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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of a scale for measuring “post-series depression” (PSD), a concept that describes the feelings of melancholy and longing that can occur when an individual’s all-consuming film or screen product comes to an end. Although largely ignored by academic research in the arts and leisure (A&L) domain, PSD has received wide coverage in grey literature concerning the termination of certain film or TV series. Design/methodology/approach Exploratory interviews were conducted with fans of a range of A&L products. Questionnaire surveys then examined the relationships between PSD, nostalgia and emptiness, and between PSD, binge-watching and compulsive consumption. Findings A 15-item scale to measure PSD was developed and its reliability demonstrated. Research limitations/implications The study was conducted within an A&L context. It only examined the abovementioned variables and no other potentially relevant psychological and behavioural considerations (e.g. audience involvement, narcissism and social anxiety). Practical implications The scale will be useful for investigating the marketing implications of fanship and its connections with addictive behaviour. It will help marketers when segmenting A&L markets, in understanding how to extend the period during which audiences purchase screen product-related memorabilia and to know how to market binge-watching-related items (e.g. box sets, clothing, books, theatre tickets and film studio visits). Originality/value This paper provides a rigorous examination of the concept of PSD and presents a scale for its measurement.

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... Furthermore, various studies have suggested depressive symptoms parallel with the post-binge-watching phenomenon. 3,15,32,33 For instance, Kottasz et al 33 measured the "post-series depression" phenomenon and described it as a feeling of longing and melancholy after consuming all the series. Evidence from literature 15 plausibly indicates that binge-watching can intensify depression and anxiety among people. ...
... 63 Interestingly, our findings suggested that when bingewatching is personally not fulfilling, it is associated with loneliness and depression. 15,32,33 One plausible reason can be that the reality of binge-watchers resonates with the reality depicted in the episodes that may give them the impression that other people around them are more content with their lives. This may make them feel depressed due to social isolation. ...
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Chapter
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Previous research has shown consistent relationships between the Five-Factor Model personality traits, materialism and excessive buying. However, little is known about the channels of influence through personality traits and materialism leading to excessive buying. Therefore, the main objective of this current study is to examine whether materialism is a mediating variable in the relationship between the Five-Factor Model and excessive buying. The results of the path analysis using a sample of 667 women generally confirm the suitability of materialism as a vehicle for the effects of Big-Five personality traits on excessive buying. Specifically, neuroticism exerts both positive direct and indirect influences on excessive buying. Moreover, materialism mediates the influence of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness on excessive buying. Whereas extraversion shows a positive association with materialism, openness and agreeableness present negative relations with materialism which, in turn, is associated with higher excessive buying propensity. Conscientiousness is the only exception to the mediating model, and presents a direct and negative relation with excessive buying. Generally speaking, the finding that five factors effects are mediated by materialism increases the probability that preventive and interventive efforts aimed at reducing materialistic values effectively influence the associated risk for excessive buying originating from certain personality traits.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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Systematic measures are developed, with 270 Ss, predominantly students, for the concepts of experienced levels of emptiness and existential concern. These measures are then correlated with a measure of depressive affect. The measures were again correlated, this time with a sample of 24, with level of religious interest. Factor analysis demonstrates the two concepts of emptiness and existential concern to be discrete and stable. Experienced level of emptiness correlated highly with level of depressive affect. Existential concern, however, was not correlated with depressive affect, but was correlated with level of religious interest (as measured on the Allport, Vernon, and Lindzey A Study of Values).
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Subsequent to a previous article in JCP (Scherhorn, 1990) outlining a theoretical approach to addictive buying, the authors report on the results of their empirical study of addictive buyers in West Germany. The study indicates that addictive buying is clearly one kind of addiction which may be substituted by other addictions, may take the place of another addiction, or even alternate with other forms of addiction. At the same time, there is substantial evidence that there are special key experiences to which the propensity to addictive buying can be traced. Addictive buyers have been subjected to a specific form of distortion of autonomy: They have felt that for parents, relatives, or neighbours, material goods (money, property, consumer goods) seemed to be more relevant and more important than they themselves. Thus, they have acquired a strong predisposition for using consumer goods as a favourite means of compensating for the lack of self-esteem from which they suffer. This predisposition, however, is reinforced by the fact that consumption and buying increasingly take on the role of a socially favoured means of compensation.
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In this article I use the concept of genre as a notion to look into the relationship between the production and the audience, especially on the production side. The empirical material of the study is a Japanese television family drama called Wataru seken wa oni bakari or Wataoni. Recently the concept of genre - traditionally known from literary theory and cinema studies - has been found useful especially in studies on (news) journalism. In these studies genre is usually defined as a cultural and social contract between the production and the audience, the rhetorical mode of address inherent in genre being a central notion. The mode of address is seen to recommend audience members certain meanings and viewing patterns. Although the idea of `communicative contract' also includes the production side, empirical studies of the rhetorical force of genre in both production and reception are rare. I propose that it can be useful in an empirical study to look into the ways in which genre addresses both the viewers and the makers. The way the generic mode of address works for each direction may differ, but nevertheless genre also persuades the makers to adopt a certain subject position and meaningful relationship with the programme in question.
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This study examined the responses of television viewers to the potential loss of their favorite television characters. A sample of 381 Israeli adults completed questionnaires, including questions about their relationships with their favorite characters, how they would react if those characters were taken off the air, and their attachment styles. Results showed that viewers expecting to lose their favorite characters anticipate negative reactions similar to those experienced after the dissolution of social relationships. These reactions were related both to the intensity of the parasocial relationship with the favorite character and to the viewers’ attachment style. Anxious–ambivalently attached respondents anticipated the most negative responses. The results are discussed in light of their contribution to attachment research and as evidence of the similarity between parasocial relationships and close social relationships.
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Purpose – The paper aims to establish which formally and informally published sources of knowledge were mainly used by executives in the computer service industry to obtain knowledge of current developments in the field of marketing and to examine the purposes for which the knowledge gathered from these sources was employed. Design/methodology/approach – Marketing managers in 141 large computer services businesses completed a questionnaire concerning the extents to which they used books, marketing magazines, academic journals, and grey literature (GL) for instrumental, conceptual, and symbolic purposes. Four “motivating factors” (e.g. occupational learning orientation) were examined plus three other influences (e.g. length of time in a marketing role). The possible consequences of the extensive use of various sources were explored. Findings – Only 2 per cent of the sample read academic marketing journals, and just 3 per cent looked at marketing textbooks. However, 89 per cent of the sample accessed (mainly internet-based) grey marketing literature and 62 per cent read marketing magazines. Nearly, one in six of the respondents stated that they had read practitioner “how to do” marketing books. Several hypothesised independent variables exerted positive and significant impacts on the degrees to which magazines; GL and practitioner books were employed to obtain marketing knowledge. Research limitations/implications – It was not possible to examine exactly why a particular knowledge source was preferred for a specific purpose. Potential connections between past academic research outputs and the contents of contemporary grey marketing literature and articles in marketing magazines could not be investigated. The results imply that GL must be recognised as a vital source of marketing knowledge. Issues relating to the codification and wider distribution of GL, copyright, the shortage of specialised GL bibliographies in the marketing area, and the long-term availability of materials in electronic form need to be addressed. Originality/value – This was the first empirical study to connect the use of marketing knowledge sources to the purposes (instrumental, conceptual, symbolic) for which the knowledge contained within them was required.
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Here we explore an alternative conceptualization and measurement of parasocial interaction, using data from a qualitative content analysis of audience letters written to an extremely popular television soap opera, Hum Log", in India. Parasocial interaction is the degree to which an audience member develops a perceived interpersonal relationship with a media character. We measure five sub-dimensions of parasocial interaction (affective, cognitive, and behavioral involvement of audience members, and referential and critical involvement) in a qualitative content analysis of listeners' letters. "The actors are all doing such a great job fin portraying an Indian family] that I am convinced that they are all related to each other." (A male audience member from Andhra Pradesh state). "Your program inspired me to do something, so I have started tutoring young children in my locality." (A college student in Calcutta). "Bore, Bore, Bore." (Four students from Bombay who demanded that "Hum Log be discontinued).
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Star Trekkers, hot-rodders, Elvis impersonators and NASCAR nuts all travel in order to indulge their interests, but who are these people and how far will they go to fulfil their fanatical dreams? This study attempts to discover more about this little understood tourist market, their needs and behaviours. The article draws together the disparate literature on fanaticism to present a model from which further analysis can occur. Accordingly, the examination begins with a psycho/social perspective of fanatics that identifies their behaviours generally, and further as consumers. The analysis is followed by melding tourism and recreation literature to establish an enhanced understanding of the leisure fanatic. The examination illuminates the concept of travel as being a function of the fanatic's make-up and, as such, the study points to the types of touristic activities they will undertake. Similarly, the role of special events is discussed as being of high importance to the needs and desires of the fanatic in providing the right environment to pursue their passions. In a final aspect to the study, negative aspects of fanatics are highlighted which may affect their travel behaviours in certain situations. The article examines the implications for those in the fields of tourism and leisure management, where special interest tourism, or niche tourism, is of increasing interest.
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Although images of the relationship between marketing science and practice have been dominant features of past and contemporary marketing thought, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the subject, particularly at the level of the marketing practitioner. This article provides a framework for characterizing and better understanding the ways in which practitioners value and use academic theory, and defines a set of propositions for guiding research into this area. The exercise is intended to urge fellow researchers to refine, test and augment the working hypotheses suggested herein in order to achieve a better understanding of the ways in which marketing practitioners attend to, value and use marketing scientific theories. Managerial implications of this research are discussed.
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This study investigated the effects of the Korean television (TV) drama series titled, Winter Sonata, on the potential or actual Japanese tourist flow to Korea. More specifically, this research explored the reasons for the popularity of the Korean TV drama series, the change of perceived image as an impact of the melodrama, and the preferred products of soap opera-induced tourism. The objectives of this study were achieved through two ways: (1) review of articles in newspapers, magazines, and reports; (2) analyses of a survey of Japanese tourists visiting featured locations of the Winter Sonata TV drama series. The results of this study indicated that this Korean TV series had a variety of impacts in relation to Korea and Japan. Interestingly, Japanese respondents in their 40s and over-preferred Korean TV dramas and indicated a stronger desire to take a Hallyu trip. Additionally, a high level of interest and empathy for leading actors and actresses were the key reasons for their preference for Korean dramas. Results of the canonical analysis indicated that respondents preferred the Korean TV dramas due to all five reason dimensions which demonstrated higher levels and agreement for the development of five out of the eight product types from this study.
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Lays the groundwork for a conceptual framework that might be used to study fanatical consumers and consumption. We review literature on fanatics produced by psychologists, sociologists, cultural theorists, political scientists, theologists and marketers and then place their multidisciplinary insights into a consumption context. We identify two familiar features of fanatics – intensity and intolerance – but suggest a third feature – incoherence among thinking, behaviour and goals caused by intensity and/or intolerance might be the conceptual key to understanding fanatical consumers, measuring their fanaticism and interpreting their consumption experiences.
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This study examined reactions to a temporary parasocial breakup situation during the television writers’ strike of 2007–2008 when many television shows stopped airing new episodes. Past research on parasocial breakups and uses and gratifications theory was used to predict emotional and behavioral reactions. Questionnaire results revealed that participants with stronger parasocial relationships experienced greater distress—even after controlling for the number of favorite programs that went off the air. Moreover, those with greater television affinity reported greater distress when their favorite show was disrupted, although television viewing motives also played a role in this process. Finally, when their favorite shows were no longer airing new episodes, viewers primarily replaced television viewing time with other media exposure rather than increasing nonmedia activities such as social interaction. However, a number of these activities varied by gender.
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The numerous associations between eating disorders and drug addictions--craving, preoccupation, compulsive use/behavior despite adverse consequences, denial of problem, use of substance to relieve negative affect with guilt following use, comorbidity, genetic links, high recidivism especially when exposed to cues or triggers, overeating and weight gain during early recovery from drug addiction, common neurobiological pathways, modification of drug reward by eating or starvation--suggest that binge eating disorders represent a drug-free auto-addiction for a significant subset of the addiction prone. In some it is a trigger leading to a drug or alcohol relapse, and in others it is an apparent result of alcohol or drug abstinence when food becomes a new drug of choice. In any case, food is a powerful mood altering substance that is repetitively and destructively used or restricted in eating disorders just as drugs are in substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Marketers frequently evoke personal nostalgia in their advertising. To date, scales have been developed to measure the propensity to get nostalgic but not the actual dimensions of personal nostalgia. Results from four studies show that advertising-evoked personal nostalgia comprises four correlated but distinct dimensions: past imagery, positive emotions, negative emotions, and physiological reactions. This multidimensional scale showed a high level of validity and reliability. Moreover, due to careful choice of sampling frames, the study demonstrates a high level of external generalizability. Evaluating nostalgia-based advertising using the study’s multidimensional scale may provide marketers with strategic insights for developing and fine-tuning advertising aimed at inducing nostalgia among consumers.
Article
One area of consumption disorders receiving a great deal of attention lately is compulsive buying. Researchers have begun moving from descriptive studies of this phenomenon to attempts to explain some of its causal mechanisms. One possible explanation is that such behavior may serve as a way of self-medicating depression and negative affect for compulsive buyers. This study examines reported mood states prior to and during shopping for 24 compulsive buyers and a matched comparison group. The findings indicated that relative to the comparison group, the compulsive buyers reported feeling most of the mood states more frequently prior to going shopping, especially the more negative moods. Compulsive buyers also more frequently experienced extreme moods (both positive and negative), while shopping than did the comparison group. When within-subject differences were examined for preshopping and shopping moods, compulsive buyers were more likely to move from negative to positive moods, whereas the opposite was true for the comparison group. The findings suggest that compulsive buyers may be using buying behavior to manage undesirable mood states. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This article reports on a study of addictive consumption in the UK. Individual depth interviews with 15 women were followed by a mail survey of a further 46 self-identified addictive shoppers. The study suggests that the behaviour serves a variety of functions for the individual and that there is no simple uniform picture of an addictive shopper. Prime functions of the behaviour are to repair mood, and to increase the ability to match perceptions of socially desirable or required appearances. The behaviour is located in the context of postmodern fragmentation, in which personal identity is manifested in a reliance on affect-charged experiences. Links are made with other aspects of consumption pathology. Suchtartiges Kaufverhalten: Funktion und postmoderne Zersplitterung Dieser Beitrag berichtet ber eine Untersuchung suchtartigen Kaufverhaltens in Gro\britannien. Die Daten stammen aus Tiefeninterviews mit 15 Frauen und einer schriftlichen Erhebung bei weiteren 46 Personen, die sich selbst als kaufschtig bezeichnen. Die Befunde legen nahe, da\ kaufschtiges Verhalten einer Vielzahl von individuellen Funktionen dient und da\ es kein einheitliches Bilddes kaufschtigen Verbrauchers gibt. Hauptfunktionen des Verhaltens sind offenbar der Ausgleich stimmungsm\iger Strungen und Hilfe, wenn es darum geht, wahrgenommenen sozialen Wnschen oder Anforderungen an das u\ere Verhalten zu entsprechen. Kaufschtiges Verhalten wird in den Kontext postmoderne Zersplitterung gestellt, in welchem persnliche Identitt sich in einem Vertrauen auf gefhlsbeladene Erfahrungen darstellt. Schlie\lich stellt der Beitrag Bezge zu anderen Aspekten krankhaften Konsumverhaltens her, vor allem zum Ladendiebstahl.
Article
Prolonged television (TV) viewing is the most prevalent and pervasive sedentary behavior in industrialized countries and has been associated with morbidity and mortality. However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available. To perform a meta-analysis of all prospective cohort studies to determine the association between TV viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE database from 1970 to March 2011 and the EMBASE database from 1974 to March 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Cohort studies that reported relative risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of interest were included. Data were extracted independently by each author and summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Of the 8 studies included, 4 reported results on type 2 diabetes (175,938 individuals; 6428 incident cases during 1.1 million person-years of follow-up), 4 reported on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease (34,253 individuals; 1052 incident cases), and 3 reported on all-cause mortality (26,509 individuals; 1879 deaths during 202,353 person-years of follow-up). The pooled relative risks per 2 hours of TV viewing per day were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.14-1.27) for type 2 diabetes, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.23) for fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07-1.18) for all-cause mortality. While the associations between time spent viewing TV and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease were linear, the risk of all-cause mortality appeared to increase with TV viewing duration of greater than 3 hours per day. The estimated absolute risk differences per every 2 hours of TV viewing per day were 176 cases of type 2 diabetes per 100,000 individuals per year, 38 cases of fatal cardiovascular disease per 100,000 individuals per year, and 104 deaths for all-cause mortality per 100,000 individuals per year. Prolonged TV viewing was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.
Internet addiction is not formally recognised as a clinical disorder by the WHO despite increasing evidence that excessive internet use can interfere with daily life and work. There is increasing pressure from Psychologists for Internet addiction to be recognised. This article explores the prevalence, symptoms and management of Internet addiction and the consequences of ignoring the ever growing concerns from public figures and institutions. © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).