) of the manufactured reishi products and almost half of the GYO kits were identified as Ganoderma lingzhi. G. lingzhi is native to Asia and is the most widely cultivated and studied taxon for medicinal use. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region was performed to determine if multiple Ganoderma species were present. None of the manufactured products tested contained G. lucidum sensu stricto, and it was detected in only one GYO kit. G. lingzhi was detected in most products, but other Ganoderma species were also present, including G. applanatum, G. australe, G. gibbosum, G. sessile, and G. sinense. Our results indicate that the content of these products vary and that better labeling is needed to inform consumers before these products are ingested or marketed as medicine. Of the 17 GYO kits tested, 11 kits contained Ganoderma taxa that are not native to the United States. If fruiting bodies of exotic Ganoderma taxa are cultivated, these GYO kits will likely end up in the environment. The effects of these exotic species to natural ecosystems needs investigation.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed determining the contents of soluble protein, free amino acid, phenolic, flavonoid, soluble carbohydrate, sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and elements in selected wild growing and cultivated mushroom species collected from various locations of Turkey. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for the contents of total free amino acid, soluble protein, phenolic, flavonoid, soluble carbohydrate and sugars. The total free amino acid, soluble protein, phenolic, flavonoid and soluble carbohydrate contents of mushrooms ranged from 33.57–126.57 mg g–1, 2.77–7.55 mg g–1, 28.68–157.39 mg g–1, 8.55– 30.66 mg g–1 and 59.89–343.55 mg g–1, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that mushrooms contained significant amounts of potassium (1345.07–9310.17 mg kg–1), phosphorus (1462.44–6159.45 mg kg–1), calcium (18.78–349.15 mg kg–1), sulphur (952.41–12486.63 mg kg–1), iron (80.62–606.26 mg kg–1), manganese (22.65–147.57 mg kg–1), zinc (103.26–522.81 mg kg–1) and selenium (0–115.40 mg kg–1). Nutritient composition varied with mushroom species. The means of total soluble protein, total phenolic, total flavonoid, potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, sodium, iron, calcium, manganese, selenium, zinc and copper contents in wild growing mushrooms were found higher than cultivated mushrooms.
Article
Background The global interest in edible medicinal herbs for healthcare has significantly increased during the last few years.Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom which is known to be a potential source of many therapeutic and pharmaceutical products with significant health importance. Methodology The available literature using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar database was thoroughly reviewed using the keywords Natural Products, Ganoderma, secondary metabolites and therapeutics. This narrative review of all the relevant papers with significant citations leads the authors to greater insight into the potential therapeutic significance of Ganoderma lucidum. Results The presence of a wide array of secondary metabolites in this herb contributes to its pharmaceutical uses.G. lucidum is rich in polysaccharides (β-glucan,mannitol), alkaloids, and a group oftriterpenes (ganoderic acid). Many cellular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the mode of action of its active metabolites and their healthcare attributes including anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant and protective effects on liver and other secondary lymphoid organs. Conclusion This review illustrates the broad spectrum therapeutic potential of secondary metabolites derived fromGanoderma and supports our understanding of the main pharmacologically active compounds present in this fungus. Insight into the actions of its secondary metabolites could further pave a way for establishing G. lucidum, as a pharmacologically important product.
Article
In this study antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.) P. Karst. were analyzed. Significant antioxidant activity on inhibition of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was observed when compared to standard antioxidant like L-ascorbic acid. IC50 value of the extract was 2.25 mg/mL. Total phenolics, flavones and ascorbic acid levels were estimated following standard techniques. The results showed that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum possessed remarkable amount of antioxidant compounds and also good free radical scavenging effects against different free radicals. The study also revealed that Ganoderma lucidum compounds can be used as better antioxidant supplement of nutrients.
Article
Ganoderma, has been used for clinical applications for thousands of years as a highly-nutritious and significantly-effective medicinal herb. The active components and efficacy of Ganoderma are constantly being explored and supplemented every year. In recent years, more and more literature has reported the pharmacological effects of Ganoderma on anti-tumor, liver protection and immunity enhancement, especially on neuroprotection. Numerous research works on the neuroprotective effects of Ganoderma have been documented (e.g., modulation of neurogenesis, amelioration of Alzheimer's disease, therapeutic effect on epilepsy, the protective effect on neural cells in stroke injury, etc.) thus it has drawn increasing attention. However, an integrated and comprehensive review of recent research findings has not been detailed in any great depth. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize and elucidate recent progress of neuroprotective effects of natural Ganoderma and its extracts.