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Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization


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Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25(5), 986-993 Present work evaluates the salt tolerance of 29 domestic and foreign samples of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) for iden-tifi cation of valuable genotypes for further use in the breeding programs. The study aimed to estimate the salt tolerance by screening the collection of millet samples at the germination stage of ontogenesis based on the changes of morphometric indicators for forecasting the reaction of genotypes to salinization. The salt stress inhibited the growth of sprouts and roots of millet samples. Unequal effect of salt stress onto the length of sprouts and roots of seedlings was noted. The samples Aktyu-binskoye kormovoye, K-9681, Shortandinskoye-10, and Yarkoye-7 demonstrated an insignifi cant decrease of sprouts length in comparison with the control. The cultivar Saratovskoye-6 (standard) showed about a 50% decrease of sprouts length at 75 and 100 mm of NaCl, and to 70% decrease at 150 mm of NaCl. At all salinity concentrations, the smallest length of germinal roots of 7-day seedlings was noted at samples Yarkoye-5 and Pavlodarskoye and the greatest length of sprouts at samples K-9681, Yarkoye-5, Pavlodarskoye, Shortandinskoye-10 and Aktyubinskoye kormovoye.
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Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25 (No 5) 2019, 986–993
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the
germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization
Aiman Rysbekova1*, Elmira Dyussibayeva1, Irina Zhirnova1, Aiym Zhakenova1, Abilbashar
Seitkhozhayev1, Carina Makhmudova2, Svetla Yancheva3, Nursaule Zhanbyrshina1, Gulden
S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro-Technical University, Agronomic Faculty, Department of Agriculture and Plant Growing,
010011 Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
2Knowledge Partners Limited Liability Partnership (LLP), 050059 Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
3Agricultural University – Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
*Corresponding author:
Rysbekova, A., Dyussibayeva, E., Zhirnova, I., Zhakenova, A., Seitkhozhayev, A., Makhmudova, C., Yancheva, S.,
Zhanbyrshina, N., & Kipshakbayeva, G. (2019). Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection
at the germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural
Science, 25(5), 986–993
Present work evaluates the salt tolerance of 29 domestic and foreign samples of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) for iden-
tifi cation of valuable genotypes for further use in the breeding programs. The study aimed to estimate the salt tolerance by
screening the collection of millet samples at the germination stage of ontogenesis based on the changes of morphometric
indicators for forecasting the reaction of genotypes to salinization. The salt stress inhibited the growth of sprouts and roots of
millet samples. Unequal effect of salt stress onto the length of sprouts and roots of seedlings was noted. The samples Aktyu-
binskoye kormovoye, K-9681, Shortandinskoye-10, and Yarkoye-7 demonstrated an insignifi cant decrease of sprouts length in
comparison with the control. The cultivar Saratovskoye-6 (standard) showed about a 50% decrease of sprouts length at 75 and
100 mm of NaCl, and to 70% decrease at 150 mm of NaCl. At all salinity concentrations, the smallest length of germinal roots
of 7-day seedlings was noted at samples Yarkoye-5 and Pavlodarskoye and the greatest length of sprouts at samples K-9681,
Yarkoye-5, Pavlodarskoye, Shortandinskoye-10 and Aktyubinskoye kormovoye.
Keywords: salt tolerance; sodium chloride; salinization; Panicum miliaceum
Abiotic stress and, particularly, salinization essentially
reduces crops’ productivity around the world. About 25% of
soils on the Earth contain an excess of salts. It is known that
soil salinity causes a signifi cant loss to agriculture (Mujeeb-
Kazi & De Leon, 2002).
The areas of the salted lands tend to continuous and sig-
nifi cant increase as a result of processes of secondary sali-
nization which annually brings an excessive loss to many
branches of crop production and limits expansion of the ar-
eas under various crops in droughty areas (Udovenko, 1977;
Kovrigina et al., 2006). According to the data provided
by Szabolcs (1989), the total area of the salted soils in the
world occupies more than 950 million ha (Pankova, 2006).
In the Republic of Kazakhstan, 35.3 million ha of the soil are
salted, and it is 16.4% of the total area of agricultural lands.
The negative infl uence of salinization is expressed in the de-
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions...
terioration of various properties and functions of plants that
as a result, leads to a decrease in their effi ciency. Annually
the loss of productivity at weak salinization is about 20%,
and in strongly salted lands losses reach 70-80% (Munns &
Tester, 2008).
For assessment of plant salt tolerance, indicators of bio-
logical and agronomical salt tolerance are used. Biological
salt tolerance is the limit of salinization when plants are ca-
pable of completing its ontogenetic cycle and of reproduc-
ing viable germinating seeds. It is salt tolerance of a plant,
and its quantitative expression is the concentration of soil
solution, which is critical for the given species. Agronomical
salt tolerance refl ects the extent of decrease in plants’ har-
vest under the infl uence of salinization (at its certain level) in
comparison with the effi ciency of the same cultivar without
salinization (Koshkin, 2010).
It is known that plants are most sensitive to salinity effect
at a juvenile stage of development. During the shoot appear-
ing as in stress conditions, fi rst of all, those metabolism links
are damaged, which are connected with processes of active
growth. It is possible to predict the reaction of plant growth
onto salinization at the stage of seed germination (Cuar-
tero et al., 2006). Moreover, because of the considerable
heterogeneity of the salted soils, screening for tolerance to
salinization in fi eld conditions is ineffi cient and practically
impossible; therefore, such research has to be carried out in
controlled laboratory conditions. In this regard, almost all
investigations of salt tolerance at different crops were car-
ried out at the stage of seed germination (Meneguzzo et al.,
2000; Sabir & Ashraf, 2008; Farhoudi & Motamedi, 2010;
Mohammadizad et al., 2013; Ardie et al., 2015; Ajithkumar
& Ibadapbiangshylla, 2017; Batayeva et al., 2017).
Proso millet or millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) is a valu-
able culture of the genus Panicum, which includes more
than 400 species (Roshevits, 1980). Millet has food, fodder,
and reserve strategic importance, and it is cultivated in 30
countries of the world, including 18 European countries. The
leading producers of millet are fi ve countries, such as the
Russian Federation, India, China, USA, and Ukraine (Zo-
tikov et al., 2012; Sidorenko & Gurinovich, 2015). Accord-
ing to the classifi cation of plant salt tolerance developed by
All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry (ARIPI), the
millet belongs to the group of plants with weak tolerance to
salinity. As a criterion for evaluation of the degree of plants’
salt tolerance, various indicators are possible to use such as
biomass of seedlings, seed germinating, ability to grow at a
certain salinization level (Drahavtsev et al., 1995). The criti-
cal direction to solve the problem is the creation of tolerant
of salinization cultivars, which is connected with the search
for useful sources and donors of this trait. For that reason, re-
liable evaluation of its expression, especially at early stages
of ontogenesis is necessary (Kurkiev et al., 2010; 2013).
This research is directed to the evaluation of salt tolerance
by screening the collection of samples of Millet at the early
stage of ontogenesis based on changes of morphometric in-
dicators for forecasting the reaction of genotypes for salini-
zation and identifi cation of tolerant forms with their subse-
quent use in breeding programs.
Material and Methods
Plant material
Objects of the research were cultivars and samples of
millet of local and foreign selection. Totally 29 genotypes
(Table 1) were analysed. The zoned cultivar Saratovskoye-6
was taken as a standard (St).
Evaluation of salt tolerance of millet at the seeds ger-
mination phase
Screening the cultivars and samples of millet for salt tol-
erance was carried out in laboratory conditions using select-
ed seeds in the phase of germination according to the method
of Krishnamurthy et al. (2007). Before the experiment, the
seeds of millet were sterilized with 90% alcohol within two
minutes for surface disinfection of the harmful microfl ora
and washed out two times with distilled water. Each sample
consisted of 25 grains was placed for germination in Petri
dishes on lter paper (bilayer) moistened with solutions of
sodium chloride (NaCl) with different concentrations (75,
100 and 150 mM) and distilled water (control). Each variant
was performed in three replications. Samples were cultivated
into the climatic chamber (GC-1000 Growth Chamber) with
Table 1. Cultivars and samples of millet
Origin Number of genotypes Samples
Kazakhstan 17 Aktyubinskoye kormovoye, K-9681, K-10278, K-10279, K-3742, K-803, K-9539, K-9645,
K-9842, Kokchetavskoye-66, Pavlodarskoye, Pamyati Bersiyeva, Shortandinskoye-10, Shortanin-
skoye-7, Yarkoye-5, Yarkoye-6, Yarkoye-7
11 Barnaulskoye kormovoye, Zolotistoye kormovoye, K-3137, K-367, K-9520, K-9671, K-9989,
K-10312, Kormovoye-89, Omskoye-11, Saratovskoye-6 (St)
Uzbekistan 1 K-1437
988 Aiman Rysbekova et al.
a constant temperature of 24±1°C for seven days. At day 7,
the following indicators: viability of seeds and raw biomass
of seedlings; number and length of roots and sprouts were
determined. The salt tolerance degree in percentage was de-
ned as a ratio of the average indicators as seed viability
(%), the fresh mass of seedlings (mg), lengths of sprouts and
roots (mm) in the experiment to the corresponding param-
eters of the control.
Results and Discussion
In this work, for the fi rst time, screening for salt tolerance
of the local and foreign genotypes of millet at the early phase
of vegetation was carried out. The obtained results revealed
the negative impact of salt solutions on germinating viabil-
ity of seeds. In comparison with the control, the salinization
by increased concentration of sodium chloride resulted in a
decrease of the seed germinating viability in all samples. In
the control samples, the seed germinating viability fl uctuated
from 40 to 90%; while in the experimental treatments, it was
decline depending on the NaCl concentration respectively,
as of 75mM – from 24 to 80%, at 100mM – from 16 to 78%,
and at 150mM – from 8 to 76% (Table 2).
As shown in Table 2, the most decreased germinating vi-
ability of seeds in conditions of salinization was found at
genotypes K-367, K-9989, Kormovoye-89, and K-9539.
For example, the germinating viability of the seeds in the
cultivar Kormovoye-89 decreased up to 58% at 75 mM
NaCl, up to 64% at 100 mM, and up to 77% at 150 mM.
The sample K-367 in conditions of salinization with 75,
Table 2. Seed germination (%) of 7-day seedlings of the millet collection at different concentrations of salinization
Samples Seed germination (%)
0 mM NaCl 75 mM NaCl 100 mM NaCl 150 mM NaCl
Aktyubinskoye kormovoye 66 8.8 34 4.8 34 5.8 32 4.4
Barnaulskoye kormovoye 70 12.0 72 8.9 58 6.5 50 6.8
Zolotistoye kormovoye 72 9.1 40 4.7 40 5.7 36 9.1
K -9681 50 5.1 52 5.5 44 4.5 30 5.5
K-10278 55 3.4 53 6.8 52 6.3 52 5.6
K-10279 78 4.2 76 10.1 64 8.5 42 4.7
K-10312 75 8.4 72 8.8 70 9.7 66 10.0
K-1437 80 5.6 80 12.7 72 12.4 64 5.8
K-3137 65 5.2 60 11.2 36 8.7 46 4.7
K-367 80 4.5 24 5.5 16 5.1 16 4.1
K-3742 40 3.2 40 8.8 34 4.0 28 3.5
K-803 62 4.4 30 4.8 28 5.6 20 2.2
K-9520 66 12.1 56 3.2 50 8.0 44 5.4
K-9539 72 7.1 32 5.8 26 2.5 26 3.6
K-9645 60 10.2 50 6.1 46 8.3 42 5.2
K-9671 84 5.8 64 5.9 54 5.4 44 6.4
K-9842 80 8.7 72 6.7 46 5.4 30 4.2
K-9989 78 9.1 28 8.1 18 3.2 8 1.0
Kokchetavskoye-66 44 4.4 50 6.9 46 5.2 38 5.1
Kormovoye-89 84 15.4 36 8.1 32 5.1 20 1.1
Omskoye-11 82 12.5 80 5.6 78 8.0 76 2.4
Pavlodarskoye 78 9.1 46 8.8 32 5.1 26 5.8
Pamyati Bersiyeva 90 12.1 58 5.0 50 5.0 48 4.4
Saratovskoye-6 (St) 64 9.9 60 7.4 46 8.4 36 5.6
Shortandinskoye-10 64 9.1 58 5.9 54 3.5 54 5.2
Shortandinskoye-7 65 5.4 64 6.4 60 8.4 40 4.1
Yarkoye-5 60 9.2 45 5.2 43 3.8 37 5.3
Yarkoye-6 58 12.1 38 3.8 36 3.2 36 2.2
Yarkoye-7 90 8.4 54 8.1 42 2.5 34 3.8
Note: M – Mean; SD – Standard Deviation
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions...
100, and 150 mM concentrations demonstrated 56-64% de-
crease of the germinating viability in comparison with the
control. The smallest decrease in the germinating viability
at all concentration of salinization was demonstrated by the
samples K-1437, Shortandinskoye-7, Shortandinskoye-10,
Kokchetavskoye-66, Barnaulskoye kormovoye, K-3742,
and K-10278.
The degree of salt tolerance of the studied samples was
also estimated according to raw biomass of 7-day seed-
lings of millet at various salinization concentrations in
comparison with the sprouts growing in the control condi-
tions. Raw biomass of experimental plants in comparison
with control decreased in average twice, except for some
samples where this indicator was from 4 to 10 times lower
(Table 3).
The strongest inhibition of raw biomass accumulation of
seedlings at all concentration of NaCl was established at geno-
types: K-9539, Omskoye-11, Yarkoye-6, K-10312, and Pav-
lodarskoye. The decrease of raw biomass (up to 10% about the
control) was observed at sample K-9539 at 150 mM of NaCl.
The best accumulation of raw biomass at 75 mM of NaCl
was demonstrated in genotypes Barnaulskoye kormovoye
(96.9%), Shortandinskoye-7 (96.8%), Shortandinskoye-10
(91.7%), Saratovskoye-6 St (91.7%), K-9842 (91.7%), Zolot-
istoye kormovoye (91.7%), K-9520 (91.7%), Aktyubinskoye
kormovoye (91.7%), K-9989 (90.7%), K-803 (88.8%) and
Kokchetavskoye-66 (84.3%). At 100 mM of NaCl the high-
est accumulation of raw biomass was counted at genotypes:
K-9842 (91%), K-9520 (91%), K1437 (90.4%), Shortandin-
skoye-7 (88.8%), Zolotistoye kormovoye (83.5%), K-9989
Table 3. Infl uence of salt stress on the accumulation of raw biomass of 7-day seedlings
Samples Raw biomass (mg)
0 mM NaCl 75 mM NaCl 100 mM NaCl 150 mM NaCl
Aktyubinskoye kormovoye 1.34 0.30 1.23 0.09 1.04 0.05 0.74 0.02
Barnaulskoye kormovoye 1.32 0.21 1.28 0.10 1.04 0.09 0.94 0.03
Zolotistoye kormovoye 1.34 0.25 1.23 0.14 1.12 0.06 0.96 0.09
K -9681 1.23 0.09 0.94 0.07 0.84 0.02 0.6 0.04
K-10278 0.94 0.02 0.75 0.05 0.59 0.03 0.34 0.02
K-10279 0.81 0.01 0.64 0.02 0.57 0.02 0.53 0.02
K-10312 1.21 0.09 0.86 0.02 0.61 0.05 0.31 0.03
K-1437 1.25 0.09 1.21 0.11 1.13 0.09 0.83 0.05
K-3137 1.21 0.09 0.86 0.02 0.85 0.05 0.94 0.02
K-367 1.52 0.24 1.23 0.08 1.06 0.04 1.01 0.09
K-3742 1.21 0.05 0.86 0.02 0.85 0.07 0.75 0.04
K-803 1.32 0.08 1.17 0.08 1.02 0.02 0.89 0.03
K-9520 1.34 0.09 1.23 0.05 1.22 0.05 0.96 0.05
K-9539 1.32 0.21 0.54 0.03 0.25 0.01 0.13 0.02
K-9645 0.94 0.04 0.65 0.02 0.6 0.02 0.54 0.03
K-9671 1.56 0.12 1.07 0.04 0.94 0.09 0.84 0.03
K-9842 1.34 0.08 1.23 0.05 1.22 0.01 0.96 0.07
K-9989 1.52 0.11 1.38 0.05 1.26 0.02 1.21 0.02
Kokchetavskoye-66 1.34 0.12 1.13 0.07 1.03 0.09 0.96 0.05
Kormovoye-89 1.46 0.11 1.12 0.08 0.97 0.05 0.64 0.08
Omskoye-11 1.34 0.09 0.68 0.05 0.47 0.02 0.21 0.02
Pavlodarskoye 1.52 0.12 0.78 0.05 0.62 0.05 0.43 0.02
Pamyati Bersiyeva 1.56 0.09 1.12 0.08 0.97 0.08 0.82 0.03
Saratovskoye-6 (St) 1.34 0.17 1.23 0.01 1.1 0.09 0.96 0.02
Shortandinskoye-10 1.34 0.21 1.23 0.06 1.02 0.01 0.96 0.05
Shortandinskoye-7 1.25 0.12 1.21 0.09 1.11 0.09 0.83 0.02
Yarkoye-5 1.32 0.08 0.8 0.02 0.63 0.05 0.52 0.03
Yarkoye-6 1.32 0.05 0.57 0.03 0.41 0.04 0.24 0.02
Yarkoye-7 1.56 0.09 1.12 0.02 1.01 0.03 0.86 0.04
Note: M – Mean; SD – Standard Deviation
990 Aiman Rysbekova et al.
(82.8%), Saratovskoye-6 St (82%), Barnaulskoye kormo-
voye (78.7%), K-803 (77.6%), Aktyubinskoye kormovoye
(77.6%), Kokchetavskoye-66 (76.8%) and Shortandins-
koye-10 (76.1%). At 150 mM of NaCl the accumulation
of raw biomass was in the genotypes respectively: K-9989
(79.6%), K-3137 (77.6%), Shortandinskoye-10 (71.6), Sara-
tovskoye-6 St (71.6), Kokchetavskoye-66 (71.6), K-9842
(71.6%), K-9520 (71.6%), Zolotistoye kormovoye (71.6%),
Barnaulskoye kormovoye (71.2%), K-803 (67.4%), K-367
(66.4%), Shortandinskoye-7 (66.4%) and K-1437 (66.4%).
At high concentration of NaCl (150 mM), the samples
K-9989 and K-3137 surpassed the standard cultivar Sarato-
vskoye-6 in accumulation of raw biomass with 6 and 8%
respectively. The genotypes Barnaulskoye kormovoye, Zo-
lotistoye kormovoye, K-9520, K-9842, and Kokchetavs-
koye-66 demonstrated accumulation of raw biomass at the
level of Saratovskoye-6 (St).
The stress caused by NaCl salinization (75, 100, and 150
mM) also inhibited the growth of sprouts and roots of the
studied experimental samples of millet (Table 4).
Table 4. Alteration of morphometric indicators of 7-day sprouts of millet at various salinization concentrations by
sodium chloride
Samples NaCl concentrations (mM)
0 75 100 150
length, mm
Root length,
length, mm
Root length,
length, mm
Root length,
length, mm
Root length,
1.53 1.86 3.34 0.96 1.31 1.10 2.55 0.60 1.18 0.98 2.44 0.53 1.00 0.81 1.20 0.45
2.23 1.55 3.43 1.36 1.67 0.87 2.69 1.12 1.25 0.64 2.20 1.01 1.08 0.52 1.38 0.90
2.80 1.60 3.41 1.54 2.04 1.19 2.34 1.20 1.84 0.93 1.54 1.01 1.23 0.83 1.27 0.92
K -9681 1.90 1.11 2.66 1.63 1.49 0.92 2.14 1.45 1.31 0.57 1.56 0.93 1.18 0.52 1.33 0.60
K-10278 3.57 1.48 3.8 1.26 2.25 0.98 2.43 1.02 1.52 0.63 1.56 0.72 1.08 0.51 1.26 0.53
K-10279 2.21 1.10 3.86 1.29 1.70 0.81 2.87 1.20 1.20 0.41 1.57 0.74 0.87 0.34 1.23 0.63
K-10312 2.53 1.71 3.62 1.74 1.75 0.95 2.86 1.44 1.23 0.56 1.61 1.27 1.14 0.39 1.31 1.23
K-1437 1.84 1.11 3.22 1.48 1.42 0.89 2.21 1.23 1.14 0.76 1.45 0.85 1.05 0.63 1.26 0.45
K-3137 2.12 1.40 4.05 1.63 1.50 0.94 3.19 1.47 1.38 0.66 2.57 1.50 1.10 0.31 1.51 1.01
K-367 2.99 1.66 3.22 1.74 1.40 0.91 2.70 1.48 1.21 0.63 2.04 1.43 1.00 0.51 1.17 1.16
K-3742 2.30 1.56 2.14 1.15 1.69 0.98 1.35 0.75 1.43 0.76 1.12 0.50 1.13 0.62 1.04 0.40
K-803 3.41 1.45 4.54 1.40 2.38 1.20 3.44 0.94 2.13 0.84 2.20 0.60 1.50 0.72 2.11 0.54
K-9520 1.95 1.25 2.75 1.45 1.57 0.76 1.32 1.38 1.14 0.67 1.22 0.81 0.72 0.43 1.18 0.45
K-9539 3.00 1.36 2.56 1.39 1.61 0.92 1.54 1.14 1.48 0.52 1.25 0.93 1.08 0.42 1.13 0.68
K-9645 3.83 1.59 4.36 1.70 2.06 1.22 2.43 1.30 1.75 0.91 2.07 0.90 1.11 0.50 1.54 0.50
K-9671 2.1 1.29 3.56 1.38 1.38 0.64 2.40 0.93 1.21 0.52 1.34 0.60 1.00 0.41 1.14 0.51
K-9842 1.76 1.21 3.70 1.70 1.18 0.91 3.13 1.37 1.11 0.82 2.85 0.85 0.95 0.34 1.18 0.65
K-9989 3.01 1.56 2.81 1.50 1.60 0.91 1.96 1.25 1.20 0.78 1.71 0.48 0.89 0.28 1.21 0.35
Kokchetavskoye 66 2.31 1.32 3.57 1.20 1.96 0.96 2.89 0.82 1.49 0.76 2.18 0.45 1.17 0.32 1.01 0.28
Kormovoye-89 2.42 1.93 3.53 1.55 1.84 1.21 2.84 1.21 1.25 0.92 2.61 0.93 1.07 0.45 1.64 0.78
Omskoye-11 1.86 1.13 3.33 1.21 1.57 0.83 2.90 1.10 1.24 0.65 1.54 0.91 1.13 0.62 1.21 0.61
Pavlodarskoye 1.60 1.04 4.10 1.33 1.43 0.70 3.36 1.10 1.21 0.55 2.60 0.71 1.00 0.50 1.03 0.63
Pamyati Bersiyeva 3.23 1.46 4.48 1.63 1.97 1.20 3.62 1.39 1.85 1.11 3.23 1.27 1.29 0.83 1.94 0.90
Saratovskoye-6 (St) 4.24 1.38 5.36 1.61 2.50 0.87 3.25 1.42 1.96 0.85 1.80 1.10 1.31 0.45 1.64 0.74
Shortandinskoye-10 1.60 1.10 4.32 1.27 1.45 0.74 2.26 1.01 1.23 0.62 1.80 0.82 1.02 0.51 1.31 0.51
Shortandinskoye-7 1.97 0.83 3.38 1.39 1.28 0.62 2.74 1.20 1.04 0.50 2.50 0.95 0.96 0.42 1.92 0.82
Yarkoye-5 2.42 1.34 5.37 1.64 2.19 0.90 3.36 1.40 1.69 0.62 2.73 0.84 1.08 0.36 1.50 0.74
Yarkoye-6 3.55 1.38 3.47 1.54 1.77 0.79 2.30 1.25 1.38 0.45 2.01 1.10 1.17 0.32 1.29 0.90
Yarkoye-7 1.99 1.30 4.10 1.50 1.58 0.91 3.12 1.25 1.30 0.74 2.01 0.90 1.11 0.52 1.86 0.51
Note: M – Mean; SD – Standard Deviation
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions...
The studied samples demonstrated an unequal average
value of sprouts’ length of 7-day seedlings in comparison
with control variant. At 75 mM of NaCl, Aktyubinskoye
kormovoye, K-9681, Shortandinskoye-10, and Yarkoye-7
showed a slight decrease of sprouts’ length. At the cultivar
Saratovskoye-6 (St) this indicator decreased to 50% (at 75
and 100 mM NaCl), and to 70% – at 150 mM NaCl. Re-
garding the length of germinal roots of 7-day seedlings,
cultivars Yarkoye-5 and Pavlodarskoye were more sensitive
among the studied genotypes at all levels of salinization.
The best values of sprouts’ length at all levels of salinization
were noted at samples: K-9681, Yarkoye-5, Pavlodarskoye,
Shortandinskoye-10, and Aktyubinskoye kormovoye. The
unequal seedlings reaction in the growth parameters of roots,
over-ground part, and accumulation of raw biomass could be
explained with various mechanisms of salt tolerance taking
place at the studied samples.
The reason for the suppression of seedlings growth in
saline substrates is sharp inhibition of their metabolic pro-
cesses caused by the increased accumulation of salt ions
in cells (Watson & Witts, 1959; Dzhanibekova, 1972).
Further increase of salt concentration suppresses growth
processes, up to plant death (Ashraf & Parveen, 2002;
Veselov et al., 2007). It indicates the all-biological effect
of growth inhibition at the increased salt concentration in
the environment. The higher the level of the saline sub-
strate, the stronger growth inhibition that leads to a no-
ticeable decrease of all parameters characterizing growth
processes (Ozernyuk, 1992; Udovenko, 1995). The pres-
ent experiment confi rmed such dependence. The increase
of environment salinity (up to 150 mM NaCl) led to a
signifi cant decrease in germinating viability of seeds of
millet experimental samples (Fig. 1).
A similar trend was also demonstrated by the data
about the raw biomass of millet seedlings from the col-
lection (Fig. 2).
Data of fresh weight (FW) of millet plantlets showed that
relative to control, salt stress caused a decrease of this indi-
cator to 77.21% at 75 mM NaCl; 67.22% at 100 mM NaCl,
and 54.91% at 150 mM NaCl, respectively. Salinization also
led to the reduction of the development shown by the de-
crease in the growth parameters such as length of sprouts and
roots of 7-day seedlings (Fig. 3).
As a result, an average value of sprouts’ and roots’ length
at 75 mM of NaCl was in limits of 71.9%, at 100 mM – 58%
and 54%, at 150 mM – 46% and 38%, respectively.
Several hypotheses are explaining the suppression of
growth and development of plants in salinization conditions
as this phenomenon is caused by the osmotic infl uence of
salt solutions, and the plant inhibition is a consequence of the
toxic impact of the absorbed ions on physiology-biochemi-
cal processes. However, in salinization conditions, the plant
is affected by two factors both osmotic and toxic, but the
infl uence of each of them is defi ned by quality and degree of
Fig. 1. Inhibition of seed germination from the collection
of millet depending on the NaCl concentration
Fig. 2. Accumulation of raw biomass of the millet collection
depending on the NaCl concentration
Fig. 3. Salt stress infl uence onto growth parameters
of millet seedlings concerning control, (%)
992 Aiman Rysbekova et al.
salinization and also by the norm of reaction of a plant to salt
stress (Stroganov, 1962; Zhu, 2002; Donaldson et al., 2004;
Colmenero-Flores et al., 2007; Gao et al., 2007; Flowers &
Colmer, 2015; Chakraborty et al., 2016)
Analysis of the obtained data demonstrated the inhibit-
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seedlings) used for the evaluation of salt tolerance of mil-
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screening among 29 genotypes, tolerance to sodium chlo-
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toye kormovoye, K-9520, K-9842, and Kokchetavskoye-66,
which accumulated the maximum amount of raw biomass
in percentage. The samples K-1437, Shortandinskoye-7,
Shortandinskoye-10, Kokchetavskoye-66, Barnaulskoye ko-
rmovoye, K-3742, and K-10278 were characterized by high
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Received: January, 8, 2019; Accepted: August , 8, 2019; Published: October, 31, 2019
Full-text available
In this research there were studied the effects of NaCl-induced salinity and environment temperatures on germination and seedlings growth of domestic poppy. The study was conducted in the controlled conditions in the plant growth chamber. There were applied different concentrations of NaCl (0 mM (control), 50 mM, 100 mM and 150 mM) and environment temperatures (10°C, 15°C and 20°C). The 50 seeds of domestic poppy cultivar (Detkovac) were sown in 4 replicates on the filter paper. The germination energy was determined on the 5th day and total germination rate and seedlings morphological characteristic were determined on the 10th day. At the 5th day germination energy was on average 28%. It was interesting to note that at the 10°C there were no germinated seeds after 5 days at all salinity treatments and also, at the salinity level of 150 mM NaCl at every temperature. The average germination rate (on 10th day) of domestic poppy seeds were 52% and it varied from 30% (150 mM NaCl and 20°C) to 90% (0 mM NaCl and 15°C). Different salinity of water solution had a very significant (p<0.01) influence on stem, root and total length (cm) of seedlings. The average root length was 1.3 cm and it varied from 0.9 cm (100 mM NaCl) to 1.8 cm (0 NaCl). The average stem length was 1.8 cm. The longest stem was found at control (2.7 cm), and between 50 and 100 mM of NaCl the difference was not significant and stem length averaged 1.4 to 1.3 cm depending on the temperature. Average total poppy seedlings length of this study was 3.0 cm and it varied from 4.5 cm at the control to 2.3 cm at 100 mM NaCl. With regard to temperatures, there was no significant differences found in root and total length of poppy seedlings, but the differences were very significant (p<0.01) for stem length. The longest poppy seedlings were measured at 20°C and 0 mM NaCl (4.9 cm), while at 10°C and at 0 or 50 mM NaCl, seedlings were less than 0.1 cm. Seeds were not germinating at all on 10°C on both, 100 and 150 mM NaCl. Generally, salinity reduced germination energy and germination rate and seedlings length. Results may indicate that seeds are mainly affected by osmotic stress and therefore it is not recommended to cultivate poppies on soils with excess salts
Full-text available
Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting the crop production.The present investigation was made to study the impact of different concentrations of sodium chloride on growth, biochemical constituents and antioxidant enzymes of the seedlings of Setaria italica. Seeds were grown at different concentrations of NaCl [(0,25,50,75, and 100mM] for twenty five days. Salt stress influenced a significant modification in the level of osmolyte accumulation.The accumulation level of osmolytes such as proline, glycine betaine,phenol and antioxidant enzyme such as catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide increased significantly with increasing salt stress conditionwhen compared to the control. A statistically significant decreaseof seed germination percentage,root and shoot length,photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and proteins when higher concentration of NaCl added were recorded. From this experiment it was found that the foxtail millet crops can be sustained in optimum (75 mM) salinity condition. It was concluded that these osmolytes play a key role in generating tolerance against salt stress.
Full-text available
About 25 % of the entire land surface is represented by saline soils, and up to 90 % of the total irrigated area - in some regions of Central Asia and the Caucasus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Rice-growing region of the Republic of Kazakhstan is also located in the area with high salinity. A challenge for rice growing in Kazakhstan is deteriorating humus and reclamation of soil, rise in soil secondary salinity and degradation. In Kyzylorda region, pollution of surface (up to 3-5 g/l) and ground water (up to 6-7 g/l) by salt residues reaches a critical point. The dominating sulfatechloride-sodium type of salinity is especially toxic for crops. Akdalinski and Karatal zones of irrigation in the Almaty region are also located within the provinces of sulfate-soda and boric biogeochemical soil salinity. According the data of Kazakh Rice Research Institute, in recent years the rice yields and yield quality have sharply decreased - from 50 to 35-48 centners per hectare, and from 65 to 45-50 % of the groats output, respectively. In this regard, the rice breeding for salt tolerance is the most important to ensure food security in Kazakhstan. The objective of our study was the evaluation and selection a promising starting material of rice resistant to different types of salinity. To this end, we studied the rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, collection samples and their hybrid combinations of different generations derived from Russia, Kazakhstan and Philippine (34 genotypes in total). For the initial assessment at the seedling stage we used the laboratory screening for tolerance to various types of salinity, i.e. chloride, sulphate and carbonate. Saline stress negatively affected seedling growth and total weight in the studied samples. It was revealed that the carbonate type of salinity is the most toxic for rice plants; the chloride and sulfate types were less adverse. The hybrid collection sample F2 Khankai 429 × 4-09 and as well as varieties Marzhan and Madina accumulated the highest percentage of biomass compared to the control at the salinity of all three types. Therefore, these genotypes are valuable in selection for salt tolerance. Molecular screening of chromosomal DNA regions linked to quantitative trait loci of salt tolerance (Saltol QTL) by PCR with microsatellite markers closely linked to the target chromosomal regions, RM 493 and AP 3206, showed RM 493 to produce polymorphism which allowed to distinguish the studied genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. Thus RM 493 is informative to rank the rice genetic plasma by salt tolerance.
Full-text available
Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. B. napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with B. juncea and B. oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. B. juncea plants possessed high osmo-tolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na+. In addition to high osmo-tolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na+ and Cl− in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance, and had a superior K+ retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable “donor” of tissue-tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs.
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to identify the salt tolerance level of foxtail millet accessions. Salinity tolerance of 10 foxtail millet accessions was determined by a rapid screening method at 7-days-old seedlings and at 3-weeks-old seedlings. Based on the root length and relative seed germination of the 7 days-old-seedlings, and based on the root growth and plasma membrane integrity of the root tip under salinity at the seedling stage, ICERI-5 and ICERI-6 accessions were identified as tolerant accessions, while ICERI-10 were identified as sensitive accessions. Accessions with tolerance to salinity are valuable genetic materials for further crop improvement program.
The net assimilation rate (E) of Kleinwanzleben sugar-beet was the same as that of three types of wild sea-beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) when the leaf-area index (L) was near to I. In a subsequent period, when mean L of sugar-beet and of the leafiest wild beet type was 2.5, there was an inverse relation between E and L of the three wild types, and E of sugar-beet was then much greater than that of the wild type with equal L but was little different from that of the wild type with smallest L (about 1.5). It is concluded that the development of sugar-beet from its wild ancestors by selection and breeding has not affected the intrinsic photosynthetic efficiency of the leaves, but has diminished the effect of mutual-interference between leaves, so that E falls less rapidly as L increases, i.e. it has decreased the leaf-density dependence of E. This change may be related to the difference in form between sugar-beet and wild beet plants.
Two cvs. of Triticum durum Desf. differently sensitive to drought and to heavy metal excess (cv. Ofanto more tolerant than cv. Adamello) were exposed to 0, 50 and 100 mmol/L NaCl nutrient solutions for 9 days in a controlled environment. To investigate the effect of NaCl and to monitor possible differences in the responses of the two cvs., we determined growth parameters, leaf water relations and mineral nutrient accumulation in cell saps of the seedlings. The highest salt concentration reduced shoot growth, particularly in cv. Adamello, and shoot and root biomass production. In both cvs., water potential (ΨW) and osmotic potential (Ψ(π)) decreased with salinity and the osmotic adjustment that occurred, due to an accumulation of Na, Cl and also K in the cell sap, maintained turgor. NaCl determined an alteration of nutrient uptake, due to an accumulation of Na+ and Cl- both in shoots and roots. In particular, cv. Adamello showed higher decreases in the Ca++ of roots and the K+ of shoots and a higher increase in the Na+ of shoots. Even though both cvs. seem to be able to react to the stress, the results suggest a greater sensitivity of cv. Adamello to NaCl.
Most of the water on Earth is seawater, each kilogram of which contains about 35 g of salts, and yet most plants cannot grow in this solution; less than 0·2% of species can develop and reproduce with repeated exposure to seawater. These 'extremophiles' are called halophytes. Improved knowledge of halophytes is of importance to understanding our natural world and to enable the use of some of these fascinating plants in land re-vegetation, as forages for livestock, and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding the molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms contributing to salt tolerance are summarized. In particular, cellular processes that underpin the ability of halophytes to tolerate high tissue concentrations of Na+ and Cl−, including regulation of membrane transport, their ability to synthesize compatible solutes and to deal with reactive oxygen species, are highlighted. Interacting stress factors in addition to salinity, such as heavy metals and flooding, are also topics gaining increased attention in the search to understand the biology of halophytes. Halophytes will play increasingly important roles as models for understanding plant salt tolerance, as genetic resources contributing towards the goal of improvement of salt tolerance in some crops, for re-vegetation of saline lands, and as 'niche crops' in their own right for landscapes with saline soils.
Inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) was assessed by screening 18 diverse accessions originally collected from different areas of Pakistan with varying environmental conditions. The set of accessions examined in this study showed considerable variation in germination percentage and seedling weights under salt stress. Accessions 008208, 008210, 008215 and 008230 had higher germination percentage at higher levels of salt, whereas 008214, 008216 and 008222 had lower germination percentage as compared to the other accessions. In seedling weights, accessions 008216, 008218 and 008225 showed a maximum reduction at higher levels of salt, whereas accessions 008208, 008210, 008215 and 008223 showed less reduction. Of the 18 accessions, 008211 and 008215 showed high tolerance in terms of both germination percentage and seedling weights, but it is not sure whether they would maintain the degree of their tolerance if tested at the later growth stages.
The effects of seed size and salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were evaluated. The experimental design was two factors factorial (2×5) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications. The first factor was seed size (small = 2-3 mm and large = 5-7 mm) and the second factor was salt stress (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m). Salt stress decreased shoot and root length but increase Mean Germination Time in both large and small seeds. However at 12 and 16 ds/m in small seeds, seed germinated faster and shoot length and seedling fresh weights were higher compared to large seeds. Small seeds could be preferred for use in saline soils to achieve better stand establishment.
Abiotic stress is the main factor negatively affecting crop growth and productivity worldwide. The advances in physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to stresses. Rice plants are sensitive to various abiotic stresses. In this short review, we present recent progresses in adaptation of rice to salinity, water deficit and submergence. Many studies show that salt tolerance is tightly associated with the ability to maintain ion homeostasis under salinity. Na+ transporter SKC1 unloads Na+ from xylem, plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 excludes sodium out of cytosol and tonoplast Na+/H+ antiporter NHX1 sequesters Na+ into the vacuole. Silicon deposition in exodermis and endodermis of rice root reduces sodium transport through the apoplastic pathway. A number of transcription factors regulate stress-inducible gene expression that leads to initiating stress responses and establishing plant stress tolerance. Overexpression of some transcription factors, including DREB/CBF and NAC, enhances salt, drought, and cold tolerance in rice. A variant of one of ERF family genes, Sub1A-1, confers immersion tolerance to lowland rice. These findings and their exploitation will hold promise for engineering breeding to protect crop plants from certain abiotic stresses.