ThesisPDF Available

Fourth Turning Clash of Inter-Civilization Cultures Thesis

Authors:
  • The Calhoun Institute

Abstract

Why did classical liberalism fail to achieve the results its original proponents envisioned? Given the popularity of social liberalism modern liberalism and progressive causes and ideologies, as derivatives and permutations of classical liberalism, one might argue it has not failed in the first place, rather, perhaps it has not yet been fully realized and implemented. But the fact is classical liberalism has failed, as can be conclusively proven, it has failed because it ignored immutable metaphysical laws, the historic reality and an approach to human nature based upon realism. At the end of the road of classical liberalism the West arrived at social liberalism and progressive liberalism which beckon its adherents to seek greater authoritarianism to compel compliance and ultimately reduce individual liberty and increase governmental power. iii Abstract I propose a unified theory of sorts that combines The Strauss-Howe generational theory with a hybrid of Samuel Huntington's Clash of Civilization's hypothesis explains in part the observation that the West has not reached the End of History as some propose. Rather, classical liberalism, as expressed through derivative ideologies of progressivism, social liberalism, socialism, and communism, has failed to provide the social order and tranquility that early proponents envisioned. At its core, classical liberalism failed to acknowledge immutable metaphysical laws, the historic reality and an approach to human nature based upon realism. The overarching intent of this work is to provide an umbrella under which related research will reside that fleshes out specific and more detailed aspects of the larger hypothesis presented above.
Fourth Turning Clash of Inter-Civilization Cultures
by
Barry L. Clark
The Citadel, History; Excelsior College, Interdisciplinary Studies; US Army
Command and General Staff College; Liberty University, Public Policy
© Barry Clark 2019
The Calhoun Institute
Copyright in this work rests with the author. Please ensure that any reproduction
or re-use is done in accordance with the relevant national copyright legislation.
ii
Thesis Statement
Why did classical liberalism fail to achieve the results its original
proponents envisioned? Given the popularity of social liberalism modern
liberalism and progressive causes and ideologies, as derivatives and
permutations of classical liberalism, one might argue it has not failed in the first
place, rather, perhaps it has not yet been fully realized and implemented. But the
fact is classical liberalism has failed, as can be conclusively proven, it has failed
because it ignored immutable metaphysical laws, the historic reality and an
approach to human nature based upon realism. At the end of the road of
classical liberalism the West arrived at social liberalism and progressive
liberalism which beckon its adherents to seek greater authoritarianism to compel
compliance and ultimately reduce individual liberty and increase governmental
power.
iii
Abstract
I propose a unified theory of sorts that combines The StraussHowe generational theory
with a hybrid of Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilization’s hypothesis explains in part
the observation that the West has not reached the End of History as some propose.
Rather, classical liberalism, as expressed through derivative ideologies of progressivism,
social liberalism, socialism, and communism, has failed to provide the social order and
tranquility that early proponents envisioned. At its core, classical liberalism failed to
acknowledge immutable metaphysical laws, the historic reality and an approach to
human nature based upon realism.
The overarching intent of this work is to provide an umbrella under which related
research will reside that fleshes out specific and more detailed aspects of the larger
hypothesis presented above.
Keywords: Classical Liberalism; Generational Theory; Metaphysical Reality
iv
Contents
Thesis Statement ............................................................................................................ ii
Abstract .......................................................................................................................... iii
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
Metaphysical Reality ....................................................................................................... 1
Classical Liberalism Flawed at Origin .............................................................................. 1
Strauss-Howe Generational theory/Huntington Clash of Civilizations hypothesis Fusion . 2
Classical Liberalism to Authoritarianism .......................................................................... 2
References ...................................................................................................................... 3
1
Introduction
The hypothesis of this thesis is supported by historical evidence and analysis,
which is revisionist by necessity, logical and theological analysis of political philosophy,
social-historical theories of generations, generation theory, that provide evidence of
trends in support of conclusions, philosophical and finally political theory analysis of
current ideologies and trends.
The following are placeholder elements of the elements mentioned above. The
general concepts of Fourth Turning Clash of Inter-Civilization Cultures were first
articulated in The Philosophy of Commonsense. (B. L. Clark, 2019b) The intent of the
thesis presented here is to focus further research and development of specific aspects of
the theory into a comprehensive explanation of why classical liberalism failed.
Metaphysical Reality
There exists a metaphysical reality that includes a divine entity that created and
ordered the cosmos and wrote rules, laws and knowledge of the realty into the hearts of
all creation according to their understanding. This metaphysical reality informs common-
sense and the natural moral law, from this reality flow the natural rights of life, liberty and
property. Through revelations, logic, experience, wisdom and empiricism humans can
know truths about both societal and transcendent order. (B. L. Clark, 2019b)
Classical Liberalism Flawed at Origin
Classical liberal theorist assumed, almost unanimously that man was basically
good. They acknowledged, for the most part, the existence of the natural moral. Without
natural moral law and the propensity of most men most of the time to follow the law of
conscience individual liberty cannot long exist in a society unchecked by civil law.
Enlightenment thinkers ignored historical evidence and metaphysical facts that indicate
that because man might know of the natural moral law they are under no compulsion to
obey it and in practical application they are inclined to ignore it more than adhere to it.
(B. L. Clark, 2019a)
2
Strauss-Howe Generational theory/Huntington Clash of
Civilizations hypothesis Fusion
The Strauss-Howe Fourth Turning Generational theory provides a workable
explanation of cycles and trends since the Glorious Revolution, the beginning of
classical liberal thought, that demonstrate a progressive shift from an acceptance of the
metaphysical reality and toward nominalism and relativism. (Strauss & Howe, 2009)
Samuel Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations hypothesis argues that humanity has
not reached the end of history, a time posited by some when nation-states, international
geopolitical arrangements and democratic principles would stabilize conflict and usher in
a new era of progress and tranquility. Huntington argued that conflicts in a post-Cold
War world would be centered on civilizations rather than ideology. (Huntington, 1993)
I contend that in the postmodern world, ideology, the progressivism of humanist
liberal ideology, has given rise to new culture within an existing civilization. (Cropsey,
Seth, Halem, 2018) These new cultures are competing for revolutionary change, rather
than reformation. The vast gulf between the traditional and progressive liberal
worldviews is so vast as to be irreconcilable without one replacing the other. (B. Clark,
2018) The Clash of Civilization Huntington foresaw is playing out amongst traditional
civilizations, West-Sino, West-Islamic and among Liberal and traditional cultures within
civilizations, conflicts that will potentially redefine the very nature of those civilizations.
Classical Liberalism to Authoritarianism
Since 1848 the trend in the West has been toward greater degrees of democracy
with notable examples of increases in totalitarianism and authoritarianism. However, this
trend will not hold. Americas own form of government radically changed in 1867. (B.
Clark, 2016) In the last half-century, democracies across the West have demonstrated
an increase in the role of government and an assault on the originally three accepted
natural rights, life, liberty and property in order to enforce new concepts of liberalism.
(Hoppe, 2018) These trends, must inevitably and logically end in authoritarianism.
3
References
Clark, B. (2016). The First War of the New Order.
https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.5163.7528
Clark, B. (2018). Americas Great Cultural and Political Divide. The Calhoun Institute.
Retrieved from
https://www.calhouninstitute.com/review/Americas_Great_Cultural_Political_Divide.
pdf
Clark, B. L. (2019a). A Commonsense Case for Christianity. Retrieved from
https://books.google.com/books?id=gErBDwAAQBAJ
Clark, B. L. (2019b). The Philosophy of Commonsense: A Cultural War Primer.
Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=CK6-DwAAQBAJ
Cropsey, Seth, Halem, H. (2018). Clash of Civilizationsor Clash Within Civilizations?
The American Interest, THE CLASH. Retrieved from https://www.the-american-
interest.com/2018/08/31/clash-of-civilizations-or-clash-within-civilizations/
Hoppe, H. H. (2018). Democracy -- The God That Failed: The Economics and Politics of
Monarchy, Democracy and Natural Order. Retrieved from
https://books.google.com/books?id=bvdKDwAAQBAJ
Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs, (Summer). Retrieved
from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/1993-06-01/clash-
civilizations?fa_anthology=1114000
Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (2009). The Fourth Turning: What the Cycles of History Tell Us
About Americas Next Rendezvous with Destiny. Retrieved from
https://books.google.com/books?id=d8bBFGJq79sC
... Hence, Strauss and Howe argue for the existence of a recurring pattern of constitutive events in a given period of time, whereby the generations formed have common characteristics as the previous generations formed concurrent with similar events. In this manner, they claim that it is possible to foresee both the characteristics of the next generations and the types of events that will lead to their formation (Clark, 2019). Generation X are also called the "lost children". ...
... First of all, according to the Strauss-Howe theory, Generation X is a generation of "nomads" who were generated, grew, and developed during the "awakening" period, which as stated is characterized by criticism and even attacks against the current establishment and the familiar social institutions in the name of individualism and even narcissism (Clark, 2019). "Lost children" "declared a war" against the political leadership, with the aim of separating from it in order to nurture themselves in the name of independence and the survival instinct (Albert et al., 2019;Reisenwitz & Fowler, 2019;Ting et al., 2018). ...
... Secondly, according to the above theory (Clark, 2019), Generation Y is almost the exact opposite of Generation X. It is a generation of "heroes" in a time of "unraveling", who on one hand sought to learn from the aspirations of the previous generation by mass purposeful abandonment of social institutions perceived as outdated (such as the marriage institution and careerism), but on the other sought to correct mistakes and return to the bosom of brands that allow the highest level of self-expression. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards tablets as pedagogical aids from an intergenerational perspective. It is based on sociological theories and definitions that emphasize the disparities and the uniqueness of each “generation” as well as customary teaching and learning methods. The study compares teachers from Generation Y and Generation X and it was carried out about one year from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, when all teachers regardless of “generation” were required to teach digitally. We focused on a common digital tool, the tablet, which enables diverse learning methods. A questionnaire was administered to teachers in the Israeli educational system (N = 154). The research findings showed that teachers from Generation Y (aged 26-42) have more positive general attitudes towards the use of tablets as an integral part of the study program and identify more advantages and less disadvantages than their Generation X colleagues (ages 43-65). The current research findings were compatible with research findings regarding the general attitudes of teachers towards innovative technologies and their integration in study programs in educational systems worldwide. The practical meaning of the study is that it is important to continue leading programs for integrating advanced technological appliances, and not only tablets, in the curriculum, as the generation of teachers who will be responsible for educating the younger generations and for leading these programs in particular is from the age group that has the most positive attitudes towards the subject.
Thesis
Full-text available
Classical liberalism failed when philosophical thought turned away from the Scottish School toward the German school. The solution is to look back, not to Kant as a starting point in an effort to move forward, but to some of Kant’s contemporaries, those that the criticisms of Kant and other German school philosophers eventually silenced and banished from consideration. I propose that the Enlightenment went wrong when we eventually abandoned the Scottish School for the German School. Over the last two hundred plus years philosophy has progressively elaborated upon ideas that were flawed, slightly at first, at the start into what now might be simply called absurdity. Furthermore, I propose that the acceptance of Neoplatonic ideas of Thomas Hobbes by the Federalist, and their eventual total victory in United States domestic politics and interpretation of law, combined with other factors such as passions of the Transcendental generation and a progressive increase in bad philosophical ideas in the form of ideologies, completed the destruction of Classical Liberalism/Republicanism and lead to absurdity in economic thought and policy, as well as political theory and politics. These factors affect not only policy and history in the United States but have come to shape geopolitics and history.
Article
Full-text available
The modern progressive movement in the United States, based upon ideology deriving from classical liberalism must invariably lead to greater authoritarianism. Classical liberalism began to fail as a philosophy as soon as it spawned ideologies that abandoned the notion of universal truth. Progressive ideology in the United States since the mid 19th century has demonstrated an increasing propensity to advocate a stronger central government, less Constitutional control and a decreasing adherence to the rule of law. Preferring de facto verse de jure. These trends in legal idealism at the expense of legal realism coupled with the growing passion and a propensity toward violence among the base indicate that increased left authoritarianism is not only possible but likely.
Book
Christianity is a Permanent Thing; this work is about how Christians should defend Christianity and other Permanent Things in an increasingly hostile civilization. It is a continuation of the dialogue of Schaeffer, MacIntyre, Moore, and Dreher and owes much to Eliot, Yeats, and Kirk for inspiration.
Book
Full-text available
A presentation of an assertion that common-sense exists because first principles, natural moral law, and universal truths exist. Common-sense has served as a guide and a protection from ill-considered ideas and inflamed passions throughout history. It can guide us now through our current cultural war. Through an examination of the Strauss-Howe generational theory, the outcomes of past periods of history similar to our own era the book proposes that common-sense and the lessons our ancestors can teach us will be key in the solutions our children someday craft to resolve current issues. This book is important for parents to remind us of the knowledge we received from our parents and grandparents that we should pass along to our children. It is important for our children to help them understand that truth does exist and not everything from the past should be discarded willy-nilly.
Article
Full-text available
America is more divided culturally and politically than at any time since the 1850’s. Real and authentic dialogue does not occur and violence and the threat of violence increase daily. We are on a precarious path with potentially dangerous outcomes. http://www.calhouninstitute.com/americas-great-cultural-political-divide/
Book
An appeal to an examination of mere, authentic Christianity. I concluded my last book, The Philosophy of Commonsense with the premise that Christian values had informed the common-sense of ordinary and extraordinary people throughout the history of the West to culminate in the formation of American culture. This work is a continuation of that theme with a discussion of precisely what is meant by authentic Christianity and why anyone that seeks to understand their place in the cosmos should at least give it the old college try.
Article
On time preference, government, and the process of decivilization -- On Monarchy, Democracy, and the idea of natural order -- On Monarchy, Democracy, Public Opinion, and Delegitimation -- On Democracy, Redistribution, and the Destruction of Property -- On Centralization and Secession -- On Socialism and Desocialization -- On free inmigration and forced integration -- On free trade and restricted inmigration -- On cooperation, tribe, city, and state -- On Conservatism and Libertarianism -- On the errors of Classical Libaralism and the future of liberty -- On government and the private production of defense -- On the impossibility of limited Government and the prospect for revolution
Clash of Civilizations-or Clash Within Civilizations? The American Interest, THE CLASH
  • Seth Cropsey
  • H Halem
Cropsey, Seth, Halem, H. (2018). Clash of Civilizations-or Clash Within Civilizations? The American Interest, THE CLASH. Retrieved from https://www.the-americaninterest.com/2018/08/31/clash-of-civilizations-or-clash-within-civilizations/
The Fourth Turning: What the Cycles of History Tell Us About America's Next Rendezvous with Destiny
  • W Strauss
  • N Howe
Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (2009). The Fourth Turning: What the Cycles of History Tell Us About America's Next Rendezvous with Destiny. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=d8bBFGJq79sC