Ocular diseases affect multiple eye parts and can be caused by pathogenic infections, complications of systemic diseases, genetics, environment, and old age. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of eye diseases and improving their diagnosis and treatment are critical for preventing any adverse consequences of these diseases. Recently, the advancement of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) ... [Show full abstract] technology has paved wide prospects for identifying the pathogenesis, signaling pathways, and biomarkers involved in eye diseases. Due to the advantages of HTS in nucleic acid sequence recognition, HTS has not only identified several normal ocular surface microorganisms but has also discovered many pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses associated with eye diseases, including rare pathogens that were previously difficult to identify. At present, HTS can directly sequence RNA, which will promote research on the occurrence, development, and underlying mechanism of eye diseases. Although HTS has certain limitations, including low effectiveness, contamination, and high cost, it is still superior to traditional diagnostic methods for its efficient and comprehensive diagnosis of ocular diseases. This review summarizes the progress of the application of HTS in ocular diseases, intending to explore the pathogenesis of eye diseases and improve their diagnosis.