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التحكيم الديني و أثره في التعايش المجتمعي- دراسة تحليلية-

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Abstract

يسلط هذا البحث الضوء على موضوع حيوي بالنسبة للشعوب المتسمة بحالة التعدد الثقافي. حيث تجد العديد من أتباع الديانات يعيشون حالة من الإزدواجية بين القواعد القانونية من جانب والقواعد الدينية من جانب آخر. وهي ما تؤدي بالنتيجة إلى ظهور إشكالات قانونية- دينية والتي تؤثر على الحالة المجتمعية للأفراد أيضا. فقد تجد شخصا حسم نزاعه أمام محاكم الدولة، غير أنه يواجه من الناحية الدينية بما يقضي بوقوعه في الحرام بسبب عدم توفر الشروط الدينية لتلك الحالة. عليه فإن البحث يهدف من خلال هذا الموضوع إلى إيجاد حلول توفيقية تؤدي إلى التخلص من هذه الإزدواجية، من خلال تبني آليات التحكيم الديني في حسم المنازعات القانونية. وبيان موقف القانون العراقي والقوانين المقارنة من التحكيم الديني إستنادا إلى قواعد القانون الخاص. ويهدف البحث أيضا إلى إثبات فرضية وجود آثار إيجابية كثيرة لتطبيق فكرة التحكيم الديني على متطلبات التعايش المجتمعي. ويحاول هذا البحث اتباع المنهج التحليلي عند دراسة هذا الموضوع من خلال طرح الأفكار، و تحليل الآراء والإتجاهات الواردة في هذا المجال، وبيان موقف القوانين المقارنة، وتحليل النصوص والنظريات القانونية أو الفقهية الواردة في هذا الصدد، وفق خطة تضم المقدمة، و أربع نقاط رئيسية، و تنتهي بالخاتمة والإستنتاجات. الكلمات المفتاحية: التحكيم الديني، التعايش المجتمعي، المنازعات، القانون، التعددية
 6
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Vol.23, No.6, 2019


ID No. 2984
(PP 78 - 99)
https://doi.org/10.21271/zjhs.23.6.5


Sherzad.sulaiman@su.edu.krd
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1609
0512
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 
 6
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 




 
 

 





 


(Walter, 2012, p. 6)(Wolfe, 2006, pp. 427-428) 



 (Baker, 2012, p. 158) 

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 


 (Helfand, 2011, p. 1243) (Helfand, 2011, p.
1243)
  

       
(Dasteel, 2016, p. 47)

(Dasteel, 2016, p. 47)  (Dasteel, 2016, p. 47)               


  Beth Din peacemaker ministries
   



 6
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Federal Arbitration Act, FAAUniform Arbitration Act, UAA lobbying

(Harding., 1998)
  Arbitral Awards (Helfand, 2011, p. 1257)
 Fedral Arbitration Act       Establishment Clouse   
  Supreme Court

(Sizemore, 2011, p. 1091)The US
Supreme Court
Lemon Test 
(Lemon v. Kurtzman , 1977)


 (Walter, 2012, p. 242) 


Islamic Institute of Civil JusticeOntario
      



      (Shachar, 2008, p. 588)(Walter, 2012, p. 538)
(WOEHRLING, ROSALIE JUKIER and JOSÉ , 2010, p. 176) “Boyd Report,”Marion BoydMarion Boyd

 6
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 
(Boyd, 2004)


(Walter,
2012, p. 540)(Walter, 2012, p. 540)

                  
(WOEHRLING, ROSALIE JUKIER and JOSÉ , 2010, p. 177)

(WOEHRLING, ROSALIE JUKIER and JOSÉ
, 2010, p. 177)



Quebec Civil Code

Assemblee Nationale of Quebec 
(Walter, 2012, p. 542)

(Walter, 2012, p. 542)



  
 )
        
        :   .  . 
 6
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Vol.23, No.6, 2019
 .     :     
        



 .(( 
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    
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Vol.23, No.6, 2019




 (Walter, 2012, pp. 513-514)


Beth din

(Bakht, 2004, p. 1)
 (Walter, 2012, pp. 513-514)(Bakht, 2004, p. 1) The Rabbinical Council of America RCA)(Wolfe, 2006, p. 438) Rabbi (Bakht, 2004, p. 1)
 
  (Wolfe, 2006, p. 438)
 v. Avitzur Avitzur Ketubah(Walter, 2012, p. 537) 

  (Avitzur v. Avitzur, 1983)  
 
(Avitzur v. Avitzur, 1983)      The New York Court of
Appeals 
(Domestic Relations Law 253)
 6
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 (Choksi, 2012, p. 812)

 (Peacemaker Ministries
 (Peacemaker, n.d., p. 2) 
  
Med-Arb

(Peacemaker, n.d., p. 8)

 (Wolfe,
2006, p. 440)

Prescott v. Northlake Christian School 


  Montana Law
    

 (Prescott v. Northlake Christian School, 2004)Encore Productions, Inc. v. Promise Keepers

neutral
principles of law  (Encore Productions, Inc. v.
Promise Keepers, 1999)neutral principles





(Encore Productions, Inc. v. Promise
Keepers, 1999)

 6
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Vol.23, No.6, 2019
    (Wolfe, 2006, p. 441)2010  
     
    
         
   
2010

 Oklahoma Preliminary Injunction(Walter, 2012, p. 517)) Qaddura Jabri v.  (Jabri v.
Qaddura, 2003) 
(Jabri v.
Qaddura, 2003)
Minnesota Appellate courtAbd Alla V. Morssi     (Abd Alla v. Mourssi, 2004). 

(Abd Alla v. Mourssi, 2004)
   (Sizemore, 2011, p. 1091)New Jersey Court    
 6
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 (Odatalla v.
Odatalla, 2002)
   
(Odatalla v. Odatalla, 2002) 
United States
Supreme Court(Jones v. Wolf, 1979)

   
New York Court of Appeal (Sizemore, 2011, p. 1092)(Aziz v. Aziz, 1985)  
 
(Walter, 2012)
Public Policy



  (Sizemore, 2011, p. 1087)   Oklahoma
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 6
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(Michael J. Broyde, Ira
Bedzow, & Shlomo C. Pill , 2014, pp. 34-75)
 Muslim Arbitration TribunalMAT 
(Choksi,
2012)

 (Arbitration Act, 1996)    Halpern v. Halpern 
(Halpern v. Halpern, 2007)  (Choksi, 2012, pp. 816-818)


(Anon., 2019)            Archbishop of
Canterbury  (Choksi, 2012, pp. 816-818) 

(Choksi, 2012, pp. 816-818)

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(Shachar,
2005, p. 86) 
 

 2016
 
2016
              jurisdictional
differentiation(Helfand, 2011, p. 1235)   (Shachar, 2005, p. 86) 


              
(Shachar, 2005, p. 86)


(Lerner,
2011, p. 832)


 (Lerner, 2011, p. 832)
    
 


 6
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) 
. new multiculturalism



Autonomy and Self-Governance(Helfand, 2011, p. 1274)

 

 (Shachar, 2005)




(Lerner, 2011, pp. 834-835)(BAKER, 1994, p. 17)   1992


              



Egalitarian Libralism Politics of RecognitionCharles
Taylor(Taylor, 1994. ) 

Equalization of rights and entitlements

(Taylor, 1994. , pp. 37-
39)Egalitarian LibralismBarry(Taylor,
2006)
 6
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Vol.23, No.6, 2019

 
 
(Taylor, 2006)





(Taylor, 1994. , pp. 42-43)
(Taylor, 2006)
        
   
Halakha (Wolfe, 2006, p. 445) Beth DinSeruvHalakha 
(Wolfe, 2006,
p. 427)



(Peacemaker, n.d., p. 8)
2010
   
 
      (Taylor, 2006)
(Helfand, 2011, p. 1270)  (Aziz v. Aziz, 1985)
 6
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
 
(Walter, 2012) 


(Wolfe, 2006, p.
442)

 



 (Gedicks, 2010, p. 54)
              
 

                  (Broyde, 2017, p. 269) 
   
 
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 (Broyde, 2017, p. 242)  (Wolfe, 2006, p. 455) 
               
 (Broyde, 2017, p. 269)



(Broyde, 2017, p. 265) (Taylor, 2006, pp. 1-2)(Lerner, 2011, pp.
834-838). (Lerner, 2011, pp. 834-838) (Lerner, 2011, p. 838) 

 (Gedicks, 2010, pp. 51-54)(Brougher, 2011, pp. 2-3) 

(Wolfe, 2006, p. 428)

(Taylor, 2006, p. 22) A right of exit
(Taylor, 2006, p. 22) 
 (Taylor, 2006, p. 22)
 Denise Reaume
(Taylor, 2006, p. 24)
 6
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Vol.23, No.6, 2019
   Shachar             




(Shachar, 2008, pp. 600-603)(Aslam, 2006, pp. 841-842)Shachar



     

 (Shachar, 2008,
pp. 594-597)

 
 

 
 


   
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 6
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 (Helfand, 2011)
(Wolfe,
2006, p. 441) 
(Broyde, 2017, p. 242)

a gunah
problem(Broyde, 2017, p. 242)get  get

  (Broyde, 2017, pp. 249-254) 
(Shachar, 2008, p. 586)    (Broyde, 2017, p. 242) (Helfand, 2011, p. 1281)




  

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 6
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 
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 6
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24- Jukier, Rosalie and Woehrling, Jose .(2010). Religion and the Secular State in Canada. RELIGION AND THE SECULAR STATE:
NATIONAL REPORTS, Javier Martinez-Torron & W. Cole Durham, eds., International Center for Law and Religious Studies : Pp. 183-
212. Available Online At: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2002271 (Last Visited: 19/1/2018)






   
  





- Civil Code Québec (1991).
1- Arbitration Act (1996) , c. 23, § 1(a)(b) (U.K.) (restating and improving the laws pursuant to an arbitration agreement).
1- The Federal Arbitration Act (USA) Title 9, US Code, Section 1-14, was first enacted February 12, (1925) (43 Stat. 883), codified July
30, 1947 (61 Stat. 669), and amended September 3, 1954 (68 Stat. 1233). Chapter 2 was added July 31, 1970 (84 Stat. 692), two new
Sections were passed by the Congress in October of 1988 and renumbered on December 1, 1990 (PLs 669 and 702); Chapter 3 was
added on August 15, 1990 (PL 101-369); and Section 10 was amended on November 15.
- Abd Alla v. Mourssi (2004) 680 N.W.2d 569 (Minn. Ct. App. 2004)..
- Avitzur v. Avitzur (1983) 58 N.Y.2d 108; 445 N.E.2d 136; 459 N.Y.S.2d 572.
- Aziz v. Aziz (1985) 127 Misc. 2d 1013 - NY: Supreme Court, Queens.
- Halpern v. Halpern (2007) [2007] EWCA (Civ) 291, [37] (Eng.)..
- Jabri v. Qaddura (2003) 108 S.W.3d 404 ( Tex. App.2003 ).
- Jones v. Wolf (1979) 443 U.S. 595.
- Lemon v. Kurtzman (1977) 403 U.S. 602, 612-13.
- Odatalla v. Odatalla (2002) 355 N.J. Super. 305, 311-14 (Ch. Div. 2002).
- Prescott v. Northlake Christian School United States District Court (2004), E.D. Louisiana Oct 29, 2004 Civil Action No: 01-475,
Section: "J" (2). (E.D. La. Oct. 29, 2004).
 6
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

 -  

                       

Religious Arbitration and its Impact on Community Coexistence
- An Analytical Study -
Sherzad Azeez Sulaiman
College of Islamic Sciences - Department of Sharia / Salahaddin University-Erbil
Abstract
This research highlights a vital subject for the people in a multicultural society; you may find the
followers of religions in a state of duplication between the legal rules on the one hand and religious norms on the
other. Which in consequence leads to the emergence of legal-religious problems that affect the social situation of
individuals as well, you may find someone resolved his conflict in the secular courts of the State, but he faces the
religious aspect of the incidence of sin (haraam or gunah) within his religious community because of the lack of
religious conditions for that situation. Therefore, the research aims at: finding compromises that lead to the
elimination of this duplication through the adoption of mechanisms of religious arbitration in resolving legal
disputes, and the statement of the position of Iraqi law and comparative laws of religious arbitration based on the
rules of private law. As well as clarifying the positive effects of applying the idea of religious arbitration upon
the communal coexistence.
Keywords: Religious Arbitration, Community Coexistence, Conflicts, Law, Diversity.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
In Canada, much media attention has recently been focused on the formation of arbitration tribunals that would use Islamic law or Sharia to settle civil matters in Ontario. In fact, the idea of private parties voluntarily agreeing to arbitration using religious principles or a foreign legal system is not new. Ontario's Arbitration Act has allowed parties to resolve disputes outside the traditional court system for some time. This issue has been complicated by the fact that Canada has a commitment to upholding both a policy of multiculturalism and an international obligation towards women's rights. Although these values need not necessarily conflict, in this context, they have carried a tension that must be reconciled. This paper will examine the legal implications of faith-based arbitration tribunals in family law, with a particular emphasis on the impact that Sharia could have on Muslim women in Ontario.
Book
This book explores the rise of private arbitration in religious and other values-oriented communities, and it argues that secular societies should use secular legal frameworks to facilitate, enforce, and also regulate religious arbitration. It covers the history of religious arbitration; the kinds of faith-based dispute resolution models currently in use; how the law should perceive them; and what the role of religious arbitration in the United States and the western world should be. Part One examines why religious individuals and communities are increasingly turning to private faith-based dispute resolution to arbitrate their litigious disputes. It focuses on why religious communities feel disenfranchised from secular law, and particularly secular family law. Part Two looks at why American law is so comfortable with faith-based arbitration, given its penchant for enabling parties to order their relationships and resolve their disputes using norms and values that are often different from and sometimes opposed to secular standards. Part Three weighs the proper procedural, jurisdictional, and contractual limits of arbitration generally, and of religious arbitration particularly. It identifies and explains the reasonable limitations on religious arbitration. Part Four examines whether secular societies should facilitate effective, legally enforceable religious dispute resolution, and it argues that religious arbitration is not only good for the religious community itself, but that having many different avenues for faith-based arbitration which are properly limited is good for any vibrant pluralistic democracy inhabited by diverse faith groups.
Article
I. Introduction II. Doctor’s Associates, Inc. v. Casarotto ... A. The Facts ... B. Montana Uniform Arbitration Act ... C. Casarotto v. Lombardi (Casarotto I)—Judicial Hostility to Arbitration Revisited ... 1. The Majority Opinion ... 2. Justice Trieweiler’s Concurrence ... 3. The Dissents ... D. The Supreme Court’s Remand ... E. Casarotto v. Lombardi (Casarotto II)—The First Remand ... F. The Supreme Court’s Opinion in Doctor’s Associates, Inc. v. Casarotto ... G. Casarotto v. Lombardi (Casarotto III)—The Second Remand III. Federalism Issues and the FAA ... A. Background of the Passage of the FAA ... 1. Law in the United States Prior to the Enactment of the FAA—The Revocability Doctrine ... 2. The Demise of the Revocability Doctrine ... 3. The FAA ... 4. The Uniform Arbitration Act (“UAA”) and State Arbitration Law ... B. Origins of the Clash ... 1. The Problems Created by Erie and the Court’s Perspective Regarding Arbitration ... 2. Prima Paint Corp. v. Flood & Conklin Mfg. Co., Resolves the Erie Dilemma ... 3. The Consequences of Prima Paint ... i. The FAA’s Strong Federal Policy Favoring Arbitration ... ii. The Applicability of the FAA to State Court Proceedings ... iii. Consequences of Southland ... C. Role of State Law after Southland and Doctor’s Associates IV. Appropriateness of Arbitration V. Conclusion
Article
Loud protests have erupted in Ontario in recent months over the use of Sharia, or Islamic law. These protests are based on the mistaken impression that Ontario is about to pass legislation that would allow Muslims to deal with family law disputes through private arbitration using Islamic law and that would require Ontario courts to enforce such arbitration decisions. The current law already provides for these results. I recently conducted a review of the Arbitration Act and recommended to the Ontario government that it make legislative, regulatory and policy changes to circumscribe and curtail the Act's application by specifying safeguards to protect vulnerable parties before arbitration can be used to resolve family law disputes. The Review report was submitted in December 2004, and as yet the government has not announced its intention with respect to the recommendations. The recent controversy was precipitated by the announcement that a particular organization, the Islamic Institute of Civil Justice (IICJ), had incorporated as a business and would henceforth provide Muslims in Ontario with a "Sharia Court." Its main proponent, Syed Mumtaz Ali, a known advocate of self-determination for Muslims in Canada in a manner similar to the rights of Aboriginals and Quebecers, proclaimed that the decisions of arbitrators would be final and binding, not subject to court review but eligible for court enforcement. He suggested that since this option was now available to Muslims, "good Muslims" would be required, as part of their faith position, to settle all their disputes only in this way. Unfortunately, out of these statements arose a persistent myth about arbitration in Ontario, which continues to be repeated by both the media and opponents of arbitration despite vigorous efforts to correct the initial misinformation. The myth is that the Ontario government surreptitiously colluded with the IICJ and, without consultation, allowed one particular Islamic group to set up a parallel legal system, thus depriving Muslim residents of their legal rights under Ontario and Canadian law.
Article
This article discusses, and challenges, the status of religious arbitration in the United States and Canada. Religious arbitration - defined as the settling of disputes informally by religious principles, rather than by having recourse to the courts - has been written about considerably in recent years. Many writers have argued that religious arbitration can be used to enhance religious freedom, and have discussed how secular rights can be protected before religious tribunals. This article makes the opposite argument. It examines religious arbitration by looking at constitutional law on free exercise in the United States and Canada, and argues that religious arbitration agreements and awards have a limiting effect on religious freedom. Therefore, these agreements and awards should only be enforced in civil courts when courts are not competent to handle the disputes themselves. Courts lack the required competence when the subject-matter of the dispute is inherently religious. In such situations, the freedom-promoting aspect of a court’s enforcement of a religious arbitration agreement or award outweighs the negative effect on freedom of religion, because the courts can provide necessary support for religious institutions. However, when the subject-matter of a dispute is entirely secular, there is no such benefit for freedom of religion. Therefore, freedom of religion is constrained by binding religious arbitral agreements and awards on secular matters, and courts should decline to enforce such agreements or awards.
Article
This Article considers a trend towards what I have termed the “new multiculturalism,” where conflicts between law and religion are less about recognition and symbolism and more about conflicting legal orders. Nothing typifies this trend more than the increased visibility of religious arbitration, whereby religious groups use current arbitration doctrine to have their disputes adjudicated not in U.S. courts and under U.S. law, but before religious courts and under religious law. This dynamic has pushed the following question to the forefront of the multicultural agenda: under what circumstances should U.S. courts enforce arbitration awards issued by religious courts in accordance with religious law. Indeed, with growing skepticism regarding the oppressive potential of religious majorities, critics have questioned whether religious arbitration has any place in a regime dedicated to individual liberties. By contrast, this Article contends that current arbitration doctrine can meet the challenges of the new multiculturalism. To do so, this Article makes two concrete policy recommendations: (1) courts should redefine the scope of enforceability of religious arbitration awards by limiting the application of the public policy exception to vacate religious arbitration awards and (2) courts should expand the application of unconscionability to void religious arbitration agreements.
Banning faith-based arbitration: The demands, the debate, and the implications of Ontario's decision" . Electronic Theses and Dissertations
  • Joanna Taylor
Joanna Taylor. (2006). "Banning faith-based arbitration: The demands, the debate, and the implications of Ontario's decision". Electronic Theses and Dissertations. (7071). Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Available online at: https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/7071 (Last Visited: 12/9/2019).