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Neotype designation for Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, with notes on previous interpretations of the species

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Abstract

Taxonomic assessment of the South Iberian populations of the genus Heterogynis RAMBUR, 1837 is impossible without correct identification of Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, whose name is currently regarded as a nomen dubium because its type, a single male specimen, is lost and its original description is insufficient to unequivocally recognise the species. As the species is undoubtedly valid, we here designate a neotype for it and diagnose and illustrate it so as to fix its identity beyond doubt. The taxonomic history of the species is also reviewed Resumen La asignación taxonómica de las poblaciones del género Heterogynis RAMBUR, 1837 del sur de la pen-ínsula ibérica no resulta posible sin la correcta identificación de Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, cuyo nombre actualmente se considera nomen dubium. El ejemplar tipo, un macho, se ha perdido y la descripción original es insuficiente para reconocer inequivocamente la especie. Dado que se trata de una especie indudablemente válida, se designa un neotipo, se describen sus caracteres diferenciadores y se ilustra para establecer con claridad su identidad. Además, se analiza la historia taxonómica de la especie.
Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ges. 109 (2019) 65
Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ges.
109
65-70
München, 1.11.2019
ISSN 0340-4943
Neotype designation for Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837,
with notes on previous interpretations of the species
(Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae)1
Josef J. DE FREINA & Yeray MONASTERIO LEÓN
Abstract
Taxonomic assessment of the South Iberian populations of the genus Heterogynis RAMBUR, 1837 is im-
possible without correct identification of Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, whose name is currently
regarded as a nomen dubium because its type, a single male specimen, is lost and its original description is
insufficient to unequivocally recognise the species. As the species is undoubtedly valid, we here designate
a neotype for it and diagnose and illustrate it so as to fix its identity beyond doubt. The taxonomic history
of the species is also reviewed
Resumen
La asignación taxonómica de las poblaciones del género Heterogynis RAMBUR, 1837 del sur de la pen-
ínsula ibérica no resulta posible sin la correcta identificación de Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, cuyo
nombre actualmente se considera nomen dubium. El ejemplar tipo, un macho, se ha perdido y la
descripción original es insuficiente para reconocer inequivocamente la especie. Dado que se trata de una
especie indudablemente válida, se designa un neotipo, se describen sus caracteres diferenciadores y se
ilustra para establecer con claridad su identidad. Además, se analiza la historia taxonómica de la especie.
Introduction
The taxonomy of Heterogynis RAMBUR, 1837 in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula is still unsatis-
factory. The assignment of populations in this region to species is currently impossible in want of knowing
the proper identity of Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, which has long been incorrectly treated in the
literature. The designation of a neotype for its name is therefore essential. The species was described from
a single male from the Sierra de Antequera in the province of Málaga, and the type specimen is considered
lost (ZILLI & RACHELI 1989). Incidentally, the same applies to the type material of Heterogynis paradoxa
RAMBUR, which was described by RAMBUR (1837) in the same publication. The species of Heterogynis are
largely similar in habitus and mostly difficult to distinguish, and, in contrast to the characteristic H. para-
doxa, H. affinis cannot be identified from the original illustration (RAMBUR, 1837, Plate 14, Fig. 9), assum-
ing that this depicts the type specimen. The figure is not diagnostic and shows features that also apply to
some other Heterogynis species, such as H. penella (HÜBNER, 1819) and H. canalensis CHAPMAN, 1904.
However, H. penella and H. canalensis have not been recorded from Andalusia, and recent collections
show that both are not common in the southern regions of the Iberian Peninsula (DE FREINA 2014a,
2014b).
Abbreviations
CdFM Collection DE FREINA, Munich
GP Genital preparation
MWM Lepidopterlogical Museum WITT, Munich
ZSM Zoologische Staatssammlung München (Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich).
____________________________
1 Studies on the family Heterogynidae — Studien zur Familie Heterogynidae — Estudios de la familia
Heterogynidae, no. 15.
66 Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ges. 109 (2019)
History of taxonomic treatments of H. affinis
Heterogynis is known to be a highly variable genus, even at the interpopular level. RAMBUR'S description
of H. affinis (1837) provides no useful clues to its identity except for a reference to longer antennal rami,
and consequently it was interpreted in different ways by later authors.
The following treatments exist in the literature:
BOISDUVAL (1840) as distinct species
DUPONCHEL ([1845]) as distinct species
HEYDENREICH (1851) as distinct species
BRUAND (1853) as H. affiniella (an unjustified emendation), accompanied by a redescription and
illustration and an incorrect record of it occurring in France
WALKER (1854) as distinct species
STAUDINGER (1861) as distinct species
RAMBUR (1866) as cf. H. penella
STAUDINGER (1871) as synonym of H. penella
KIRBY (1892) as distinct species
STAUDINGER & REBEL (1901) as synonym of H. penella
CHAPMAN (1902) confused with H. hispana RAMBUR, 1837, described from the surroundings of
Barcelona
SEITZ (1912) as a form of H. canalensis CHAPMAN, 1904 (thus of infrasubspecific status)
ROTHSCHILD (1917) as distinct species, with H. canalensis as synonym
STRAND (1923) as an infrasubspecific variety of H. penella
AGENJO (1968) as distinct species
GÓMEZ BUSTILLO (1980) as synonym of H. penella
GÓMEZ BUSTILLO & ARROYO VARELA (1981) as synonym of H. penella
ZILLI & RACHELI (1989) review of taxonomic history without determination of status
DE FREINA & WITT (1990) not mentioned
KARSHOLT (1996) not mentioned
LERAUT (2006) not mentioned
DE FREINA (2014) as distinct species, illustration of two males and one female cocoon (but mis-
determined) (Figs. 19, 20, 26), with note on surmised distribution
DE FREINA (2015) as valid species, illustration of two males (Figs. 13, 14) and comparison
with other Heterogynis species.
The proper identity of H. affinis remained unresolved as no Andalusian specimens of Heterogynis were
available for study until a few years ago, except of the well-known H. andalusica DANIEL, 1966. Recently
collected specimens not representing H. andalusica now allow a more accurate assessment of the morpho-
logical differences between, and thus the delimitation of, the different species occurring in the region.
However, the status of the South Iberian populations remains problematic, especially since the discovery
of several populations in the area, but it is becoming increasingly evident that the populations of the Al-
garve and western Andalusia are not conspecific with those of eastern Andalusia (of the provinces laga
and Granada). This is not surprising given the low vagility of the males and the winglessness of the females.
Neotype designation and revision of type locality for H. affinis RAMBUR, 1837 (Figs. 1 )
The designation of a neotype and revision of the type locality of H. affinis is made in accordance with
Articles 75 and 76 of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (KRAUS, 2000) and meets all con-
ditions of these articles. As no specimens from RAMBURS original type locality (Sierra de Antequera)
exist in collections and as attempts by the second author to find additional specimens there were un-
successful, we here select a male from the nearby Sierra de Mijas (Province Malaga, 640 m, 15.IV.2019,
leg. Roberto GONELLA) that agrees well in habitus and coloration with the male illustrated by RAMBUR
(1837) as neotype for H. affinis. It is labelled as follows “Neotypus Heterogyns affinis RAMBUR, 1837, des.
by DE FREINA & MONASTERIO LEÓN 2019” and “DNA-tissues control number Rvcoll19D206, Instituto de
Biología Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Barcelona; and deposited in the Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen
Staates, München (Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich).
Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ges. 109 (2019) 67
Diagnosis of H. affinis (Figs 2‒13).
Heterogynis affinis belongs to the nominate subgenus and in the H. penella species group, whose most
striking feature is the form of male antennae, which are shorter than those of the other Iberian species of
the subgenus and have longer proximal rami but the distal rami generally shortened to the tip of the
antenna (see BRUAND 1853, ZILLI & RACHELI 1989). In H. affinis there is no colour difference between the
fore and hind wings, as typical in H. canalensis (fig. 11). The male genitalia, as typical for the H. penella
group, are oval, squat, not more slender than those of H. canalensis or H. paradoxa. The bipartite uncus is
short, strongly sclerotized and hardly curved, the subscaphium is oblong and the spicules of the vesica are
less strongly sclerotized, very fine and only dense proximally. The valves are short and stocky, and the
sclerotization of the abdominal segments is very similar to that of H. chapmani DE FREINA, 2014 from
Central Spain. In size the males from the Málaga/Granada region are somewhat smaller than those from
elsewhere, but due to intrapopulation differences and the small number of specimens known, size carries
no taxonomic significance. Diagnostic features of the preimaginal stages and life history will be outlined
in a future publication, after evaluation of molecular biological studies.
Acknowledgments
We sincerely thank Roberto GONELLA (Torremolinos, Malaga), for donating the neotype specimen, Iñigo
SÁNCHEZ (ZooBotánico de Jeréz, Jeréz de la Frontera) for making material available for DNA analysis (in
preparation), José Manuel AMARILLO (Sociedad Gaditana de Historia Natural, Jeréz de la Frontera),
Mariano CUADRADO (Departamento Técnico, Zoobotanico, Jeréz de la Frontera) and Martin AMMAN
(Garching/Munich) for support to the first author during field work in the Montes de Propios (Province
Cadiz), Ruth ESCOBÉS JIMÉNEZ for her search for specimens from different parts of Andalucía and Al-
garve, Martin CORLEY (Faringdon, Oxfordshire) for providing information and photos and especially Rolf
OBERPRIELER (CSIRO, Canberra) for linguistic improvements of the manuscript.
Zusammenfassung
Korrekte Diagnosen für südiberische Populationen der Gattung Heterogynis RAMBUR, 1837 sind derzeit
nicht möglich ohne eine genaue Bestimmung der Art Heterogynis affinis RAMBUR, 1837, deren Name als
nomen dubium geführt wird, da ihr einziger Typus, ein Männchen, verschollen und die ursprüngliche
Beschreibung mehrdeutig ist. Da die Art jedoch unzweifelhaft berechtigt ist, legen wir ihre Identität durch
die Bestimmung eines Neotypus fest, ergänzt durch eine Diagnose mit Abbildungen. Zusätzlich werden
Taxonomie und Merkmale von H. affinis besprochen und frühere Bewertungen chronologisch gelistet.
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Fig 1: Heterogynis affinis Neotype ♂: Spain, Province Málaga, sierra de Mijas, 640 m, 15.IV.2019, leg. R. GONELLA
(in ZSM).
Fig 2: Heterogynis ?affinis ♂: Spain, Province Cádiz, Montes de Propios, Natural Park Los Alcornocales, T. M. Jerez
de la Frontera, 342 m, 10.VI.2018 (Foto J. M. AMARILLO).
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Addresses of the authors
Josef J. DE FREINA
Eduard Schmid-Str. 10
D-81541 Munich, Germany
defreina.j@online.de
Yeray MONASTERIO LEÓN
www.asociacion-zerynthia.org
Madre de Dios, n°14-7°D
E-26004 Logroño, Spain
zerynthia.org@gmail.com
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Details on the biology, distribution and classification of the complex of H. paradoxa Rambur, 1837 are presented. Recent field observations as well as rearings revealed supplementary information on Preimaginal instars, cocoon characters, habitat preference and foodplants. An account of the poorly known life cycle of the complex of H. paradoxa is given; larva, hibernaculum, cocoons of both genders, male antennal structure, larval host plants and characteristic habitats of its infraspecific taxa are illustrated. The paradoxa-complex is recognized as a group of localised populations in isolated colonies, which are in the process of speciation. They are ecologically well-adapted and do not move far from their natural habitat. It is restricted to Cantabria, the western half and centre of the Iberian peninsula, northern Portugal and Andalusia. A critical evaluation of reliable characters in the imagines of H. paradoxa and their biology revealed two apparently distinct subspecies: H. paradoxa paradoxa (a neotype ♂ is designated from Spain, Sierra Nevada, Pto. del Lobo, deposited in ZSM), and H. paradoxa bejarensis Chapman, 1902 stat. rev. from Central Spain. Both are shown to be geographically and thus reproductively isolated from each other. Another remarkable heterogeneity was found between H. paradoxa and populations of the Cantabrian mountain range. The morphological differences between these populations and the known samples of the complex of H. paradoxa as well as its ecological adaptation are interpreted as characterising a distinct species, herein described as H. yerayi sp. n. (holotype ♂ via CdFM in coll. Museum Witt, München, and eventually in ZSM). The relationship of H. jellaba de Freina, 2003 and H. rifensis de Freina, 2003 to the paradoxa-group is discussed. The taxon H. penella ucedinis Chapman, 1907 is shown to be a nomen dubium.
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Catálogo ordenador de los lepidópteros de España. Heterogynidae (nueva edición)
  • R Agenjo
AGENJO, R. [1966]: Catálogo ordenador de los lepidópteros de España. Heterogynidae (nueva edición). -Graellsia 20 (1964): [1] p. [unpaginated].
1852"): Essai monographique sur la tribu des Psychides. -Memoires de la Societe d'Emulation du Doubs
  • J A Boisduval
  • Paris
  • C T Bruand D'uzelle
BOISDUVAL, J. A. 1840: Genera et index methodicus europaeorum Lepidopterorum 7, 238 pp., Paris. BRUAND D'UZELLE, C. T. 1850-1853 ("1852"): Essai monographique sur la tribu des Psychides. -Memoires de la Societe d'Emulation du Doubs, Besancon, (2) 1 (1850): 23-28, (2) 3 ("1852"): 17-127, Taf. 1-3.
Biologie und geograpische Verbreitung von Heterogynis canalensis CHAPMAN, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae). -Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, Frankfurt am Main
  • J J De Freina
DE FREINA, J. J. 2014b: Neues und Ergänzendes über Systematik, Biologie und geograpische Verbreitung von Heterogynis canalensis CHAPMAN, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae). -Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, Frankfurt am Main, N. F., 35 (3): 97-107.
Die Artengruppe von Heterogynis penella (HÜBNER, [1819]) auf der Iberischen Halbinsel, mit Beschreibung der zentralspanischen Heterogynis chapmani sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae). -Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo
  • J J De Freina
DE FREINA, J. J. 2014a: Die Artengruppe von Heterogynis penella (HÜBNER, [1819]) auf der Iberischen Halbinsel, mit Beschreibung der zentralspanischen Heterogynis chapmani sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae). -Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, Frankfurt am Main, N. F., 34 (4): 185-194.
Revisión de la familia Heterogynidae (KIRBY, 1892) en la peninsula iberica (Lep., Zygaenoidea)
  • P A J Duponchel
  • Paris
  • Gomez
  • M R Bustillo
DUPONCHEL, P. A. J. [1845]: Catalogue méthodique des Lépidoptères d´Europe xxx + 523 pp., Paris. GOMEZ BUSTILLO, M. R. 1980: Revisión de la familia Heterogynidae (KIRBY, 1892) en la peninsula iberica (Lep., Zygaenoidea). -SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología, Madrid, 8: 232-236.
  • E E Maravalhas
MARABUTO, E. & E. MARAVALHAS 2008: Contribuicao para o conhecimento dos Lepidopteros do Sitio Natura-2000 "Montesinho-Nogueira", Tras-os-Montes, Portugal (Insecta, Lepidoptera). -Boletin Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, Lisboa, 43: 145-151.
On Heterogynis paradoxa RMBR., an instance of variation by segregation
  • T A Chapman
CHAPMAN, T. A. 1902: On Heterogynis paradoxa RMBR., an instance of variation by segregation. -Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1902: 717-729, Taf. 28.