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Clove: A review of a precious species with multiple uses

  • University of Okara


Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that have been used traditionally as food preservative and for many therapeutic purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but it has also been cultured in several parts of the world including Pakistan. This plant represents one of the richest sources of phenolic constituents as eugenol, and eugenol acetate and posseses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This article includes main studies reporting the phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove are higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices. Toxicological studies are also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in current work authenticate the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant.
IJCBS, 11(2017):129-133
Hussain et al., 2017 129
Clove: A review of a precious species with multiple uses
Shahid Hussain1, Rafia Rahman1 and Ayesha Mushtaq1*, Asma El Zerey-Belaskri2
1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and 2Faculté des Sciences de la nature et de la Vie,
Université de Sidi Bel Abbes, Algérie
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that have been used traditionally as food preservative and for
many therapeutic purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but it has also been cultured in several parts of the world including
Pakistan. This plant represents one of the richest sources of phenolic constituents as eugenol, and eugenol acetate and posseses
great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This article includes main studies reporting the
phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove
are higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices. Toxicological studies are also mentioned. The different studies reviewed
in current work authenticate the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant.
Key words: Syzygium aromaticum, eugenol, antioxidant
Full length article *Corresponding Author, e-mail:
1. Botany
1.1. Introduction
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) a precious spice, is a
member of Mirtaceae family which has been employed for
centuries as food preservative and medicine because of its
antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Syzygium is the
largest genus of Mirtaceae family, comprising of about 1200
to 1800 species of flowering plants, which are widely
distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa,
Madagascar, and throughout Pacific and Oceanic regions [1].
Cloves contain appreciable amounts of volatile oil (used for
flavouring foods and pharmaceuticals), which is mainly
confined in aerial parts of plant. The yield and composition
of volatile oil are variable and are thought to be linked to
growing conditions, genetic factors, different chemotypes,
geographic origins, and differences in the nutritional status of
plant [2-4]. Clove is known by different vernacular names in
different languages. It is known as qaranful (Arabic),
Karamfil (Bulgarian), Ding xiang (Chinese), Kruidnagel
(Danish), Garifalo (Greek), Mikhaki (Georgian), Nelke
(German), Szegfu (Hungarian), Cengkeh (Indonesian), Choji
(Japanese), Jeonghyang (Korean), Krustnaglinas (Latvian),
Lwaang (Nepalese), Carvo de India (Portuguese), Mikhak
(Persian), Kala (Pashto), Gvosdika (Russian), Clavo
(Spanish), Carenfil (Turkish), Garn ploo (Thai), Dhing huong
(Vietnamese), and Laung (Urdu/Punjabi/Hindi) [5].
1.2. History
Clove is an ancient spice, which is believed to be
originated in the first century, before Christ. The first clue
about clove’s fragrance was given by the ancient Chinese
(207 B.C. to 220 A.D.). At that time, a Chinese Physician
wrote that court visitors were required to hold clove in their
mouth to prevent the Emperor from visitor’s bad breath.
Cloves were traded to Europe by the Arabs in 4th century
A.D. The origin and source of clove was a mystery, until the
discovery of Indonesia or Moluccas Island, by Portuguese,
in 16th century. In 17th century A.D., cloves were introduced
to Sri Lanka. In 18th century A.D., cloves were established
in India by East India Company. In European countries,
there is a tradition to make “Pomanders” by studding
oranges with clove buds, and to hang them around the
homes, during Christmas, for decorative purpose and to
spread fragrance.
1.3. Demography/Location
Clove requires damp tropical and sub-tropical
environments for growth. It has been cultivated in the
following countries: Indonesia, Sri-Lanka, India, Tanzania,
Malaysia, Madagascar, and Pakistan.
1.4. Botany, Morphology, Ecology
Clove is a scented dried bud of Syzgium
aromaticum tree, used as seasoning in food cuisines. S.
aromaticum is an evergreen tree which grows upto a height
of 8 to 12m; having large quadrangle leaves and cheerful
flowers arranged in form of clusters. Young flower buds are
of pale color and slowly changes to green, which changes to
bright red when buds are ready for harvesting. Harvesting
should be done when buds have 1.52 cm length, long calyx
terminating in four closed petals (forming a tiny ball in the
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Hussain et al., 2017 130
core) and spreading sepals. Clove growth requires well-
drained, loamy, and organic matter rich soils. Constant
temperature above 10ºC is crucial, while, optimum
temperature is around 20 to 30 ºC. This species cannot
tolerate water logged conditions. Areas having annual
rainfall of 150 to 300 cm are best for its growth [5].
2. Chemistry
Clove is a vital source of phenolic compounds such
as flavonoids, hydroxycinamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids,
and hydroxyphenyl propenes. Eugenol is the chief bioactive
constituent of clove, which is present in concentrations
ranging from 9 381.70 to 14 650.00 mg/100 g of fresh plant
weight. With regard to the phenolic acids, gallic acid is
found in higher concentration (783.50 mg/100 g fresh
weight) [6]. Other phenolic acids found in clove are caffeic,
ferulic, elagic and salicylic acids. Flavonoids including
kaempferol, quercetin and its derivates (glycosilated) are
also found in trace amounts. Appreciable amounts of
essential oil are present in aerial parts of clove. Chemical
profile of this oil is generally found by GCMS analysis [7-
11]. Good quality clove bud contains volatile oil (15 to
20%), which mainly comprises of eugenol (70 to 85%),
eugenyl acetate (10 to 15%), and beta-caryophyllene (5 to
12%). Other minor constituents including methyl amyl
ketone, kaempferol, gallotannic acid, α-humulene, β-
humulene, methyl salicylate, crategolic acid, and
benzaldehyde are responsible for the characteristic pleasant
fragrance of clove [12]. Figure 1 shows structures of some
important compounds of clove.
Eugenol acetate
Fig.1. Structures of some important phytochemicals
found in Syzygium aromaticum L.
3. Post-harvest technology
Clove trees begin to flower in four years and the
full bearing stage is achieved only in 15 years. Flowering
period varies from September-October to December-January
depending on tree locality. Clove buds are formed on young
branches and take 4-6 months to become ready for harvest.
Buds should be harvested when color of petals changes to
yellow pink from green. Harvesting can be done by hand or
by using stepladder. Harvesting should be done carefully to
prevent breakage of branches. An average 15 to 20 year old
tree yields 3 to 4 kg of dried clove buds. Optimum time for
harvesting clove seeds is 75-90 days after fruit set. After
harvesting, clove buds are separated from their stalks by
hand and spread on mats for drying. Drying may take 4 to 5
days. Well dried buds are hard, crisp and dark brown,
having moisture content (<12%), which can be stored for 1
to 2 years in gunny bags. Approximately, 15-20% volatile
oil can be produced from dried buds [13].
4. General uses
Cloves have many uses ranging from culinary to
medicine. Clove is a valuable kitchen spice which can be
used for studding onions, tomatoes, salads, herbal teas, and
soups. It is also used to flavor meat products, cookies,
chewing gums, spiced fruits, pickles, chocolates, soft drinks,
puddings, sandwiches, pastries, and candies. Volatile oil is
used to impart essence to perfumes soaps, toothpastes, and
pharmaceuticals. In Indonesia, mixture of clove and tobacco
in a ratio of 1:2 is used to make a special cigarette “Kretek”.
Clove possesses antibacterial potential and is used in a
variety of mouth washes, dental creams, throat sprays, and
tooth pastes to kill pathogens. It is also used to relive sore
gums. Mixture of eugenol (major bioactive constituent of
clove) and zinc oxide is used for short-term filling of dental
cavities [14]. Clove oil has anti-inflammatory properties due
to the presence of flavonoids. Pure clove oil is used in
aromatherapy of arthritis and rheumatism. Paste of clove
powder and honey is used to cure skin conditions. Paste of
water and clove powder boosts healing process of bites and
cuts. Clove is used to treat various digestive disorders
including loose motion, flatulence, nausea, and dyspepsia.
Clove oil improves body defense system and help to fight
against invading microbes. It is also used to cure
Onychomycosis and Athlete’s foot disease. Inhalation of
clove essential oil soothes various respiratory conditions
such as asthma, cold, cough, sinusitis, and bronchitis.
Cloves have anticancer potential and are used to cure skin
and lung carcinoma. Clove is good for diabetic patients as it
controls the blood level of glucose. Eugenol prevents the
formation of blood clots. Topical application of clove oil
relieves muscular cramps. Cloves also prevent the
breakdown in eye’s retina, which slows down muscles
degeneration and assists vision in the old age. Sniffing of
clove aroma reduces lethargy, restlessness, and headaches.
Application of one drop of clove oil can soothe headaches.
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Hussain et al., 2017 131
Clove improves memory by relieving mental fog,
drowsiness, and depression. Clove oil is mosquito repellent
[15]. Antioxidant potential of clove is higher than many
other medicinal plants. One drop of clove oil is 400 times
more potent than blueberries. Cloves are used as part of
herbal formulations to cure animals. The clove oil has
potential of curing ear infection in dogs and cats.
Peppermint tea with a sprinkle of cloves and ginger has been
used to treat vomiting in dogs; 1 tbsp or more, according to
the size of the animal, being given 3 times daily.
5. Pharmacological uses
5.1. Antimicrobial activity
Antimicrobial properties of Syzygium aromaticum
and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils were tested against
multidrug resistant isolates including Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Enterococcus feacalis, Acinetobacter
baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus, and two controlled
strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa-ATCC27853 and
Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC29213, using agar well
diffusion model. Both oils exhibited significant inhibition
against tested strains, with minimum inhibitory
concentrations ranging from 0.312-1.25% (v/v) for clove oil,
and 0.312- 5% (v/v) for rosemary oil [16]. A comparative
analysis was carried out to evaluate the antiseptic potential
of clove extract (ethanolic) and clove oil against some food
borne pathogens. Ten bacterial and seven fungal strains
were tested using agar well diffusion method. Sodium
propionate was used as a standard food preservative. Results
revealed the greater antimicrobial effect of clove oil, when
compared to extract and sodium propionate. In another
study, clove oil was tested against five dermophytes
including Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton
floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and
Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Maximum inhibitory effect
(60%) against all fungal strains was shown at dose of
0.2mg/ml [17]. Antibacterial activity of six spices (clove,
mint, cinnamon, ginger, mustard, and garlic) was evaluated
against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and
Staphylococcus aureus, using dilution, cup, and paper disc
diffusion assays. Results revealed the maximum inhibitory
action of clove, mustard, and cinnamon at 1% concentration.
Garlic showed good inhibitory action at 3% concentration.
However, mint and ginger had negligible inhibition at same
concentration [18]. Essential oils of Piper nigrum, Syzygium
aromaticum, Pelargonium graveolens, Myristica fragrans,
Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris were evaluated for
antimicrobial activity against twenty five bacterial strains,
including food borne, animal, and plant
pathogens.considerable inhibitory action was observed by
the volatile oils in a dose dependent behavior [19].
5.2. Cytotoxic activity
Anti-oxidant, genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of
borneol and eugenol (clove oil derivative) were evaluated as
the capability of modulating resistance against DNA
damaging effects of H2O2, on different strains of human
cells: malignan hepatome cells (HepG2), malignan colon
cells (caco-2) and non malignan human fibroblast (VH10).
Results revealed the remarkable anti-oxidative potential of
eugenol at all the tested doses. It was also verified that the
citotoxic potential of eugenol was more powerful than
borneol. With regard to toxicity, eugenol exhibited strong
DNA damaging effects on human fibroblast (VH10),
medium damaging effects on colon cells (caco-2) and non
genotoxic effects on hepatome cells (HepG2) [20].
5.3. Antioxidant activity
A study was performed to assess the antioxidant potential of
aqueous and alcohol extracts of some selected spices
including onion, garlic, pepper, cinnamon, mint, ginger, and
clove. Generally phenolic and flavonoids are responsible for
antioxidant activities of the oil [21]. All spices inhibited
lipid oxidation in a dose dependent manner. Among all,
clove showed maximum, whereas, onion showed minimum
inhibitory potential [22]. Antioxidant activities of clove,
sage, and oregano essential oils were evaluated using DPPH
(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical quenching,
BCB -carotene bleaching), and FRP (Fe(lll) reducing
power) methods. Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as
standard antioxidant. Essential oils were added to soybean
oil at doses of 0.006 and 0.01g/ml, for thirty days, at
accelerated oxidation level. Among all examined oils, the
clove oil showed more potent (p<0.05) antioxidant activity
followed by oregano and sage oils [23].
5.4. Antiviral activity
Eugenin isolated from clove bud essential oil
exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against herpes simplex
virus at a dose of 10µg/ml [24].
5.5. Hepatoprotective activity
Hepatoprotective potential of clove aqueous extract
was evaluated at doses of 0.1 and 0.2g/kg, using
paracetamol intoxicated hepatic damage assay, in Wistar
albino rats. The degree of hepatic damage was evaluated by
increased levels of cytopalsmic enzymes (aspartate
aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). Clove
extract restored the normal concentrations of enzymes in
serum [25].
5.6. Analgesic activity
Eugenol was administrated intravenously and
intragastrically to rabbits to examine its analgesic effect.
Paracetamol was a standard drug. Eugenol showed greater
fever reducing potential than paracetamol [26].
5.7. Anesthetic activity
Anesthetic effect of eugenol was studied in
Oncorhynchus mykiss (juvenile rainbow trout). Anesthesia
induction and recovery times were compared with standard
drug, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222). Eugenol induced
anaesthesia at relatively lower concentration than standard
drug. Moreover, the recovery time was 6-10 times longer for
fishes exposed to eugenol than those exposed to same doses
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Hussain et al., 2017 132
of tricaine methanesulfonate. Above study suggested the
anesthetic use of clove oil derivative “Eugenol” [27].
6. Toxicity
The clove oil is considered safe when consumed in
doses (<1.5g/kg). However, the WHO (World Health
Organization) established the acceptable dose of clove 2.5
mg/kg/day in humans. The toxicity of clove oil was
evaluated in aquarium fish species, Poecilia reticulata and
Danio rerio. The LD50 values were (18.2±5.52) mg/ml and
(21.7±0.8) mg/ml in Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulate,
respectively, at 96 h [28].
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... In traditional and folkloric medicine, the oil is use in dentistry because of its strong analgesic and antiseptic properties (Pulikottil and Nath, 2015;Devkota and Adhikari-Devkota, 2020). Extracts and essential oil of clove has wide applications medicinally as anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antihalitosis, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory; antioxidant, antiviral, aphrodisiac, amongst other uses (Hussain et al., 2017;Salama et al., 2018;Kaur and Kaushal, 2019;Batiha et al., 2020;Saeed et al., 2021). ...
... The outcome revealed that clove spiced cake had a very nice texture, taste and nutrients and was best in terms of acceptability by consumers (Forlemu and Amadou, 2021). Other culinary uses of clove are as studding for Allium cepa L. (onions), Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomatoes), salads, herbal teas, and soups, to flavour meat products, cookies, pastries, sandwiches, pickles, puddings, chewing gums, spiced fruits, chocolates, soft drinks and candies (Hussain et al., 2017). ...
... A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of clove by El-Ghallab et al. (2020) revealed a total of 13 bioactive compounds of which Eugenol, β-Caryophyllene, eugenyl acetate and α-Humulene were the most abundant. Several other authors have reported varying abundance of phytochemicals for clove essential oil, but all pointed to the fact that eugenol was the major bioactive component (Viuda-Martos et al., 2007;Hussain et al., 2017;Shahidi and Hossain, 2018;Sgorbini et al., 2015). Other bioactives present in clove are kaempferol, quercetin and its derivates, caffeic, ferulic, elagic, and salicylic acids, as well as other minor constituents like α-humulene, β-humulene, methyl salicylate, crategolic acid, and benzaldehyde, that account for the characteristic pleasant fragrance of clove (Hussain et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Spices-dried aromatic parts of plants (leaves, seeds, bark, roots, rhizomes, buds, etc) used to enhance flavour, taste and colour (sensory quality) of foods, are increasingly finding other useful roles in healthcare beyond their primary use as culinary organoleptic enhancers. Several spices are currently being investigated for their potential health benefits, because of the failing efficacy, toxicity and high cost associated with conventional drugs. One such spice: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M.Perry [Myrtaceae] (Clove), has a multi-dimensional role in diet, medicine, functional foods and nutraceuticals, agriculture, among other industries. Peer-reviewed articles, mostly from PubMed and Google Scholar, were consulted for the purpose of this review. The nutritional and phytochemical contents, selected biological activities as well as some functional foods and beverages of clove and their uses for human health are presented. Although these observations are largely empirical, the efficacious attributes have led to their pharmacological applications in the indigenous system of medicine all over the world and bridge between food, diet and medicine. Considering the GRAS status of clove, more studies on bioavailability, accumulation, toxicity, dosage and efficacy of clove as a spice drug or functional foods in biological systems especially in humans are required. Meanwhile, clove and its products can be used as co-adjuvants in the prevention, treatment and management of chronic diseases. Further, many applications of clove in food, health, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, nanoparticles and agricultural industries are still open for investigations.
... Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is the unopened flower bud growing on a tree and is a precious spice belonging to the family of Myrtaceae (Hussain et al., 2017) [119] . It has many uses, among which food and medicinal applications are important. ...
... Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is the unopened flower bud growing on a tree and is a precious spice belonging to the family of Myrtaceae (Hussain et al., 2017) [119] . It has many uses, among which food and medicinal applications are important. ...
Full-text available
Spices are the prime source of flavor, aroma, taste and play a major role in culinary applications. Major spices such as black pepper, cardamom, turmeric and ginger, tree spices including nutmeg, cinnamon, clove and seed spices such as fenugreek, fennel, cumin, coriander are the important spices used in South Indian cuisines. Along with this, leafy spices such as curry leaves and bay leaves are also used in the same. Fresh spice has to be processed after harvesting so that shelf life of the same can be improved without affecting the quality. Aroma of a spice is contributed by the essential oil, which is purely volatile in nature and oleoresins are the non-volatile counterpart that adds to the pungency. This review paper deals with the post-harvest processing, chemical composition and culinary application of major spices used in South Indian cuisine.
... The Caco-2 cells (passages [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] were cultured at 37 • C in 5% CO 2 in a complemented (FBS 20%, pen-strep 1X) GlutaMAX DMEM medium. The cells were allowed to grow to 70-80% confluence. ...
... The superiority of flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude clove has been observed in comparison with many other crude plants (even Curcuma longa) [24]. In accordance with our extract characterization, the clove polyphenols responsible for antioxidant activities have been notably highlighted as quercetin glucoside, isorhamnetin, biflorin and other derivatives [25][26][27]. Specifically, some of these compounds have also demonstrated direct implications and support for the detoxification process, notably through Nrf2 activation [28,29]. In a previous study, an H 2 O 2 scavenging activity could be detected in cell-free assays of clove bud oil and, to a lesser extent, in clove bud [30]. ...
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In this work, both direct and indirect cell-based antioxidant profiles were established for 27 plant extracts and 1 algal extract. To evaluate the direct antioxidant effects, fluorescent AOP1 cell assay was utilized, which measures the ability of different samples to neutralize intracellular free radicals produced by a cell-based photo-induction process. As the intestinal barrier is the first cell line crossed by the product, dose response curves obtained from Caco-2 cells were used to establish EC50 values for 26 out of the 28 natural extracts. Among them, 11 extracts from Vitis, Hamamelis, Syzygium, Helichrysum, Ilex and Ribes genera showed remarkable EC50s in the range of 10 µg/mL. In addition to this, a synergistic effect was found when combinations of the most potent extracts (S. aromaticum, H. italicum, H. virginiana, V. vinifera) were utilized compared to extracts alone. Indirect antioxidant activities (i.e., the ability of cells to trigger antioxidant defenses) were studied using the ARE/Nrf2 luminescence reporter-gene assay in HepG2 cells, as liver is the first organ crossed by an edible ingredient once it enters in the bloodstream. Twelve extracts were subjected to an intestinal epithelial barrier passage in order to partially mimic intestinal absorption and show whether basolateral compartments could maintain direct or indirect antioxidant properties. Using postepithelial barrier samples and HepG2 cells as a target model, we demonstrate that indirect antioxidant activities are maintained for three extracts, S. aromaticum, H. virginiana and H. italicum. Our experimental work also confirms the synergistic effects of combinations of post-intestinal barrier compartments issued from apical treatment with these three extracts. By combining cell-based assays together with an intestinal absorption process, this study demonstrates the power of cell systems to address the issue of antioxidant effects in humans.
... Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that have been used traditionally as a food preservative and for many therapeutic purposes. Clove is native to Indonesia, but it has also been cultured in several parts of the world (Hussain et al., 2017); it is a vital source of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Eugenol is the main bioactive constituent of clove. ...
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In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the pudding formulation ingredients including the fish/bovine gelatin ratio and cinnamon and clove powder and determine the color and physicochemical and sensory attributes’ change in final pudding product. Experiments were carried out based on a central composite design (CCD). The results showed that by increasing the ratio of fish gelatin to bovine gelatin (FG/BG) up to 3%, the moisture content increased slightly and then decreased significantly. Increasing the cinnamon powder to 0.5% reduced the moisture content. Increasing the FG/BG in the formulation of pudding samples reduced the protein content. The effects of cinnamon and clove powder on the protein content were increasing and decreasing, respectively. By increasing the FG/BG ratio, the samples syneresis showed a significant decrease, while the effects of cinnamon and clove powder on the syneresis were nonsignificant. As the level of cinnamon and clove powder increased, the L* value decreased. Cinnamon and clove powder had a linear effect, and the interaction of gelatins and clove powder had a significant effect on changes in redness. The effects of cinnamon and clove powder on b* value were significant. In terms of sensory evaluation, increasing the cinnamon powder concentration increased the appearance scores, while in the case of fish gelatin, this trend was downward. The linear effect of cinnamon powder on taste was significant, while other variables had no significant effect on the taste of the samples. The sample texture was significantly affected by fish gelatin and clove powder. Increasing FG/BG from 0% to 2.5% increased the texture score, but after this range, a decrease in the texture score was observed. The overall acceptance of samples was more affected by spice powder compared to gelatin. By increasing the cinnamon powder and FG/BG, the overall acceptance increased and decreased, respectively. In conclusion, the optimal FG/BG and cinnamon and clove powder were introduced 1.479%, 0.288%, and 0.619% respectively.
... Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of the Syzygium aromaticum tree which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. It is used as a spice for food seasoning due to its strong flavor and aromatic smell [31]. Clove does not only give flavor to food, but is also used to antagonize growth of foodborne bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes [32]. ...
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Commercially available mouthwash formulations are often medicated and contain chemicals that may elicit adverse effects to the users. A mouthwash may be recommended for its efficacy in preventing dental caries and other oral conditions due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, it is essential to raise awareness in selecting for an appropriate mouthwash that is safe to be applied to the oral cavity and its natural microflora. The interest towards the incorporation of herbal ingredients in oral products has been increasing exponentially over the years. The main objective of this review is to highlight our consumption of food and herbal products, such as Aleppo oak, clove and turmeric, that contain medicinal properties and have the potential to be developed as key components in mouthwash formulations. Thus, reliance on the use of chemicals may lessen as they could have a negative impact to one’s oral health.
... anti-viral and anti-depressant combination is effective during this COVID-19 situation.Hussain et al. 2017 9 ...
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak began in late 2019 in Wuhan, China, and have since spread globally. Deep sequencing analysis identified the disease within a few weeks, and on February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) named it “COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2.” SARS-CoV-2 was declared a global pandemic by the WHO in March 2020. Coronavirus disease has become a global challenge for researchers and health care workers, affecting over 174 million people and causing over 3 million deaths. Because of the widespread nature, extensive measures are being taken to reduce person-to-person contact, and special precautions are being taken to prevent the transmission of this infection to vulnerable populations such as geriatrics, pediatrics, and health care professionals. We summarized the genesis of COVID-19 spread, its pathology, clinical perspectives, and the use of natural ingredients as a possible cure for COVID-19 in this review. This article has highlighted information about current vaccines approved for emergency use as well as those in various stages of clinical trials. Vaccine availability around the world is a promising development in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We conducted a narrative review to present the current state and research on this situation, specific diagnosis, clinical manifestation, emergency approaches, herbal-based remedies, and COVID vaccines. Graphical abstract
Denitrifies are the product which is used to maintain the oral hygiene such as freshness of mouth and to avoid tooth decay The oral hygiene can be maintained throughout the day by using various Dentrifices prepared by herbal and synthetic ingredients. This work was carried out to prepare a tooth powder which can be used as a tool for proper oral hygiene and to overcome the side effects of the conventional tooth powder which can be used as a tool for proper oral hygiene and to overcome the side effects of the conventional tooth powder prepared by synthetic ingredients. Tooth powder is used in combination with tooth brush to maintain the oral hygiene such as freshness of mouth and to avoid tooth decay. The work was carried out to prepare a tooth powder which can be used as a tool for proper oral hygiene and to overcome the side effects of the conventional tooth powder prepared by synthetic ingredients. The tooth powder was prepared by using various herbal ingredients which posses the antibacterial, antiseptic and cooling properties. The prepared tooth powder way evaluated for its organoleptic and physical characteristic such as color, odor, taste, stability, pH , moisture content, swelling index flow property, bulk density, tapped density and abrasiveness to ensure that it posses all the desired futures to use against the dental diseases. The result was found to be within the permitted limits.
Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
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M. S. Swaminathan once opined, “the greatest paradox of the twenty first century is the inability of developing countries specially to provide sufficient food to feed the teeming population and improve the quality living standard/ condition of the rural poor”. Present anthology is the modest endeavor to trace out the liaison between nutrition and nature which weave together microclimate, human needs and indigenous technological knowledge. Here; we have ventilated a series of works, highlighting the relationship between crops and nutritional security. From the definition, given by FAO, we can synthesize that ‘Food Security’ has four magnitudes. We have highlighted ‘Safe food utilization’. The concept lies in the “sustainable action to bring a long term and desirable changes” in the field of food security. The book expects to contribute in the field of nutrition education too. If it is considered as a constituent of the said domain, it can support to mobilize the use of other nutritive facilities. The book tries to generate some concepts. Here, the word ‘concept formation’ figures prominently in cognitive development and was a subject of importance in the field of Nutraceuticals. The concept of Nutraceuticals: The word ‘Nutraceuticals’ may be defined as a single window to explain, synthesize and analyze any product derived from a food source which has extra nutritive value. The term was devised by Stephen DeFelice in 1989.
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Plants of the genus Syzygium are widely used traditionally for medicinal purposes in tropical and subtropical regions. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetes, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. The anti-diabetes and antimicrobial affects of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium aromaticum have been well documented. The analgesic effects of S. aromaticum are also widely known. However, few studies have rigorously examined the therapeutic properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry of many other species. The therapeutic properties of the Australian Syzygium species have been particularly poorly reported, despite this region having the richest diversity of Syzygium species. This may be because much of our understanding of the use of the Australian species has been irretrievably lost as ethnobotanical knowledge was passed between generations of the first Australians by word of mouth. Thus, in contrast to Asian and African traditional healing systems where species usage and drug preparation have been extensively documented, there is now generally little understanding of the traditional uses of Australian Syzygium species. This has provided considerably fewer leads for drug discovery. The last decade has seen a large increase globally in the number of studies into the use of Syzygium species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (S. aromaticum and S. cumini) in particular have received much attention. Recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Oceania region. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research on the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and therapeutic mechanisms of Syzygium species and also to highlight and direct future areas of research into the medicinal activities of this important genus.
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The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of clove, oregano and sage essential oils (EOs) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ß carotene/linoleic acid bleaching (BCB) and ferric reducing power (FRP) assays. EOs at concentrations of 600 and 1000 μg/mL and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 100, 200 μg/mL, were added to the soybean oil at accelerated oxidation condition (60°C) for 30 days (oven test). The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of oil samples were calculated every 5 days. Amongst the investigated EOs, the clove EO was the most effective on DPPH, BCB, FRP, PV and TBA assays, which was followed by oregano and sage EOs, respectively (P < 0.05). The results showed that the EOs as a natural antioxidant significantly reduced the oxidation of soybean oil and replaced synthetic antioxidants to increase the safety of food systems.
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The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove bud) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) were obtained by hydro-distillation. The antimicrobial activity of clove bud oil and rosemary oil was investigated by agar well diffusion method against four multidrug resistant strains namely Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis as well as two standard strains, Staphylococcus aureusATCC29213 and Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC27853. Both essential oils exhibited inhibitory effects towards all the test organisms, clove essential oil had antibacterial activity little higher than of rosemary oil, MICs ranged from 0.312% (v/v) to 1.25% (v/v) for all tested bacteria while MICs for rosemary oil ranged from 0.312% (v/v) to 5 % (v/v). Based on this finding, it may be suggested that these essential oils may be used as natural antibacterial agents to treat infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.
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Medicinal plants are generating an ever-increasing amount of interest due to the effectiveness, low cost and minimal side-effects associated with drugs derived from them. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (Family Myrtaceae) is one of the most important herbs in traditional medicine, having a wide spectrum of biological activity. Phytoconstituents of clove comprise of various classes and groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolics and hydrocarbon compounds. The major phytochemicals found in clove oil is mainly eugenol (70-85%) followed by eugenyl acetate (15%) and β-caryophyllene (512%). Their derivatives result in biological benefits such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic capacities. In addition to clove oil’s worldwide use as a food flavoring agent, it has also been employed for centuries as a topical analgesic in dentistry. This review presents an overview and details of the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations on the S. aromaticum.
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Clove oil (active substance eugenol) is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio) and guppy (Poecilia reticulata), which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test) was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations) were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 +/- 5.52 mg-1(-1) in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 +/- 0.8 mg.1(-1) in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.
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Nigella sativa and Trachyspermum ammi were screened for phytochemical constituents and nutritional analysis. Tests for flavonoids, tannins, steroids were positive in both spices except saponins. The nutrition analysis indicated higher energy value (459.29 and 314.55%), carbohydrates (39.04 and 47.54%), protein content (24.05 and 20.23%), fat content (21.67 and 4.83%), moisture content (5.4 and 11.6%), fibre content (5.5 and 4.3%) and ash content (4.34 and 11.5%) in N. sativa and T. ammi seeds, respectively. Aqueous, methanolic, ethanolic, n-Hexane extracts of N. sativa and T. ammi and also essential oil of T. ammi were subjected to in vitro antifungal and antibacterial assay. Micro well dilution assay was adopted against three human pathogenic fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and four bacterial isolates Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas syringae and Bacillus subtilis. Among all the four extracts of N. sativa tested, methanolic extract showed maximum inhibitory potential against all the test fungi and bacteria. In case of T. ammi extracts and essential oil, all the aqueous, organic extracts especially ethanol, n-hexane and essential oil depicted marked antimicrobial potential against all pathogens. Anti bacterial activity of n-Hexane extract was maximum for all bacteria (4.76 cm) P. syringica, (4.03 cm) B. subtilis, (3.73 cm) E. coli and (4.76 cm) S. sp. Bactericidal action of different fractions of T. ammi decrease in the order n-Hexane extract>essential oil>ethanol extract>methanol extract>aqueous extract.
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Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
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The present study was focused on unexplored Pakistani citrus species viz. sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis Vars. Jaffa, Blood Red and Mosambi), Mandarins (Citrus reticulata Var. kinnow) and grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Var. Shamber) for peel oil yield, chemical composition and antipathogen activities. The chemical composition of citrus peel oil was analyzed through gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric analysis. Six compounds viz. D-limonene, d-carvone, Z-5-nonadecane, thujol, trans-P-mentha-2,8-dienol and heneicosane were commonly present in all cultivars. However, D-limonene (40.9–76 %) was a major compound in all citrus peel oils. The high amounts of phenolic compounds were recorded in the peel oil with a maximum amount in grapefruit (8.58 mg/g) and minimum in Kinnow mandarin (5.20 mg/g). Jaffa orange cultivar showed a highest radical scavenging activity (70.14 %). Furthermore, peel oils were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five pathogenic bacterial strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Eschrichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidisand two pathogenic fungal strains viz. Aspergillus flavus and Trichophyton alba. Citrus peel was found effective against all tested micro-organisms and in particular Jaffa orange essential oil was highly effective against all microbial strains growth and Salmonella typhi was the most inhibited strains among all.
Interest in medicinal plants as a re-emerging health aid is gaining more importance day by day due to modern concepts like healing naturally, functional foods and the bio-prospecting of new plant-derived drugs. Based on current research and financial investments, medicinal plants will, seemingly, continue to play an important role as an important health aid. In this regard present study was undertaken to determine the mineral contents and proximate composition of fourteen plants extensively used as condiments in the diet of people of South Asian region to evaluate their nutritive value Medicinal plants contain high proportion of Na (1711.21 ± 14.49-7510.80 ± 20.01 mg/Kg), K (11.74 ± 1.02 ∼ 9462.12 ± 1725 mg/ Kg), total carbohydrate (54.13 - 77.79 %) and cellulose (65.11 ± 2.45 - 85.23 ± 2.95 %). Low levels of Li (1.10 ± 1.49- 15.06 ±2.31 mg/ Kg), Cu (20.90 ± 2 14 - 41.45 ± 2.45 mg/ Kg). Co (8.45 ± 1.03 - 85.40 ± 2.52), Mn (0.8 ± 0.01 - 9.55 ± 0.46 mg/ kg) and Pb (0.25 ±0 11 - 1 98 ± 0 16 mg/ Kg) are present in these plant materials. All elemental analyses were performed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) except Na, K and Li, which were determined by flame photometric analysis. Tannin content in food condiments ranged from 0.15 ± 0.05 - 2.5 ± 0.14 mg/ g. All materials were low in, moisture (0.75 ± 0.26 - 10.60 ± 0.87 %) and ash (2.14 ± 0.26 - 15.01 ± 0.75 %) contents. Significant differences were observed in the amounts of Ni (1.70 ± 0.94 - 27.40 ± 3.17 mg/ Kg), Ca (413.80 ± 14.18 - 1930.80 ± 14.02 mg/ Kg). Mg (97.00 ± 7.49 - 157.95 ± 8.49 mg/ Kg), Crude proteins (3.13 ± 0.95 - 19.94 ± 1.26 %) and Lipids (5.11 ± 1.67 - 25.48 ±1.21 %) present in different plant materials However, all condiments are energy rich materials (335.29 - 493.07 Kcal/ 100g). Results of present study could be very helpful to design daily dietary intake of food condiments of individuals to fulfill daily intake limits.