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Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization

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Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25(5), 986-993 Present work evaluates the salt tolerance of 29 domestic and foreign samples of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) for iden-tifi cation of valuable genotypes for further use in the breeding programs. The study aimed to estimate the salt tolerance by screening the collection of millet samples at the germination stage of ontogenesis based on the changes of morphometric indicators for forecasting the reaction of genotypes to salinization. The salt stress inhibited the growth of sprouts and roots of millet samples. Unequal effect of salt stress onto the length of sprouts and roots of seedlings was noted. The samples Aktyu-binskoye kormovoye, K-9681, Shortandinskoye-10, and Yarkoye-7 demonstrated an insignifi cant decrease of sprouts length in comparison with the control. The cultivar Saratovskoye-6 (standard) showed about a 50% decrease of sprouts length at 75 and 100 mm of NaCl, and to 70% decrease at 150 mm of NaCl. At all salinity concentrations, the smallest length of germinal roots of 7-day seedlings was noted at samples Yarkoye-5 and Pavlodarskoye and the greatest length of sprouts at samples K-9681, Yarkoye-5, Pavlodarskoye, Shortandinskoye-10 and Aktyubinskoye kormovoye.
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986
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25 (No 5) 2019, 986–993
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the
germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization
Aiman Rysbekova1*, Elmira Dyussibayeva1, Irina Zhirnova1, Aiym Zhakenova1, Abilbashar
Seitkhozhayev1, Carina Makhmudova2, Svetla Yancheva3, Nursaule Zhanbyrshina1, Gulden
Kipshakbayeva1
1
S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro-Technical University, Agronomic Faculty, Department of Agriculture and Plant Growing,
010011 Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan
2Knowledge Partners Limited Liability Partnership (LLP), 050059 Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
3Agricultural University – Plovdiv, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
*Corresponding author: aiman_rb@mail.ru
Abstract
Rysbekova, A., Dyussibayeva, E., Zhirnova, I., Zhakenova, A., Seitkhozhayev, A., Makhmudova, C., Yancheva, S.,
Zhanbyrshina, N., & Kipshakbayeva, G. (2019). Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection
at the germination stage in conditions of induced sodium chloride salinization. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural
Science, 25(5), 986–993
Present work evaluates the salt tolerance of 29 domestic and foreign samples of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) for iden-
tifi cation of valuable genotypes for further use in the breeding programs. The study aimed to estimate the salt tolerance by
screening the collection of millet samples at the germination stage of ontogenesis based on the changes of morphometric
indicators for forecasting the reaction of genotypes to salinization. The salt stress inhibited the growth of sprouts and roots of
millet samples. Unequal effect of salt stress onto the length of sprouts and roots of seedlings was noted. The samples Aktyu-
binskoye kormovoye, K-9681, Shortandinskoye-10, and Yarkoye-7 demonstrated an insignifi cant decrease of sprouts length in
comparison with the control. The cultivar Saratovskoye-6 (standard) showed about a 50% decrease of sprouts length at 75 and
100 mm of NaCl, and to 70% decrease at 150 mm of NaCl. At all salinity concentrations, the smallest length of germinal roots
of 7-day seedlings was noted at samples Yarkoye-5 and Pavlodarskoye and the greatest length of sprouts at samples K-9681,
Yarkoye-5, Pavlodarskoye, Shortandinskoye-10 and Aktyubinskoye kormovoye.
Keywords: salt tolerance; sodium chloride; salinization; Panicum miliaceum
Introduction
Abiotic stress and, particularly, salinization essentially
reduces crops’ productivity around the world. About 25% of
soils on the Earth contain an excess of salts. It is known that
soil salinity causes a signifi cant loss to agriculture (Mujeeb-
Kazi & De Leon, 2002).
The areas of the salted lands tend to continuous and sig-
nifi cant increase as a result of processes of secondary sali-
nization which annually brings an excessive loss to many
branches of crop production and limits expansion of the ar-
eas under various crops in droughty areas (Udovenko, 1977;
Kovrigina et al., 2006). According to the data provided
by Szabolcs (1989), the total area of the salted soils in the
world occupies more than 950 million ha (Pankova, 2006).
In the Republic of Kazakhstan, 35.3 million ha of the soil are
salted, and it is 16.4% of the total area of agricultural lands.
The negative infl uence of salinization is expressed in the de-
987
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions...
terioration of various properties and functions of plants that
as a result, leads to a decrease in their effi ciency. Annually
the loss of productivity at weak salinization is about 20%,
and in strongly salted lands losses reach 70-80% (Munns &
Tester, 2008).
For assessment of plant salt tolerance, indicators of bio-
logical and agronomical salt tolerance are used. Biological
salt tolerance is the limit of salinization when plants are ca-
pable of completing its ontogenetic cycle and of reproduc-
ing viable germinating seeds. It is salt tolerance of a plant,
and its quantitative expression is the concentration of soil
solution, which is critical for the given species. Agronomical
salt tolerance refl ects the extent of decrease in plants’ har-
vest under the infl uence of salinization (at its certain level) in
comparison with the effi ciency of the same cultivar without
salinization (Koshkin, 2010).
It is known that plants are most sensitive to salinity effect
at a juvenile stage of development. During the shoot appear-
ing as in stress conditions, fi rst of all, those metabolism links
are damaged, which are connected with processes of active
growth. It is possible to predict the reaction of plant growth
onto salinization at the stage of seed germination (Cuar-
tero et al., 2006). Moreover, because of the considerable
heterogeneity of the salted soils, screening for tolerance to
salinization in fi eld conditions is ineffi cient and practically
impossible; therefore, such research has to be carried out in
controlled laboratory conditions. In this regard, almost all
investigations of salt tolerance at different crops were car-
ried out at the stage of seed germination (Meneguzzo et al.,
2000; Sabir & Ashraf, 2008; Farhoudi & Motamedi, 2010;
Mohammadizad et al., 2013; Ardie et al., 2015; Ajithkumar
& Ibadapbiangshylla, 2017; Batayeva et al., 2017).
Proso millet or millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) is a valu-
able culture of the genus Panicum, which includes more
than 400 species (Roshevits, 1980). Millet has food, fodder,
and reserve strategic importance, and it is cultivated in 30
countries of the world, including 18 European countries. The
leading producers of millet are fi ve countries, such as the
Russian Federation, India, China, USA, and Ukraine (Zo-
tikov et al., 2012; Sidorenko & Gurinovich, 2015). Accord-
ing to the classifi cation of plant salt tolerance developed by
All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry (ARIPI), the
millet belongs to the group of plants with weak tolerance to
salinity. As a criterion for evaluation of the degree of plants’
salt tolerance, various indicators are possible to use such as
biomass of seedlings, seed germinating, ability to grow at a
certain salinization level (Drahavtsev et al., 1995). The criti-
cal direction to solve the problem is the creation of tolerant
of salinization cultivars, which is connected with the search
for useful sources and donors of this trait. For that reason, re-
liable evaluation of its expression, especially at early stages
of ontogenesis is necessary (Kurkiev et al., 2010; 2013).
This research is directed to the evaluation of salt tolerance
by screening the collection of samples of Millet at the early
stage of ontogenesis based on changes of morphometric in-
dicators for forecasting the reaction of genotypes for salini-
zation and identifi cation of tolerant forms with their subse-
quent use in breeding programs.
Material and Methods
Plant material
Objects of the research were cultivars and samples of
millet of local and foreign selection. Totally 29 genotypes
(Table 1) were analysed. The zoned cultivar Saratovskoye-6
was taken as a standard (St).
Evaluation of salt tolerance of millet at the seeds ger-
mination phase
Screening the cultivars and samples of millet for salt tol-
erance was carried out in laboratory conditions using select-
ed seeds in the phase of germination according to the method
of Krishnamurthy et al. (2007). Before the experiment, the
seeds of millet were sterilized with 90% alcohol within two
minutes for surface disinfection of the harmful microfl ora
and washed out two times with distilled water. Each sample
consisted of 25 grains was placed for germination in Petri
dishes on lter paper (bilayer) moistened with solutions of
sodium chloride (NaCl) with different concentrations (75,
100 and 150 mM) and distilled water (control). Each variant
was performed in three replications. Samples were cultivated
into the climatic chamber (GC-1000 Growth Chamber) with
Table 1. Cultivars and samples of millet
Origin Number of genotypes Samples
Kazakhstan 17 Aktyubinskoye kormovoye, K-9681, K-10278, K-10279, K-3742, K-803, K-9539, K-9645,
K-9842, Kokchetavskoye-66, Pavlodarskoye, Pamyati Bersiyeva, Shortandinskoye-10, Shortanin-
skoye-7, Yarkoye-5, Yarkoye-6, Yarkoye-7
Russian
Federation
11 Barnaulskoye kormovoye, Zolotistoye kormovoye, K-3137, K-367, K-9520, K-9671, K-9989,
K-10312, Kormovoye-89, Omskoye-11, Saratovskoye-6 (St)
Uzbekistan 1 K-1437
988 Aiman Rysbekova et al.
a constant temperature of 24±1°C for seven days. At day 7,
the following indicators: viability of seeds and raw biomass
of seedlings; number and length of roots and sprouts were
determined. The salt tolerance degree in percentage was de-
ned as a ratio of the average indicators as seed viability
(%), the fresh mass of seedlings (mg), lengths of sprouts and
roots (mm) in the experiment to the corresponding param-
eters of the control.
Results and Discussion
In this work, for the fi rst time, screening for salt tolerance
of the local and foreign genotypes of millet at the early phase
of vegetation was carried out. The obtained results revealed
the negative impact of salt solutions on germinating viabil-
ity of seeds. In comparison with the control, the salinization
by increased concentration of sodium chloride resulted in a
decrease of the seed germinating viability in all samples. In
the control samples, the seed germinating viability fl uctuated
from 40 to 90%; while in the experimental treatments, it was
decline depending on the NaCl concentration respectively,
as of 75mM – from 24 to 80%, at 100mM – from 16 to 78%,
and at 150mM – from 8 to 76% (Table 2).
As shown in Table 2, the most decreased germinating vi-
ability of seeds in conditions of salinization was found at
genotypes K-367, K-9989, Kormovoye-89, and K-9539.
For example, the germinating viability of the seeds in the
cultivar Kormovoye-89 decreased up to 58% at 75 mM
NaCl, up to 64% at 100 mM, and up to 77% at 150 mM.
The sample K-367 in conditions of salinization with 75,
Table 2. Seed germination (%) of 7-day seedlings of the millet collection at different concentrations of salinization
Samples Seed germination (%)
0 mM NaCl 75 mM NaCl 100 mM NaCl 150 mM NaCl
MSDMSDMSDMSD
Aktyubinskoye kormovoye 66 8.8 34 4.8 34 5.8 32 4.4
Barnaulskoye kormovoye 70 12.0 72 8.9 58 6.5 50 6.8
Zolotistoye kormovoye 72 9.1 40 4.7 40 5.7 36 9.1
K -9681 50 5.1 52 5.5 44 4.5 30 5.5
K-10278 55 3.4 53 6.8 52 6.3 52 5.6
K-10279 78 4.2 76 10.1 64 8.5 42 4.7
K-10312 75 8.4 72 8.8 70 9.7 66 10.0
K-1437 80 5.6 80 12.7 72 12.4 64 5.8
K-3137 65 5.2 60 11.2 36 8.7 46 4.7
K-367 80 4.5 24 5.5 16 5.1 16 4.1
K-3742 40 3.2 40 8.8 34 4.0 28 3.5
K-803 62 4.4 30 4.8 28 5.6 20 2.2
K-9520 66 12.1 56 3.2 50 8.0 44 5.4
K-9539 72 7.1 32 5.8 26 2.5 26 3.6
K-9645 60 10.2 50 6.1 46 8.3 42 5.2
K-9671 84 5.8 64 5.9 54 5.4 44 6.4
K-9842 80 8.7 72 6.7 46 5.4 30 4.2
K-9989 78 9.1 28 8.1 18 3.2 8 1.0
Kokchetavskoye-66 44 4.4 50 6.9 46 5.2 38 5.1
Kormovoye-89 84 15.4 36 8.1 32 5.1 20 1.1
Omskoye-11 82 12.5 80 5.6 78 8.0 76 2.4
Pavlodarskoye 78 9.1 46 8.8 32 5.1 26 5.8
Pamyati Bersiyeva 90 12.1 58 5.0 50 5.0 48 4.4
Saratovskoye-6 (St) 64 9.9 60 7.4 46 8.4 36 5.6
Shortandinskoye-10 64 9.1 58 5.9 54 3.5 54 5.2
Shortandinskoye-7 65 5.4 64 6.4 60 8.4 40 4.1
Yarkoye-5 60 9.2 45 5.2 43 3.8 37 5.3
Yarkoye-6 58 12.1 38 3.8 36 3.2 36 2.2
Yarkoye-7 90 8.4 54 8.1 42 2.5 34 3.8
Note: M – Mean; SD – Standard Deviation
989
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions...
100, and 150 mM concentrations demonstrated 56-64% de-
crease of the germinating viability in comparison with the
control. The smallest decrease in the germinating viability
at all concentration of salinization was demonstrated by the
samples K-1437, Shortandinskoye-7, Shortandinskoye-10,
Kokchetavskoye-66, Barnaulskoye kormovoye, K-3742,
and K-10278.
The degree of salt tolerance of the studied samples was
also estimated according to raw biomass of 7-day seed-
lings of millet at various salinization concentrations in
comparison with the sprouts growing in the control condi-
tions. Raw biomass of experimental plants in comparison
with control decreased in average twice, except for some
samples where this indicator was from 4 to 10 times lower
(Table 3).
The strongest inhibition of raw biomass accumulation of
seedlings at all concentration of NaCl was established at geno-
types: K-9539, Omskoye-11, Yarkoye-6, K-10312, and Pav-
lodarskoye. The decrease of raw biomass (up to 10% about the
control) was observed at sample K-9539 at 150 mM of NaCl.
The best accumulation of raw biomass at 75 mM of NaCl
was demonstrated in genotypes Barnaulskoye kormovoye
(96.9%), Shortandinskoye-7 (96.8%), Shortandinskoye-10
(91.7%), Saratovskoye-6 St (91.7%), K-9842 (91.7%), Zolot-
istoye kormovoye (91.7%), K-9520 (91.7%), Aktyubinskoye
kormovoye (91.7%), K-9989 (90.7%), K-803 (88.8%) and
Kokchetavskoye-66 (84.3%). At 100 mM of NaCl the high-
est accumulation of raw biomass was counted at genotypes:
K-9842 (91%), K-9520 (91%), K1437 (90.4%), Shortandin-
skoye-7 (88.8%), Zolotistoye kormovoye (83.5%), K-9989
Table 3. Infl uence of salt stress on the accumulation of raw biomass of 7-day seedlings
Samples Raw biomass (mg)
0 mM NaCl 75 mM NaCl 100 mM NaCl 150 mM NaCl
MSDMSDMSDMSD
Aktyubinskoye kormovoye 1.34 0.30 1.23 0.09 1.04 0.05 0.74 0.02
Barnaulskoye kormovoye 1.32 0.21 1.28 0.10 1.04 0.09 0.94 0.03
Zolotistoye kormovoye 1.34 0.25 1.23 0.14 1.12 0.06 0.96 0.09
K -9681 1.23 0.09 0.94 0.07 0.84 0.02 0.6 0.04
K-10278 0.94 0.02 0.75 0.05 0.59 0.03 0.34 0.02
K-10279 0.81 0.01 0.64 0.02 0.57 0.02 0.53 0.02
K-10312 1.21 0.09 0.86 0.02 0.61 0.05 0.31 0.03
K-1437 1.25 0.09 1.21 0.11 1.13 0.09 0.83 0.05
K-3137 1.21 0.09 0.86 0.02 0.85 0.05 0.94 0.02
K-367 1.52 0.24 1.23 0.08 1.06 0.04 1.01 0.09
K-3742 1.21 0.05 0.86 0.02 0.85 0.07 0.75 0.04
K-803 1.32 0.08 1.17 0.08 1.02 0.02 0.89 0.03
K-9520 1.34 0.09 1.23 0.05 1.22 0.05 0.96 0.05
K-9539 1.32 0.21 0.54 0.03 0.25 0.01 0.13 0.02
K-9645 0.94 0.04 0.65 0.02 0.6 0.02 0.54 0.03
K-9671 1.56 0.12 1.07 0.04 0.94 0.09 0.84 0.03
K-9842 1.34 0.08 1.23 0.05 1.22 0.01 0.96 0.07
K-9989 1.52 0.11 1.38 0.05 1.26 0.02 1.21 0.02
Kokchetavskoye-66 1.34 0.12 1.13 0.07 1.03 0.09 0.96 0.05
Kormovoye-89 1.46 0.11 1.12 0.08 0.97 0.05 0.64 0.08
Omskoye-11 1.34 0.09 0.68 0.05 0.47 0.02 0.21 0.02
Pavlodarskoye 1.52 0.12 0.78 0.05 0.62 0.05 0.43 0.02
Pamyati Bersiyeva 1.56 0.09 1.12 0.08 0.97 0.08 0.82 0.03
Saratovskoye-6 (St) 1.34 0.17 1.23 0.01 1.1 0.09 0.96 0.02
Shortandinskoye-10 1.34 0.21 1.23 0.06 1.02 0.01 0.96 0.05
Shortandinskoye-7 1.25 0.12 1.21 0.09 1.11 0.09 0.83 0.02
Yarkoye-5 1.32 0.08 0.8 0.02 0.63 0.05 0.52 0.03
Yarkoye-6 1.32 0.05 0.57 0.03 0.41 0.04 0.24 0.02
Yarkoye-7 1.56 0.09 1.12 0.02 1.01 0.03 0.86 0.04
Note: M – Mean; SD – Standard Deviation
990 Aiman Rysbekova et al.
(82.8%), Saratovskoye-6 St (82%), Barnaulskoye kormo-
voye (78.7%), K-803 (77.6%), Aktyubinskoye kormovoye
(77.6%), Kokchetavskoye-66 (76.8%) and Shortandins-
koye-10 (76.1%). At 150 mM of NaCl the accumulation
of raw biomass was in the genotypes respectively: K-9989
(79.6%), K-3137 (77.6%), Shortandinskoye-10 (71.6), Sara-
tovskoye-6 St (71.6), Kokchetavskoye-66 (71.6), K-9842
(71.6%), K-9520 (71.6%), Zolotistoye kormovoye (71.6%),
Barnaulskoye kormovoye (71.2%), K-803 (67.4%), K-367
(66.4%), Shortandinskoye-7 (66.4%) and K-1437 (66.4%).
At high concentration of NaCl (150 mM), the samples
K-9989 and K-3137 surpassed the standard cultivar Sarato-
vskoye-6 in accumulation of raw biomass with 6 and 8%
respectively. The genotypes Barnaulskoye kormovoye, Zo-
lotistoye kormovoye, K-9520, K-9842, and Kokchetavs-
koye-66 demonstrated accumulation of raw biomass at the
level of Saratovskoye-6 (St).
The stress caused by NaCl salinization (75, 100, and 150
mM) also inhibited the growth of sprouts and roots of the
studied experimental samples of millet (Table 4).
Table 4. Alteration of morphometric indicators of 7-day sprouts of millet at various salinization concentrations by
sodium chloride
Samples NaCl concentrations (mM)
0 75 100 150
Shoot
length, mm
Root length,
mm
Shoot
length, mm
Root length,
mm
Shoot
length, mm
Root length,
mm
Shoot
length, mm
Root length,
mm
MSDMSDMSDMSDMSDMSDMSDMSD
Aktyubinskoye
kormovoye
1.53 1.86 3.34 0.96 1.31 1.10 2.55 0.60 1.18 0.98 2.44 0.53 1.00 0.81 1.20 0.45
Barnaulskoye
kormovoye
2.23 1.55 3.43 1.36 1.67 0.87 2.69 1.12 1.25 0.64 2.20 1.01 1.08 0.52 1.38 0.90
Zolotistoye
kormovoye
2.80 1.60 3.41 1.54 2.04 1.19 2.34 1.20 1.84 0.93 1.54 1.01 1.23 0.83 1.27 0.92
K -9681 1.90 1.11 2.66 1.63 1.49 0.92 2.14 1.45 1.31 0.57 1.56 0.93 1.18 0.52 1.33 0.60
K-10278 3.57 1.48 3.8 1.26 2.25 0.98 2.43 1.02 1.52 0.63 1.56 0.72 1.08 0.51 1.26 0.53
K-10279 2.21 1.10 3.86 1.29 1.70 0.81 2.87 1.20 1.20 0.41 1.57 0.74 0.87 0.34 1.23 0.63
K-10312 2.53 1.71 3.62 1.74 1.75 0.95 2.86 1.44 1.23 0.56 1.61 1.27 1.14 0.39 1.31 1.23
K-1437 1.84 1.11 3.22 1.48 1.42 0.89 2.21 1.23 1.14 0.76 1.45 0.85 1.05 0.63 1.26 0.45
K-3137 2.12 1.40 4.05 1.63 1.50 0.94 3.19 1.47 1.38 0.66 2.57 1.50 1.10 0.31 1.51 1.01
K-367 2.99 1.66 3.22 1.74 1.40 0.91 2.70 1.48 1.21 0.63 2.04 1.43 1.00 0.51 1.17 1.16
K-3742 2.30 1.56 2.14 1.15 1.69 0.98 1.35 0.75 1.43 0.76 1.12 0.50 1.13 0.62 1.04 0.40
K-803 3.41 1.45 4.54 1.40 2.38 1.20 3.44 0.94 2.13 0.84 2.20 0.60 1.50 0.72 2.11 0.54
K-9520 1.95 1.25 2.75 1.45 1.57 0.76 1.32 1.38 1.14 0.67 1.22 0.81 0.72 0.43 1.18 0.45
K-9539 3.00 1.36 2.56 1.39 1.61 0.92 1.54 1.14 1.48 0.52 1.25 0.93 1.08 0.42 1.13 0.68
K-9645 3.83 1.59 4.36 1.70 2.06 1.22 2.43 1.30 1.75 0.91 2.07 0.90 1.11 0.50 1.54 0.50
K-9671 2.1 1.29 3.56 1.38 1.38 0.64 2.40 0.93 1.21 0.52 1.34 0.60 1.00 0.41 1.14 0.51
K-9842 1.76 1.21 3.70 1.70 1.18 0.91 3.13 1.37 1.11 0.82 2.85 0.85 0.95 0.34 1.18 0.65
K-9989 3.01 1.56 2.81 1.50 1.60 0.91 1.96 1.25 1.20 0.78 1.71 0.48 0.89 0.28 1.21 0.35
Kokchetavskoye 66 2.31 1.32 3.57 1.20 1.96 0.96 2.89 0.82 1.49 0.76 2.18 0.45 1.17 0.32 1.01 0.28
Kormovoye-89 2.42 1.93 3.53 1.55 1.84 1.21 2.84 1.21 1.25 0.92 2.61 0.93 1.07 0.45 1.64 0.78
Omskoye-11 1.86 1.13 3.33 1.21 1.57 0.83 2.90 1.10 1.24 0.65 1.54 0.91 1.13 0.62 1.21 0.61
Pavlodarskoye 1.60 1.04 4.10 1.33 1.43 0.70 3.36 1.10 1.21 0.55 2.60 0.71 1.00 0.50 1.03 0.63
Pamyati Bersiyeva 3.23 1.46 4.48 1.63 1.97 1.20 3.62 1.39 1.85 1.11 3.23 1.27 1.29 0.83 1.94 0.90
Saratovskoye-6 (St) 4.24 1.38 5.36 1.61 2.50 0.87 3.25 1.42 1.96 0.85 1.80 1.10 1.31 0.45 1.64 0.74
Shortandinskoye-10 1.60 1.10 4.32 1.27 1.45 0.74 2.26 1.01 1.23 0.62 1.80 0.82 1.02 0.51 1.31 0.51
Shortandinskoye-7 1.97 0.83 3.38 1.39 1.28 0.62 2.74 1.20 1.04 0.50 2.50 0.95 0.96 0.42 1.92 0.82
Yarkoye-5 2.42 1.34 5.37 1.64 2.19 0.90 3.36 1.40 1.69 0.62 2.73 0.84 1.08 0.36 1.50 0.74
Yarkoye-6 3.55 1.38 3.47 1.54 1.77 0.79 2.30 1.25 1.38 0.45 2.01 1.10 1.17 0.32 1.29 0.90
Yarkoye-7 1.99 1.30 4.10 1.50 1.58 0.91 3.12 1.25 1.30 0.74 2.01 0.90 1.11 0.52 1.86 0.51
Note: M – Mean; SD – Standard Deviation
991
Evaluation of salt tolerance of Panicum miliaceum L. collection at the germination stage in conditions...
The studied samples demonstrated an unequal average
value of sprouts’ length of 7-day seedlings in comparison
with control variant. At 75 mM of NaCl, Aktyubinskoye
kormovoye, K-9681, Shortandinskoye-10, and Yarkoye-7
showed a slight decrease of sprouts’ length. At the cultivar
Saratovskoye-6 (St) this indicator decreased to 50% (at 75
and 100 mM NaCl), and to 70% – at 150 mM NaCl. Re-
garding the length of germinal roots of 7-day seedlings,
cultivars Yarkoye-5 and Pavlodarskoye were more sensitive
among the studied genotypes at all levels of salinization.
The best values of sprouts’ length at all levels of salinization
were noted at samples: K-9681, Yarkoye-5, Pavlodarskoye,
Shortandinskoye-10, and Aktyubinskoye kormovoye. The
unequal seedlings reaction in the growth parameters of roots,
over-ground part, and accumulation of raw biomass could be
explained with various mechanisms of salt tolerance taking
place at the studied samples.
The reason for the suppression of seedlings growth in
saline substrates is sharp inhibition of their metabolic pro-
cesses caused by the increased accumulation of salt ions
in cells (Watson & Witts, 1959; Dzhanibekova, 1972).
Further increase of salt concentration suppresses growth
processes, up to plant death (Ashraf & Parveen, 2002;
Veselov et al., 2007). It indicates the all-biological effect
of growth inhibition at the increased salt concentration in
the environment. The higher the level of the saline sub-
strate, the stronger growth inhibition that leads to a no-
ticeable decrease of all parameters characterizing growth
processes (Ozernyuk, 1992; Udovenko, 1995). The pres-
ent experiment confi rmed such dependence. The increase
of environment salinity (up to 150 mM NaCl) led to a
signifi cant decrease in germinating viability of seeds of
millet experimental samples (Fig. 1).
A similar trend was also demonstrated by the data
about the raw biomass of millet seedlings from the col-
lection (Fig. 2).
Data of fresh weight (FW) of millet plantlets showed that
relative to control, salt stress caused a decrease of this indi-
cator to 77.21% at 75 mM NaCl; 67.22% at 100 mM NaCl,
and 54.91% at 150 mM NaCl, respectively. Salinization also
led to the reduction of the development shown by the de-
crease in the growth parameters such as length of sprouts and
roots of 7-day seedlings (Fig. 3).
As a result, an average value of sprouts’ and roots’ length
at 75 mM of NaCl was in limits of 71.9%, at 100 mM – 58%
and 54%, at 150 mM – 46% and 38%, respectively.
Several hypotheses are explaining the suppression of
growth and development of plants in salinization conditions
as this phenomenon is caused by the osmotic infl uence of
salt solutions, and the plant inhibition is a consequence of the
toxic impact of the absorbed ions on physiology-biochemi-
cal processes. However, in salinization conditions, the plant
is affected by two factors both osmotic and toxic, but the
infl uence of each of them is defi ned by quality and degree of
Fig. 1. Inhibition of seed germination from the collection
of millet depending on the NaCl concentration
Fig. 2. Accumulation of raw biomass of the millet collection
depending on the NaCl concentration
Fig. 3. Salt stress infl uence onto growth parameters
of millet seedlings concerning control, (%)
992 Aiman Rysbekova et al.
salinization and also by the norm of reaction of a plant to salt
stress (Stroganov, 1962; Zhu, 2002; Donaldson et al., 2004;
Colmenero-Flores et al., 2007; Gao et al., 2007; Flowers &
Colmer, 2015; Chakraborty et al., 2016)
Conclusions
Analysis of the obtained data demonstrated the inhibit-
ing effect of salinization on all morphometric traits (seed
germination, raw biomass, length of sprouts and roots of
seedlings) used for the evaluation of salt tolerance of mil-
let (Panicum miliaceum L.). As a result of the laboratory
screening among 29 genotypes, tolerance to sodium chlo-
ride salinization at a juvenile stage of development demon-
strated K-9989, K-3137, Barnaulskoye kormovoye, Zolotis-
toye kormovoye, K-9520, K-9842, and Kokchetavskoye-66,
which accumulated the maximum amount of raw biomass
in percentage. The samples K-1437, Shortandinskoye-7,
Shortandinskoye-10, Kokchetavskoye-66, Barnaulskoye ko-
rmovoye, K-3742, and K-10278 were characterized by high
germinating viability at the studied salinization levels. These
genotypes as the most adaptive were selected as valuable
initial material for inclusion in breeding programs aiming to
create more salt tolerant forms, and as a perspective for cul-
tivation on the saline soils.
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