ArticlePDF Available

Justification of the effectiveness of the technique of myofascial self-massage using tennis balls in fitness

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

p> Purpose : experimental substantiation of the effectiveness of myofascial self-massage techniques using tennis balls in fitness. Material and Methods . The study involved 20 girls aged 20-25 years, engaged in fitness 3 times a week in the evening in the same group. The control and experimental groups trained on identical programs during October 2018 - March 2019. The difference was that after training, participants in the experimental group, under the guidance of a methodologist, performed myofascial self-massage of the muscles of the back surface of the body. The following tests were used: Questionnaire on the Borg scale, method for measuring flexibility, method for changing the height of the jump, methods for determining the number of jumps, functional test Shtange. Intergroup differences were determined by tests. Results. The application of this technique gave a significant (p <0.05) improvement in flexibility indicators in the experimental group by 2.49 times. While in the control group, this indicator improved by 1, 59 times. Also in the experimental group, jumping indicators improved, namely the jump height by 28% of the initial indicators and the number of jumps by 12.6%. Based on the questionnaire data, the subjects of the experimental group improved sleep quality and tolerance of power loads. Conclusion . The use of myofascial self-massage using tennis balls is a unique, affordable and effective way to improve physical performance. The results obtained indicate the positive impact of this technique and the appropriateness of its application in the process of training an athlete to optimize the functional state, improve flexibility and jumping ability.</p
Content may be subject to copyright.
53
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
Justification of the effectiveness of the technique of myofascial self-
massage using tennis balls in fitness
Kovalova L.A.¹, Kovalev V. V.²
¹H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
²National University of Pharmacy
DOI: https://doi.org/10.34142/HSR.2019.05.03.06
Abstract
Purpose: experimental substantiation of the effectiveness of myofascial self-massage techniques using tennis balls in fitness.
Material and Methods. The study involved 20 girls aged 20-25 years, engaged in fitness 3 times a week in the evening in the same
group. The control and experimental groups trained on identical programs during October 2018 - March 2019. The difference was that
after training, participants in the experimental group, under the guidance of a methodologist, performed myofascial self-massage of
the muscles of the back surface of the body. The following tests were used: Questionnaire on the Borg scale, method for measuring
flexibility, method for changing the height of the jump, methods for determining the number of jumps, functional test Shtange.
Intergroup differences were determined by tests.
Results. The application of this technique gave a significant (p <0.05) improvement in flexibility indicators in the experimental group
by 2.49 times. While in the control group, this indicator improved by 1, 59 times. Also in the experimental group, jumping indicators
improved, namely the jump height by 28% of the initial indicators and the number of jumps by 12.6%. Based on the questionnaire
data, the subjects of the experimental group improved sleep quality and tolerance of power loads.
Conclusion. The use of myofascial self-massage using tennis balls is a unique, affordable and effective way to improve physical
performance. The results obtained indicate the positive impact of this technique and the appropriateness of its application in the
process of training an athlete to optimize the functional state, improve flexibility and jumping ability.
Key words: myofascial self-massage; fitness; tennis ball; jumping ability; flexibility.
Анотація
Ковальова О.О., Ковальов В.В. Обґрунтування ефективності методики миофасциального самомасажу з використанням тенісних
м'ячів в фітнесі.
Мета: експериментальне обгрунтування ефективності методики миофасциального самомасажу з використанням тенісних
м'ячів в фітнесі.
Матеріал і методи. У дослідженні взяли участь 20 дівчат у віці 20-25 років, що займаються фітнесом силової спрямованості 3
рази на тиждень у вечірній час в одній групі. Контрольна і експериментальна групи тренувалися по ідентичним програм на
протязі жовтень 2018 - березень 2019 року. Різниця полягала в тому, що після тренування учасниці експериментальної групи,
під керівництвом методиста, виконували міофасціальний самомасаж м'язів задньої поверхні тіла. Застосовувалися наступні
тести: Анкетування за шкалою Борга, метод вимірювання гнучкості, метод зміни висоти стрибка, методи визначення кількості
стрибків, функціональна проба Штанге. Визначалися міжгрупові відмінності по проведеним тестам.
Результати. Застосування даної методики дало достовірне (p <0,05) поліпшення показників гнучкості в експериментальній групі
в 2,49 рази. У той час як в контрольній групі це показник покращився в 1, 59 разів. Так само в експериментальній групі
покращилися показники стрибучості, а саме висота стрибка на 28% від початкових показників і кількість стрибків на 12,6%.
Виходячи з даних анкетування у піддослідних експериментальної групи покращилася якість сну, і переносимість силових
навантажень.
Висновки. Застосування міофасціального самомасажу з використанням тенісних м'ячів є унікальним, доступним і ефективним
способом поліпшення фізичних показників. Отримані результати свідчать про позитивний вплив даної методики та доцільності
її застосування в процесі тренувальної діяльності спортсмена для оптимізації функціонального стану, поліпшення гнучкості і
стрибучості.
Ключові слова: міофасціальний самомасаж; фітнес; тенісний м'яч; стрибучість; гнучкість.
Аннотация
Ковалёва Е.А., Ковалёв В.В. Обоснование эффективности методики миофасциального самомассажа с использованием
теннисных мячей в фитнесе.
Цель: экспериментальное обоснование эффективности методики миофасциального самомассажа с использованием теннисных
мячей в фитнесе.
Материал и методы. В исследовании приняли участие 20 девушек в возрасте 20-25 лет, занимающихся фитнесом силовой
направленности 3 раза в неделю в вечернее время в одной группе. Контрольная и экспериментальная группы тренировались
по идентичным программам в течении октябрь 2018 - март 2019 года. Разница заключалась в том, что после тренировки
участницы экспериментальной группы, под руководством методиста, выполняли миофасциальный самомассаж мышц задней
поверхности тела. Применялись следующие тесты: Анкетирование по шкале Борга, метод измерения гибкости, метод
изменения высоты прыжка, методы определения количества прыжков, функциональная проба Штанге. Определялись
межгрупповые различия по проведенным тестам.
Результаты. Применение данной методики дало достоверное (p <0,05) улучшение показателей гибкости в экспериментальной
группе в 2,49 раза. В то время как в контрольной группе это показатель улучшился в 1, 59 раз. Так же в экспериментальной
группе улучшились показатели прыгучести, а именно высота прыжка на 28 % от изначальных показателей и количество
прыжков на 12,6 %. Исходя из данных анкетирования у испытуемых экспериментальной группы улучшилось качество сна, и
переносимость силовых нагрузок.
Выводы. Применения миофасциального самомассажа с использованием теннисных мячей является уникальным, доступным и
эффективным способом улучшения физических показателей. Полученные результаты свидетельствуют об положительном
влиянии данной методики и целесообразности ее применения в процессе тренировочной деятельности спортсмена для
оптимизации функционального состояния, улучшения гибкости и прыгучести.
Ключевые слова: миофасциальный самомассаж; фитнес; теннисный мяч; прыгучесть; гибкость.
© Kovalova L.A., Kovalev V. V., 2019
54
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
Introduction
The modern world of physical culture is
developing dynamically. New directions, equipment
and techniques in fitness and sports appear in
connection with the growing demands of society [1].
The main component of the training process should
remain the quality of sports loads and safety for
health [2, 3, 4, 5].
Flexibility is characterized by the mobility of
the musculoskeletal system and contributes to the
performance of movements with large amplitude,
insufficient flexibility can lead to injuries / harm to
health [6, 7, 8, 9]. Flexibility is one of the most
important parameters and therefore its improvement
occupies a leading position in the field of physical
education.
Fascia is a connective tissue sheath covering
organs, blood vessels, nerves and forming cases for
muscles. As we move, the fascia rebuilds itself with
layers of tissue that slide over each other and, at the
same time, with a fibrous tissue structure that aligns
to ultimately be able to change shape. Problems
begin after the fascia is damaged. Injury often causes
the formation of scar tissue, which in turn can bind
the layers of tissue together. This can cause trigger
points to form.
A trigger point is a hyper-irritable area in a
tight band of skeletal muscles, painful when pressed,
and causes characteristic (trigger) pain. Trigger
points can be eliminated using non-invasive
measures, such as the use of external NSAIDs,
stretch marks, percutaneous electrical stimulation,
physiotherapy and massage [10, 11]. TTs are directly
related to myofascial and visceral pain. Brief intense
stimulation of trigger points often leads to long-term
pain relief [12, 13, 14].
Properly acting on muscles and fascia, it is
possible to achieve a significant improvement in their
condition in a short time and have a positive effect on
internal organs in the long term [15].
The relationship of muscle elasticity, the
ability to stretch painlessly and cramps is found in
many scientific papers. Accordingly, cramps in stiff
muscles are much more common, the reason for this
may be the presence of trigger points that form in an
overloaded muscle blocking its functions, and
thereby worsening its extensibility. This contributes
to a more frequent and intense onset of seizures both
at night and during training [16, 17].
A healthy and elastic muscle makes it
possible to stretch better, reduce trauma, and improve
the quality of exercise and the general condition of
the body after training [18, 19, 20]. While stiffness,
tightness, and overtraining lead to the formation of
trigger points, cramps, and a deterioration in the
flexibility and quality of classes in general [21, 22,
23]. The load on the muscles, in this case, will
inevitably lead to injury, and further continued
stretching will lead to their micro-fractures. After
each such microtrauma, part of the muscle fibers and
fascia heal, which entails a loss of qualities of the
muscle itself - its elasticity, endurance, performance
and strength, [10, 11, 17].
Such a massage method as self-massage is
the most convenient for athletes, due to the lack of
the possibility of using the services of massage
therapists after each training. Using self-massage, an
athlete will be able to relieve physical and even
psycho-emotional stress on their own [24, 25, 26].
Recently, such a direction of massage as
myofascial release is gaining popularity in fitness.
Myofascial release is a soft manual technique for
influencing fascia and muscles to relax, remove
muscle clamps and work out trigger points.
Myofascial release is indispensable if you want to
speed up the recovery process after training, remove
pain in the muscles, increase flexibility, increase the
range of motion and reduce the likelihood of injuries,
eliminate the resulting muscle hypertonicity. The
myofascial release technique was invented by
Anthony Chila, Carol Manheim, and John Peckham
in 1981 [27, 28, 29]. The effect is achieved due to
squeezing and passive stretching of muscles and
fasciae, a change in the state of one fascia has a direct
effect on the condition of others [12]. In fitness,
myofascial release is mainly used for special rolls,
but they are rather cumbersome, not convenient to
transport and have a high cost, so we studied the
possibility of replacing them with tennis balls as a
more appropriate alternative.
Despite the popularity of the use of the
myofascial release method, an analysis of the
scientific literature has shown a small number of
experimental studies in this direction.
Given the above, conducting experimental
research on the use of the self-massage method using
tennis balls after physical exertion is relevant and
reasonable.
The purpose: development of self-massage
techniques based on myofascial release using tennis
balls and substantiation of the effectiveness of its use
as a supplement to sports training.
Material and methods
Participants
The study involved 20 girls aged 20-25
years, engaged in fitness fitness 3 times a week in the
evening. Participants were randomly divided into
55
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
control (10 people) and experimental (10 people)
groups. Both groups trained on identical programs
from October 2018 to March 2019.
Flexibility Method
The measurement of the level of flexibility
was carried out as follows: the participants assumed
the initial position sitting on the floor with their legs
straight in front of them, their backs straight, their
arms raised above their heads so as to form a line with
their backs. The body was tilted forward. The
distance from the tips of the fingers to the tips of the
toes was measured. Of 2 attempts, the best result was
recorded.
Jumping Method
Participants standing against the wall
holding chalk in a raised hand made a mark on the
wall (starting indicator). Then two high jumps were
performed without bending the legs in the knee joints
and a chalk mark was made at the highest point on
the wall (final indicator). To determine the height of
the jump, the distance from the starting indicator to
the final indicator was measured. Of the two results,
the best was recorded. The number of jumps per 1
minute was also calculated to determine the influence
of the developed methodology not only on the
qualitative, but also on the quantitative indicators.
Sample Stange
The Stange test allows you to judge the
oxygen supply of the body and characterizes the
general level of fitness of the body. Before the main
test, you need to measure the heart rate for 30 seconds
in a standing position. Then, in a sitting position, you
need to hold your breath in full breath, after making
three breaths in 3/4 of the lung volume. It is
recommended to wear a special clip on the nose or
just hold it with your fingers. The breath holding time
is fixed by a stopwatch. Immediately after resuming
breathing, the pulse is detected again within 30
seconds. Evaluation Criteria: If the delay time is less
than 39 seconds, then the result is considered
unsatisfactory. A result within 40 - 49 seconds
indicates a satisfactory rate, and a time of over 50
seconds is an excellent result.
Method for determining the quality of sleep
on the Borg scale
To determine the quality of sleep, a survey
was conducted using a modified Borg scale. The
subjects were asked to choose an option that matches
their current state. Values from 6 to 20 were used
where:
6-8 beautiful sleep easy falling asleep
9-12 good sleep long falling asleep
13-16 bad sleep frequent awakenings
17-20 poor sleep, cramps and morning
fatigue
Method for determining fatigue during
exercise
To determine the feeling of fatigue during
training, a survey was conducted using a modified
Borg scale. Participants were asked to choose the
option appropriate to their current state. Values from
6 to 20 were used where:
6-8 easy
9-12 little hard
13-16 hard
17-20 very hard
Research organization
The control and experimental groups were
engaged in identical programs, namely, power-
oriented fitness. The difference was that the
participants in the experimental group were trained
in self-massage using tennis balls, and did this
massage, under the supervision of a coach, at the end
of each training session. The muscles of the back
surface of the body, namely the muscles of the lower
leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh and the
muscles of the back, were subjected to massage.
The technique of myofascial self-massage
with the use of tennis balls is the starting position:
sitting on the karimat, one leg is flat, the other bent
at the knee is on the floor, hands are resting in the
back, palms are turned inward. Under the shin of a
flat leg put a tennis ball. Raise the pelvis, distributing
body weight between the arms and smooth leg.
Perform circular, horizontal and vertical movements
of the foot on the ball, controlling the load due to the
distribution of body weight between arms and legs.
Then, without changing their position, they put the
ball under the thigh and massage the back of the
thigh. The same thing is repeated with the other leg.
Then they are lowered to the back. Lying on their
backs, they bend both legs at the knee and hip joints,
the feet rest on the floor, take the second ball and put
both balls under the back along the spinal column,
resting their backs on the balls, raise the pelvis and
perform smooth up and down movements moving the
balls parallel to the spine. When a pain point is found,
hold the position for 10-15 seconds. The degree of
depression on a 10-point scale is 7. The duration of
self-massage is 15 minutes. During the massage you
need to breathe slowly and deeply to promote
relaxation.
56
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
Measurements and tests were carried out
before application, and after 6 months of applying the
self-massage technique using tennis balls in the
experimental group. In the control group,
measurements were taken at the beginning of the
experiment and after 6 months.
Statistical processing of results
Mathematical processing of experimental
data obtained during the study was performed using
the Microsoft Excel program and the online resource
http://medstatistic.ru/calculators. For each indicator,
the arithmetic mean value (x ̅), standard deviation
(σ), and arithmetic mean error (m) were determined.
We assessed the significance of differences between
the parameters of the initial and final results, as well
as between the control and experimental groups
according to student t-test with the corresponding
significance level (p). Differences were considered
significant at significance level p <0,05.
Results
The arithmetic mean (), initial and final
results in each group were compared for the control
and experimental groups. For convenience in
interpreting the results, the differences the
difference between the initial and final indicators in
both groups are presented (p <0.05). The results of
changes in the level of flexibility after 6 months and
their stat. processing are presented in table 1.
Table 1
Indicators of the level of flexibility in the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups before and after
the experiment
Indicators
Group
±m /(σ)
before the
experiment
(initial)
±m /(σ) after
the
experiment
(after 6
months)
р
± m /(σ)
differences
in indicators
before and
after
t
K/E
р
K/E
Flexibility
level (cm)
К
49,4±9,4
/(28,3)
31.1±7,3
/(21,2)
0,08
18,3±2,4
/(7,2)
2,2
0,04
Э
50,6±10,2
/(30,7)
20,3±5,7
/(17,1)
0,01
30.3±4.9
/(14.9)
Notes: K - control group; E - experimental group
In this experiment, the greater the value (
m / (σ) of the difference in the indicators before and
after, the better. This value indicates how many
centimeters the distance from the tips of the fingers
to the tips of the toes has decreased. And accordingly,
the smaller the value ()± m / (σ) after the experiment
(6 months), the better the result, since this shows a
decrease in the distance from the fingertips to the tips
of the toes, which indicates an increase in flexibility.
Indicators of changes in the level of flexibility after
6 months are graphically presented in Fig. 1.
Fig 1. Results of measuring the level of flexibility ()
.
0,00
10,00
20,00
30,00
40,00
50,00
60,00
Control group Experimental group
The level of flexibility, cm
х̅ before experiment х̅ after experiment
57
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
A comparison of the results of the level of
flexibility indicates that after 6 months the indicators
in both groups improved significantly, which
indicates the effectiveness of the training that took
place during the experiment. Flexibility in the
experimental group improved almost 2.5 times,
while in the control group this indicator improved 1.6
times. This difference in results for a short period (6
months) proves the advantage of using the developed
self-massage technique using tennis balls, relative to
the flexibility parameter.
The results of determining the height of the
jump and their stat. processing are presented in table
2. The difference between the arithmetic mean values
() between the initial and final indicators of the
control and experimental groups was compared, the
value of Student t-test = 5.08 was calculated with the
corresponding significance level (p<0.05).
Table 2
Indicators of jumping height in the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups before and after 6
months of the experiment
Indicators
Group
± m /(σ)
differences in
indicators
before and
after
± m /(σ)
differences in
indicators
before and after
± m /(σ)
differences
in indicators
before and
after
differenc (%)
t
C/E
p
C/E
Jump Height
(cm)
C
13,2±0,8
/(2,6)
12,8±1,1 /(3,3)
-0.60±0.28
/(0,84)
-3%
5,08
0,00009
E
12,1±1,0
/(3,1)
13,9±0,8 /(2,5)
1,8±0,38/
(1,14)
28%
Notes: C - control group; E - experimental group
When determining the height of the jump, it was
found that after the experiment in the control group,
the results not only did not improve, but on the
contrary worsened by 3%. Perhaps this is the effect
of the fact that during strength training, the athletes
of the control group strongly scored the lower leg
muscles, thereby worsening the initial indicators. Or
this phenomenon is due to the fact that with constant
force loads in the muscles trigger points arise,
thereby blocking their normal functioning, giving a
painful sensation in the muscles, tightness, fatigue
and heaviness, which ultimately led to a decrease in
the jumping height of the control group participants.
For clarity, presenting the results of the
experiment, the initial indicators of changes in the
height of the jump and after 6 months are presented
in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Results of measuring the height of the jumps (()
An increase in the performance of
participants in the experimental group by 28% from
the initial ones proves the positive impact of the
method of myofascial self-massage using tennis balls
on the height of the jump in combination with
strength training. Training makes muscles stronger,
0,00
2,00
4,00
6,00
8,00
10,00
12,00
14,00
Control group Experimental group
Jumping height, cm
х̅ before experiment
х̅ after experiment
58
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
and massage removes the effects of overtraining and
positively affects their functionality.
The results of determining the number of
jumps in 1 minute and their stat. processing are
presented in table. 3. The initial value of the
arithmetic average number of jumps per minute and
the result after 6 months of training in the control and
experimental groups were compared.
Table 3
Indicators of the number of jumps in the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups before and after
the experiment
Indicators
Group
± m before
the
experiment
(initial)
σ
± m after
the
experiment
(after 6
months)
σ
t
р
t
C/E
Р
C/E
Jumping
(amount)
К
108±3,8
11,5
103,4±3,5
10,
5
0,89
0,38
3,79
0,00
1
Э
107,4±3,7
11,0
121±3,1
9,2
2,82
0,01
Notes: C - control group; E - experimental group
An analysis of the results showed that the use
of myofascial self-massage techniques using tennis
balls after a power load gives a significant increase
in the quantitative jumping index in the experimental
group after 6 months, compared with the indicators
in the control group.
For clarity, the presentation of the
experimental results, the initial indicators for
determining the number of jumps and after 6 months
are presented in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The results of determining the number of jumps ()
An analysis of the experimental results
shows a slight decrease (4.7%) in the number of
jumps per minute in the control group compared to
the initial values, which correlates with the results of
the height of the jumps. In the experimental group,
an increase in the number of jumps by 12.6%
indicates a significant effect of the method of
myofascial self-massage using tennis balls.
Results of the Stange test and their stat.
processing are presented in table 4.
90,00
95,00
100,00
105,00
110,00
115,00
120,00
125,00
Control group Experimental group
-4,7% +12,6%
Jumping, quantity
х̅ before experiment х̅ after experiment
59
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
Table 4
Indicators of the Stange Sample in the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups before and after
the experiment
Indicators
Group
± m before
the
experiment
(initial)
σ
± m after
the
experiment
(after 6
months)
σ
difference
s, %
t
р
t
C/E
р
C/E
Stange test
(s)
C
42,3±2,8
8,
5
47,1±2,4
7,
2
11
1,3
0,21
0.13
0.9
E
41±2,8
8,
5
46,7±2,1
6,
4
14
1,63
0,12
Notes: C - control group; E - experimental group
Analysis of the results of the Stange test
given in table 4, indicates that the overall level of
fitness and oxygen supply to the body improved by
11% in the control and by 14% in the experimental
group. There was no significant difference between
the results of the control and experimental groups,
which indicates a positive effect of the training
process as a whole. But a slight increase (3%) in the
experimental group suggests that with an increase in
the duration of the experiment and the zone of
influence of self-massage, an improvement in the
results of the Stange test will be observed in the
longer term, this can serve as an aid for further
studies.
The results obtained by questioning both
groups on the Borg scale of sleep status are shown in
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Borg sleep state
The results obtained by questioning both
groups on the Borg scale about pain in the muscles
under power loads are shown in Fig. 5.
Processing the data of the experimental
participants of both groups obtained during the
questioning on the Borg scale showed that there were
no changes in the control group, while in the
experimental group the state of sleep improved
slightly and the feeling of fatigue during training
decreased. Participants in the experimental group
noted an improvement in sleep quality, reduction of
night cramps and cramps during training. Training
has become easier, and this directly affects the
effectiveness and quality of training. Thus, we can
conclude that the application of the method of
myofascial self-massage using tennis balls has a
positive effect not only on the muscles, but also on
the body as a whole.
60
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
Fig. 5. Pain in the muscles with power loads according to the Borg scale
Discussion
The results of the study confirmed the data
of scientists on the positive effects of massage on the
athlete's body. The effectiveness of restorative
massage has been proven by many researchers and
experts in the field of sports and sports medicine.
Massage helps to increase the range of motion,
reduces muscle hypertonicity, improves ligamentous
apparatus mobility and overall well-being. It
increases the ability of muscles to move as quickly
and accurately as possible, allows them to quickly
relax and contract, reduces pain, increases recovery
speed, avoids overstrain and fatigue from high
intensity training loads [2.26.29].
The study showed that myofascial self-
massage using tennis balls on the back of the body is
an effective additional tool to improve the results of
the training process. In the conditions of high
requirements for athletes and great competition, any
authorized tool or method that can improve results is
just a godsend. Which once again emphasizes the
significance of the experiment and the relevance of
the developed methodology. Our proposed method
involves self-massage. This massage option makes it
possible to adjust, based on your sensations, the
degree of pressure on the muscles and their
stretching. The effect is achieved by squeezing and
passive stretching, and a change in the state of one
fascia has a direct effect on the condition of others
[12]. The negative impact of overtraining is
clearly reflected in the jumping test. Deterioration in
the height and number of jumps may indicate the
appearance of Trigger points that block the normal
functioning of muscles, because they are formed in
the case of constant muscle tension, when muscle
fibers are not able to relax [3,12]. While in the
experimental group, the application of our technique
allowed us to get rid of the trigger points and
improved the jumping ability (height and number of
jumps). The back muscles have three layers - two
superficial, forming a silhouette and providing
movement, and a deep layer - the muscles
surrounding the spine, which have a protective
function, structures of the spinal column. The study
of the latter activates metabolic processes and helps
to increase the protection of the spine from injuries.
The shape and size of tennis balls is great for this
purpose.
Given the foregoing, in the future it is
planned to conduct studies aimed at identifying the
effects of the developed methodology on the back
muscles, posture and recovery systems of the body,
to study in more detail the effect of myofascial self-
massage using tennis balls on the strength indicators
of the calf muscles
The results obtained during functional tests
provide the basis for reflection and further study of
the impact of the developed methodology on the
athlete's body.
Currently, myofascial release penetrates
deeper and deeper into fitness, and is widely used in
various classes to relax and stretch muscles, as well
as improve overall well-being [31].
Conclusion
1. The use of myofascial self-massage using
tennis balls is a unique, affordable and effective way
to improve physical performance. The results
obtained indicate the positive impact of this
technique and the appropriateness of its application
61
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
in the process of training activity, in particular in
fitness. 2. The developed technique helps to increase
flexibility, increase the range of motion and, as a
result, reduce the likelihood of injuries. This is
evidenced by a significant increase (p <0.05) of
indicators of flexibility in the experimental group in
relation to the control.
3. An analysis of the data obtained as a result
of jumping tests indicates the effectiveness of the
application of the developed methodology. So in the
experimental group, the jumping performance
increased significantly, in contrast to the control, in
which these indicators, on the contrary, worsened in
comparison with the initial indicators.
4. The application of the developed method
did not significantly affect the results of the Stange
test. The indicators improved both in the control and
in the experimental groups and there is no significant
difference between them.
5. Under the influence of massage, functional
structural changes occur in the muscles and
corresponding nerve centers of the brain. The
developed technique plays a significant role in the
fight against fatigue and increasing the effectiveness
of training. So, practicing myofascial self-massage,
participants in the experimental group improved
sleep and sensations after power loads. Judging by
the obtained Borg questionnaire data, most of the
subjects began to sleep better, less likely to
experience cramps and pain in the muscles, and also
easier to tolerate power loads.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict
of interest.
References
1. Aoki MS, Arruda AF, Freitas CG, Miloski B,
Marcelino PR, Drago G, Drago M, Moreira A.
Monitoring training loads, mood states, and jump
performance over two periodized training mesocycles
in elite young volleyball players. International Journal
of Sports Science & Coaching. 2017 Feb;12(1):130-7.
2. Bishop PA, Jones E, Woods AK. Recovery from
training: a brief review: brief review. The Journal of
Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008 May
1;22(3):1015-24.
3. Delextrat A, Calleja-González J, Hippocrate A, Clarke
ND. Effects of sports massage and intermittent cold-
water immersion on recovery from matches by
basketball players. Journal of sports sciences. 2013 Jan
1;31(1):11-9.
4. Kozina Z. Teoretiko-methodical bases of an
individualization of training-training process in
situational kinds of sports. InXII International
Scientific Congress" Modern Olympic and Paralympic
Sports and Sport for All": conference materials 2008
(Vol. 3, pp. 126-127).
5. Kozina ZL, Cieslicka M, Prusik K, Muszkieta R,
Sobko IN, Ryepko OA, Bazilyuk TA, Polishchuk SB,
Osiptsov AV, Korol SA. Algorithm of athletes’ fitness
structure individual features’ determination with the
help of multidimensional analysis (on example of
basketball). Physical education of students. 2017 Oct
15;21(5):225-38.
6. Karpeyev AG, Treshcheva OL, Sagaleyev AS.
Obosnovaniye rezhimov vypolneniya staticheskikh
uprazhneniy rastyagivayushchego kharaktera. Vestnik
Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta.
Pedagogika. Filologiya. Filosofiya. 2012(SB). (in
Russian)
7. Mirzayev DA. Rol' rastyagivaniya myshts v
fizicheskoy kul'ture. Zdorov'ye cheloveka, teoriya i
metodika fizicheskoy kul'tury i sporta. 2017(1 (4)). (in
Russian)
8. Moskalenko YEA, Khodykina VV. Obshchaya
kharakteristika gibkosti kak fizicheskogo kachestva i
faktory, vliyayushchiye na razvitiye gibkosti.
Obucheniye i vospitaniye: metodiki i praktika.
2014(11):125-8. (in Russian)
9. Platonova YAV, Syutina VI, Belov MS. Otsenka
gibkosti zanimayushchikhsya ozdorovitel'noy
aerobikoy kak kriteriy effektivnosti trenirovochnogo
protsessa. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya:
Gumanitarnyye nauki. 2017;22(5 (169)). (in Russian)
10. Fischer AA. Documentation of myofascial trigger
points. Archives of physical medicine and
rehabilitation. 1988 Apr;69(4):286-91.
11. Lavelle ED, Lavelle W, Smith HS. Myofascial trigger
points. Anesthesiology clinics. 2007 Dec 1;25(4):841-
51.
12. Baldry P, Thompson JW. Acupuncture, trigger points
and musculoskeletal pain: a scientific approach to
acupuncture for use by doctors and physiotherapists in
the diagnosis and management of myofascial trigger
point pain. Churchill Livingstone; 1993.
13. Gam AN, Warming S, Larsen LH, Jensen B,
Høydalsmo O, Allon I, Andersen B, Gøtzsche NE,
Petersen M, Mathiesen B. Treatment of myofascial
trigger-points with ultrasound combined with massage
and exercisea randomised controlled trial. Pain. 1998
Jul 1;77(1):73-9.
14. Melzack R, Stillwell DM, Fox EJ. Trigger points and
acupuncture points for pain: correlations and
implications. Pain. 1977 Feb 1;3(1):3-23.
15. SPORTS J. Sports massage a comprehensive review.
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2005
Sep;45:370-80.
16. Davies C, Davies A. The trigger point therapy
62
Health, sport, rehabilitation
Здоров’я, спорт, реабілітація
Здоровье, спорт, реабилитация
5(3)
workbook: Your self-treatment guide for pain relief.
New Harbinger Publications; 2013 Sep 1.
17. Russell M. Massage therapy and restless legs
syndrome. Journal of bodywork and movement
therapies. 2007 Apr 1;11(2):146-50.
18. Kinser AM, Ramsey MW, O'Bryant HS, Ayres CA,
Sands WA, Stone MH. Vibration and stretching effects
on flexibility and explosive strength in young
gymnasts. Medicine and science in sports and exercise.
2008 Jan 1;40(1):133.
19. Ruff HC, inventor; Ruff Henry C, assignee. Leg
stretching machine. United States patent US
4,445,684. 1984 May 1
20. Wessel J, Wan A. Effect of stretching on the intensity
of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clinical Journal of
Sport Medicine. 1994 Apr 1;4(2):83-7.
21. Hallegraeff JM, van der Schans CP, de Ruiter R, de
Greef MH. Stretching before sleep reduces the
frequency and severity of nocturnal leg cramps in older
adults: a randomised trial. Journal of physiotherapy.
2012 Mar 1;58(1):17-22.
22. High DM, Howley ET, Franks BD. The effects of static
stretching and warm-up on prevention of delayed-
onset muscle soreness. Research quarterly for exercise
and sport. 1989 Dec 1;60(4):357-61.
23. Yakub IYU, Tolmachova AA, Sogrishina MO. Pol'za
rastyazhki. pedagogicheskoyE i psikhologicheskoyE
obrazovaniyE: rezul'taty nauchnykh issledovaniy i ikh
ispol'zovaniye. 2017:169. (in Russian)
24. Delaney JP, Leong KS, Watkins A, Brodie D. The
short‐term effects of myofascial trigger point massage
therapy on cardiac autonomic tone in healthy subjects.
Journal of advanced nursing. 2002 Feb;37(4):364-71.
25. Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C,
Fernández-Carnero J, Miangolarra-Page JC. The
immediate effect of ischemic compression technique
and transverse friction massage on tenderness of active
and latent myofascial trigger points: a pilot study.
Journal of Bodywork and Movement therapies. 2006
Jan 1;10(1):3-9.
26. Kozina ZL, Sobko IM, Nazarenko D, Glyadya SA. The
influence of restorative massage after the competitions
on the indicators of the functional capabilities of
qualified volleyball players. Health, sport,
rehabilitation. 2018 Jul 25;4(2):64-72.
27. Shirokova YA. Ispol'zovaniye sredstv miofastsial'nogo
reliza v fizicheskom vospitanii studentov vysshikh
uchebnykh zavedeniy. Izvestiya Tul'skogo
gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fizicheskaya kul'tura.
Sport, no. 3, 2018, pp. 93-98. (in Russian)
28. Aserbekov OU, Nikolayev DV, Bugorkov DV.
Vliyaniye miofastsial'nogo reliza na effektivnost'
trenirovki i vosstanovleniya sportsmenov,
zanimayushchikhsya krossfitom ili funktsional'nym
mnogobor'yem. InPerspektivnyye napravleniya v
oblasti fizicheskoy kul'tury, sporta i turizma agrarnykh
vuzov Rossii 2018 (pp. 159-164).(in Russian)
29. Bell J. Massage therapy helps to increase range of
motion, decrease pain and assist in healing a client with
low back pain and sciatica symptoms. Journal of
bodywork and movement therapies. 2008 Jul
1;12(3):281-9.
30. ShitikoV TA. Opyt reabilitatsii patsiyentov s
posttravmaticheskimi miofastsial'nymi sindromami.
research and practice.:46. (in Russian)
31. Martynov AA, Seleznev IA, Kalinin IA.
Ispol'zovaniye metodov stretchinga i
postizometricheskoy relaksatsii dlya razvitiya gibkosti
v tkhekvondo. Uspekhi sovremennoy nauki.
2016;1(9):91-3. (in Russian)
Information about the authors
Kovaleva L. A.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0774-040X
kovaleovahelen@gmail.com
H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical
University; Altshevskih str. 29, Kharkov, 61002, Ukraine
Kovalev V. V.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1603-2771
volodyakw@gmail.com
National University of Pharmacy: Kharkiv, UA
Received: 01.09.2019
Інформація про авторів
Ковалёва Е. А.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0774-040X
kovaleovahelen@gmail.com
Харьковский национальный педагогический
университет имени Г.С. Сковороды; ул. Алчевских 29,
Харьков, 61002, Украина.
Ковалёв В.В.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1603-2771
volodyakw@gmail.com
Национальный фармацевтический университет:
Харьков
Принята в редакцию 01.09.2019
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of the periodized training program on ITL, mood states and vertical jump capacity of young volleyball players. Internal training load (ITL) was measured using the session-RPE method. To assess mood states, the POMS questionnaire was completed once a week. The vertical jump tests were performed before and after training period. The main findings were: 1) the ITL was greater during the preparatory mesocycle than during the competitive mesocycle, for both U16 and U19 groups; 2) the U19 completed higher training load during preparatory mesocycle than U16; 3) despite the differences in the periodized training program, the U16 group presented a higher value for the total mood disturbance and for the subscales, tension, depression, anger and fatigue and 4) the vertical jump performance increased from the beginning to the end of the 9-week training period for U16 and U19 groups.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent cold-water immersion and massage on perceptual and performance markers of recovery by basketball players after competitive matches. Eight men (age 23 ± 3 years; stature 190.5 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 90.3 ± 9.6 kg; body fat 12.8 ± 4.8%) and eight women (age 22 ± 2 years; stature 179.0 ± 8.5 cm; body mass 77.6 ± 9.2 kg; body fat 22.5 ± 6.6%) basketball players participated. Massage, cold-water immersion or control were applied immediately after competitive matches, followed by assessments of perceptual measures of recovery and physical performance, countermovement jump and repeated-sprint ability 24 h after intervention. There was lower perception of fatigue overall and in the legs immediately after the massage and cold-water immersion condition (P < 0.001; [Formula: see text] = 0.91). Furthermore, women had a lower perception of fatigue in cold-water immersion than massage at any testing time (P < 0.001; [Formula: see text] = 0.37). Jump performance was greater after cold-water immersion than the control condition (P = 0.037, [Formula: see text] = 0.37). There was no effect of any of the recovery interventions on repeated-sprint measures (P at best 0.067, [Formula: see text] at best 0.68). The results suggest that both massage and cold-water immersion improve perceptual measures of recovery. Furthermore, cold-water immersion improves jump performance although neither such immersion nor massage had an effect on repeated-sprint ability. This suggests that, overall, cold-water immersion is more useful than massage in the recovery from basketball matches, especially in women.
Article
Full-text available
In adults who experience nocturnal leg cramps, does stretching of the calf and hamstring muscles each day just before sleep reduce the frequency and severity of the cramps? A randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Eighty adults aged over 55 years with nocturnal leg cramps who were not being treated with quinine. The experimental group performed stretches of the calf and hamstring muscles nightly, immediately before going to sleep, for six weeks. The control group performed no specific stretching exercises. Both groups continued other usual activities. Participants recorded the frequency of nocturnal leg cramps in a daily diary. Participants also recorded the severity of the pain associated with nocturnal leg cramps on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Adverse events were also recorded. All participants completed the study. At six weeks, the frequency of nocturnal leg cramps decreased significantly more in the experimental group, mean difference 1.2 cramps per night (95% CI 0.6 to 1.8). The severity of the nocturnal leg cramps had also decreased significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group, mean difference 1.3 cm (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) on the 10-cm visual analogue scale. Nightly stretching before going to sleep reduces the frequency and severity of nocturnal leg cramps in older adults. NCT01421628.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of treatment with ultrasound, massage and exercises on myofascial trigger-points (MTrP) in the neck and shoulder was assessed in a randomised controlled trial. The outcome measures were pain at rest and on daily function (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), analgesic usage, global preference and index of MTrP. Long-term effect for treatment and control groups was assessed after 6 months using a questionnaire. The patients were randomised to three groups. The first group was treated with ultrasound, massage and exercise (A), the second group with sham-ultrasound, massage and exercise (B), while the third group was a control group (C). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. Treatment was given twice a week from the second to the fifth week. The number and index of MTrPs were recorded at each treatment session in groups A and B but only at entry as well as end of study in group C. VAS and analgesic usage was recorded in all three groups throughout the study period. Six months after the last treatment session a questionnaire was send to the patients. A total of 67 patients were included. Nine patients dropped-out during the study, which left 58 patients that could be included in the final analysis. Twenty patients were randomised to group A, 18 to group B and 18 to group C. A significant reduction in index were found between treatment groups (A and B) and control group (C), but no difference between group A and B. VAS scores, analgesic usage or global preference showed no difference between group A, B or C. The patients in the group C were offered treatment (ultrasound, massage, exercise) after the 6 weeks treatment period. At the questionnaire after 6 month 44 (87%) of the 52 patients from all three groups who had treatment responded. Sixty-four percent answered that they had had good or some effects, 68 percent were still doing the exercise programme and 17 percent had received other forms of therapy after they had completed the study. No difference between groups given ultrasound or sham ultrasound were found. It is concluded that US give no pain reduction, but apparently massage and exercise reduces the number and intensity of MTrP. The impact of this reduction on neck and shoulder pain is weak.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effects of myofascial trigger-point massage therapy to the head, neck and shoulder areas on cardiac autonomic tone.Background. No studies have reported on the effect of back massage on autonomic tone as measured by heart rate variability. This is especially relevant to the nursing profession, as massage is increasingly available as a therapy complementary to conventional nursing practice. An experimental study in which subjects were initially placed in age- and sex-matched groups and then randomized to treatment or control by alternate allocation. The study involved 30 healthy subjects (16 female and 14 male, aged 32.47 +/- 1.55 years, mean +/- standard error). A 5-minute cardiac interbeat interval recording, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and subjective self-evaluations of muscle tension and emotional state were taken before and after intervention. Autonomic function was measured using time and frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability. Following myofascial trigger-point massage therapy there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01). Analysis of heart rate variability revealed a significant increase in parasympathetic activity (P < 0.01) following myofascial trigger-point massage therapy. Additionally both muscle tension and emotional state, showed significant improvement (P < 0.01). In normal healthy subjects myofascial trigger-point massage therapy to the head, neck and shoulder areas is effective in increasing cardiac parasympathetic activity and improving measures of relaxation.
Article
This paper reports the effect of 3 weeks of massage of a 35-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome (RLS). The treatment consisted of myofascial release, trigger point therapy, deep tissue, and sports massage techniques applied to the lower extremity, focusing on the piriformis and hamstring muscles. The subject received a 45-min massage treatment twice weekly with a space of 2 days. The subject kept a log during this time which recorded hours of sleep, nocturnal waking, intensity and type of RLS symptoms, caffeine, alcohol, tobacco and medication intake as well as an estimate of stress level. In addition, the subject completed a Functional Rating Index, before, during and after the study, regarding frequency, intensity and duration of symptoms. Symptoms (tingling sensations, urgency to move the legs and sleeplessness), were decreased after two treatments and continued to improve throughout the 3 weeks.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of muscle stretching on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Two experiments were conducted, with 10 healthy, sedentary subjects in each. In the first, subjects performed the stretches before the DOMS-producing exercise; in the second, subjects performed the stretches after exercise. Each subject performed 10 1-min stretches of the hamstring muscles of one leg. The other leg acted as the control. The DOMS-producing exercise was three sets of 20 maximal concentric and eccentric contractions of the hamstrings performed on both legs. The subjects rated the pain they experienced in each leg every 12 h for the next 72 h on a visual analog scale (VAS). In the second experiment, pain threshold of the hamstrings and height of straight leg raise (SLR) were also measured at 0 and 48 h. In both experiments, analysts of variance revealed a significant (p < 0.05) difference in the VAS over time, but not between legs. Results were the same for the pain threshold and SLR measurements in the second experiment. It is concluded that a stretching protocol, performed before or after eccentric exercise, does not reduce DOMS. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Article
Trigger points associated with myofascial and visceral pains often lie within the areas of referred pain but many are located at a distance from them. Furthermore, brief, intense stimulation of trigger points frequently produces prolonged relief of pain. These properties of trigger points--their widespread distribution and the pain relief produced by stimulating them--resemble those of acupuncture points for the relief of pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between trigger points and acupuncture points for pain on the basis of two criteria: spatial distribution and the associated pain pattern. A remarkably high degree (71%) of correspondence was found. This close correlation suggests that trigger points and acupuncture points for pain, though discovered independently and labeled differently, represent the same phenomenon and can be explained in terms of the same underlying neural mechanisms. The mechanisms that play a role in the genesis of trigger points and possible underlying neural processes are discussed.
Article
It has been suggested in the lay literature that static stretching and/or warm-up will prevent the occurrence of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of static stretching and/or warm-up on the level of pain associated with DOMS. Sixty-two healthy male and female volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups: (a) subjects who statically stretched the quadriceps muscle group before a step, (b) subjects who only performed a stepping warm-up, (c) subjects who both stretched and performed a stepping warm-up prior to a step test, and (d) subjects who only performed a step test. The step test (Asmussen, 1956) required subjects to do concentric work with their right leg and eccentric work with their left leg to voluntary exhaustion. Subjects rated their muscle soreness on a ratio scale from zero to six at 24-hour intervals for 5 days following the step test. A 4x2x2 ANOVA with repeated measures on legs and Duncan's New Multiple Range post-hoc test found no difference in peak muscle soreness among the groups doing the step test or for gender (p greater than .05). There was the expected significant difference in peak muscle soreness between eccentrically and concentrically worked legs, with the eccentrically worked leg experiencing greater muscle soreness. We concluded that static stretching and/or warm-up does not prevent DOMS resulting from exhaustive exercise.