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The Mediating Role of E-Satisfaction on the Effect of E-Service Quality Dimensions on E-Loyalty: A Lesson from Bukalapak.Com Indonesia



This study examines the role of electronic satisfaction mediation on the effect of electronic service quality dimensions on electronic customer loyalty. was ranked ninth of the most popular sites accessed from Indonesia. is aggressively promoting and improving the quality of its services. However, the dimensions of electronic services quality that affect the behavior of its customers are still unclear. Research focusing on the effects of the dimensions of electronic service quality mediated by electronic satisfaction is still scarce. Therefore, we offer new insights on how the latest types of interactions must be maintained. We applied Structural Equation Modelling for hypothesis testing. This study found evidence that three dimensions of electronic service quality (privacy, web design, and compensation) have been shown to influence electronic loyalty which is mediated by electronic satisfaction. This influence is positive and pure mediation. The theoretical implication of this research is the need to prioritize a human aspect to an e-marketplace context. Even though these implications need to be tested in a broader context of population, the practical implications of this research are important incentives for e-marketplace sites such as,,, etc., to pay attention to human aspects of their services to gain customer satisfaction and loyalty
© 2019 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
Hermansyah Andi
Department of Management, Universitas Serang Raya, Indonesia.
Article History
Received: 8 August 2019
Revised: 13 September 2019
Accepted: 15 October 2019
Published: 26 November 2019
E-service quality
E-customer loyalty
Human-computer interaction.
This study examines the role of electronic satisfaction mediation on the effect of
electronic service quality dimensions on electronic customer loyalty.
was ranked ninth of the most popular sites accessed from Indonesia. is
aggressively promoting and improving the quality of its services. However, the
dimensions of electronic services quality that affect the behavior of its customers are
still unclear. Research focusing on the effects of the dimensions of electronic service
quality mediated by electronic satisfaction is still scarce. Therefore, we offer new
insights on how the latest types of interactions must be maintained. We applied
Structural Equation Modelling for hypothesis testing. This study found evidence that
three dimensions of electronic service quality (privacy, web design, and compensation)
have been shown to influence electronic loyalty which is mediated by electronic
satisfaction. This influence is positive and pure mediation. The theoretical implication
of this research is the need to prioritize a human aspect to an e-marketplace context.
Even though these implications need to be tested in a broader context of population, the
practical implications of this research are important incentives for e-marketplace sites
such as,,, etc., to pay attention to human
aspects of their services to gain customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Contribution/Originality: The main contribution of this paper is finding that the human aspects of users were
the most important part of e-service quality to gain customer satisfaction and loyalty in the e-marketplace industry.
1.1. Indonesia E-Commerce and
The Indonesian Internet Network Providers Association (APJII) released the results of the 2017 survey which
revealed the fact that more than 143.26 million Indonesians were connected to the internet. Fifty-five percent of
Indonesia's 262 million population have become netizens (APJII, 2017). The increasing number of internet users
makes Indonesia ranked fifth in the world and based on World Bank data, Indonesia individual internet users
constituted 40% of its population in 2018 (World Bank, 2019). For a visual reference, APJII publishes its annual
report related to the number of internet users in Indonesia which is included in the table below. is
one of the popular e-marketplace sites and is the only one owned by Indonesians. In 2015, was
ranked first by the leading assessment site,, as the most popular e-commerce site in Indonesia
(Ningrum, 2015). In 2016, according to the Hachiko survey in the e-commerce category, was
reportedly scored as the highest Net Promoter Score (from now on referred to as NPS). NPS is an international
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters
2019 Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 199-208
ISSN(e): 2312-4318
ISSN(p): 2312-5659
DOI: 10.18488/journal.73.2019.74.199.208
© 2019 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 2019, 7(4): 199-208
© 2019 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
measurement method that describes the level of customer satisfaction and loyalty of a site. It seems that the
strategy adopted by in 2015 which focused on improving the quality of human resources and
marketing aggressiveness (Iskana, 2015) has paid off. The 2015 strategy and NPS score results in 2016 used the
concept of Customer Relationship Management resulting in electronic satisfaction and loyalty, which was achieved
by strengthening human resources and aggressive marketing. Based on our observation and interview in 2019, aggressively provided a lot of compensation for intense activity both on the site and on apps.
We estimated that the electronic services quality (from now on called eSQ) of is their main tool
for achieving customer satisfaction (from now on referred to as eSat) which in turn will encourage service users to
increase electronic loyalty (from now on eLoy). As stated by CEO Achmad Zaky, "Bukalapak is very
grateful because it is believed to be the first choice for people when shopping online. I think with so many
innovations and breakthroughs, Bukalapak can provide the best service in the midst of shifting and changing
markets to the digital world." The claim that is able to provide the best service still needs to be
verified from the consumer's point of view. Several studies in the context of offline business confirmed the pattern of
mediating relationships between service quality, satisfaction, and loyalty. For example: in the case of KFC,
satisfaction was proven to mediate the effect of service quality on loyalty (Aryani and Rosinta, 2010); in the Pizza
Hut case, the effect of two dimensions of physical service quality and reliability on customer loyalty was mediat ed
by customer satisfaction (Tjiptaningsih and Aryani, 2014); and in the case of PT. KAI, service quality influences on
customer loyalty was also mediated by satisfaction (Wendha et al., 2013). However, satisfaction mediation does not
occur when the perceived high switching cost are included in the model (Wibowo, 2016; Wibowo and
Widikusyanto, 2017). Logically, we adopted the sequence of variations that occur in the attributes described by the
customer satisfaction mediation test model to apply them to the online context.
Unfortunately, the abundance of empirical research in the context of offline business, especially in mediation
tests, has not been directly proportional to research in the context of online business. We tried to solve this
problem with the case and then tested the mediating effect in the dimensions to provide a more
plausible explanation
2.1. E-Service Quality and it’s Dimensions
While the quality of service in conventional business focuses on the human aspect, the quality of service in e -
commerce (eSQ) is more focused on the website as a front-line employee of the company that directly interact to its
customers. This fact evoked the topic of eSQ measurement that became a topic in the 2000's. Many scales have been
developed by researchers to measure eSQ and are given different names such as ES-QUAL and E-RecS-Qual
(Parasuraman et al., 2005) WebQual ™ (Loiacono et al., 2002) SITEQUAL (Yoo and Donthu, 2001) eTailQ
(Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003). These scales developed through the researcher's point of view based on respondent
responses, differ in context and emphasis. The five scales are multidimensional and are summarized as follows:
Table-1. E-Service quality scales.
Ease of use
Aesthetic design
Ease of use
Website design
Processing speed
Privacy/ Security
Customer service
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 2019, 7(4): 199-208
© 2019 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
Table 1 shows there were five eSQ scales developed. E-S-QUAL is the most widely used for measuring the
quality of the Business to Consumer site because of the E-S-QUAL steps throughout the full customer shopping
experience in the online purchasing process, taking into account the pre- and post-site stages of the process. The
use of E-S-QUAL instruments in measuring the quality of the Business to Consumer site (from now on B2C)
indicates that the instrument is reliable in predicting how online buyers evaluate the quality of online retailers'
services. Accordingly, other eSQ dimensions should be considered because, in the process of e-shoping, online
shoppers want innovative and visually appealing websites, as well as well-organized user interfaces. Thus, the
quality of website design is important, and it is a strong predictor of customer ratings, satisfaction, and loyalty in
B2C e-commerce (Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003).
There are two opinions regarding trust variables. Some researchers treat trust as a different variable from eSQ.
However, according to Bukhari et al. (2013) although privacy and trust may not always have the same definition, in
many cases it shows similar ideas in different fields or contexts. Therefore, trust should be incorporated into the
eSQ instrument to determine the quality of a website. Considering the characteristics of engaging in
online retailing and looking at the advantages and disadvantages of each scale in general, the efficiency,
responsiveness, compensation and ES-QUAL contacts, fulfillment, privacy and web design of e-TailQ and trust,
(Bukhari et al., 2012) it is proposed to specify eSQ for online retailers such as
2.2. E-Satisfaction Effects on E-Loyalty
In the B2C electronics market, the importance of maintaining eLoy with online buyers has been emphasized by
most previous researchers to ensure profitable customer relationships. In marketing, eLoy plays a vital role because
the cost of acquiring new customers is noticeably higher than the cost of maintaining existing ones (Reichheld and
Schefter, 2000). Measuring online buyers’ eLoy in B2C e-commerce should include 'the first choice in using the
website, positive comments, encouraging someone to browse the website, liking to use the website,
recommendations to others, buying intentions, caring about the best websites and retail sites (Yanmie and Ching,
In retail B2C online, eSat is considered as customer satisfaction derived from previous real buying experience in
e-commerce companies (Anderson and Srinivasan, 2003). It is a critical component in determining the success of
online shopping, especially in the B2C market. In the online purchasing setting, customer satisfaction is influenced
by the quality of the user interface of online seller's website, as it provides physical evidence of the capabilities of
online service providers and facilitates the use of online services (Alam and Yasin, 2010). Measuring online
customer satisfaction in the B2C market includes: “shopping experience (Guo et al., 2017), Yao and Liao (2011),
wise decision, overall satisfaction, enjoyment (Guo et al., 2017) and the way online transaction is carried out, online
retailer services, correct decision, and online retailer performance (Yao and Liao, 2011).
The relationship between eSat and eLoy is applied in offline and online stores (Zhang and Prybutok, 2005).
Many studies showed that eSat customers are a direct eLoy consumer antecedent in B2C e-commerce. Numerous
studies have revealed that there is evidence in the context of B2C e-commerce regarding the positive impact of eSat
on eLoy (Lin and Sun, 2009). The relationship between customer satisfaction and eLoy has been shown to be
significant in many studies and resulting in a positive predisposition of long-term loyalty (Gee et al., 2008). Our
research addresses this topic as the main proposed hypothesis. Based on the context and empirical evidence, we
suggested a hypothesis to be examined as follows:
H8: The e-satisfaction of a user influences their e-loyalty on
2.3. Mediation of e-Satisfaction
In Indonesia, a test of the mediation pattern of eSat on eSQ effect to eLoy is still lacking. But overseas research
with this relationship model has been widely practiced, both with pure mediation (Yang and Tsai, 2007), Ting et al.
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 2019, 7(4): 199-208
© 2019 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
(2016) and with the addition of other variables (Al-dweeri et al., 2017), (Zhang and Prybutok, 2005), (Lin and Sun,
2009; Eid, 2011) and additionally, the addition of the direct influence of eSQ to eLoy Quan (2010) and the use of
Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory theory on eSat variables (Chiou et al., 2009). There are even researchers who
have examined the effect of eSQ on eLoy on eSat (Zavareh et al., 2012).
The existence of trends in studies at the dimensional level, in turn will lead to guidance that will be useful
suggestions for improvement in determining the strengths and weaknesses of the website (Parasuraman et al.,
2005). The problem of dimensionality was also proven by Yang and Tsai (2007) by applying dimensional regression
tests of all their eSQ factors in eSat mediation pattern. Efficiency, system availability, fulfillment, privacy,
responsiveness, compensation, and contact became the independent variables for eSat in the research of Yang and
Tsai (2007). Ting et al. (2016) also tested the effect of eSQ dimensions of Efficiency, Fulfilment, Privacy & Trust,
Responsiveness, Contact, Website Design to eSat in mediation test. Website user interface design is strongly
related to customer satisfaction (Alam and Yasin, 2010). Al-dweeri et al. (2017) only tested the effect of efficiency,
privacy, and customer service, i.e. eSQ dimensions on eLoy, with eSat and Eloy as mediator.
Regarding the context of this research and with previous empirical studies, researcher have classified the eSQ
dimensions as well as assessing them as independent variables that influence satisfaction. With a number of mergers
explained in the method section, we determine the dimensions of eSQ that affect eSat, and propose the following
H1: The efficiency dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
H2: The reliability dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
H3: The privacy dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
H4: The responsiveness dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
H5: The contact dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
H6: The websiter design dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
H7: The compensation dimension influences’s customer e-satisfaction.
Figure-1. Conceptual model.
Source: Adopted from Parasuraman et al. (2005) and Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003).
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 2019, 7(4): 199-208
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This survey used ex-post facto data retrieval. Data were collected twice, with the first initial data collection
through a literature review of journal articles, APJII website articles and their latest publication, and some news
portal sites. We collected data through observation of online buying behavior and also private interviews on
The second data collection was conducted through an offline physical questionnaire as well as an online
questionnaire. The population was users who had made online purchase transactions through website or its mobile application. The selected sampling technique was a purposive sampling
technique to ensure that the research respondent was the person who had the information required for this research.
The criterion for choosing respondents of the study was those who made buying transactions at at least three times over the previous three months. A total of 1301 responses were collected and
analyzed with only 1105, after removing responses based on outliers and incomplete filling.
We measured the variables by combining the scale of eSQ and adapting them to the conditions in the context
of this study. We considered the dimensions of reliability and fulfillment (Parasuraman et al., 2005) to be equal and
chose reliability to represent both. Treating trust and privacy similarly, we chose privacy to represent both. We
also added web design (Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003) for specific naming reasons related to aspects of online
services, as well as aspects of human-computer interaction. The dimension of information quality (Yang, 2007) was
included in the website design so we did not apply it as a separate dimension.
Structural Equation Modelling (from now on called SEM) was selected for data analysis. Each dimension was
treated as single construct in addition to the multidimensional eSQ. The construct validity is determined through
the Confirmatory Factor Analysis test (from now called CFA) with valid indicator criteria if the value of
standardized loading factor (from now on called SLF) 0.5 and is significant. The Construct Reliability values were
expected to be 0.7 and AVE 0.5 (Hair et al., 2014). The results of the Goodness of Fit (GoF) test of the
structural model using RMSEA value criteria were below 0.08 with AGFI, GFI, RFI, IFI, CFI, NFI, and NNFI
each being the same or above 0.9. The absence of agreement on the absolute GoF criteria of SEM (Wijanto, 2008)
underpinned the selection of eight GoF criteria in this study. The hypothesis test was done by looking at the
significance of the regression weights coefficient from the Maximum Likelihood estimation technique on the path
between variables. If the value of it was greater than 1.96 at α = 5%, then the research hypothesis would be
accepted. The dimensions of electronic service quality that have the greatest influence were determined based on
the standard regression value on the path.
4.1. Descriptive Statistics
From Table 2 we know that the majority of the research respondents were women even though the proportion
between the two genders was not too dissimilar at 8.6%. Sixty-sixt percent of respondents have a bachelor’s degree,
followed by those with high school qualifications at31.5%. This makes sense considering that respondents with
bachelor degrees and those who are high school graduates are mostly generation Y and a small portion of
generation Z (Francis and Hoefel, 2018) who are very familiar with the internet both with PCs and smartphones.
The affordability of this generation in the selection of respondents was very high because the instruments were
distributed online. Financially, 67.7% of respondents earned less than 1.5 million rupiah, 20% more than three
million rupiah and this income claim was in accordance with the respondents age and education characteristics.
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Table-2. Descriptive (Frequency).
Sex categories
Education categories
Junior H.S
High school
Income categories (in IDR)
less than 1,000,000
1,010,000 to 1,500,000
1,510,000 to 2,000,000
2,010,000 to 2,500,000
2,510,000 to 3,000,000
more than 3,000,000
Source: Data analyzed.
Table-3. Validity and reliability.
Source: Data analyzed.
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4.2. Goodness of Fit, Validity and Reliability
The first CFA test showed that all indicators were valid to manifest the existence of each construct. RMSEA
was worth 0.07 and all Standardized Loading Factors were worth more than 0.8 in addition to ef2 that was 0.78.
However, in order to obtain a GoF that met our selection criteria, we decided to eliminate items that contributed to
decreasing the number of Chi-Square and to obtain the value of ≥ .90 on all the GoF index criteria we chose.
From this practice, the sequentially eliminated items were res1, des5, des6, com2, pri2, eS6, eL1, ef4, ef2 and
eL4. The GoF were AGFI at 0.90, GFI at 0.92, RFI at 0.99, IFI at 1, CFI at 1, NFI at 0.99, NNFI at 1, and
RMSEA at 0.049. These satisfactory results continued to SLF scores by the lowest score which was 0.80.
Satisfactory results were also obtained from the reliability construct test of all constructs, i.e. the dimensions of
eSQ, eSat and eLoy had good reliability. The complete results of the validity and reliability test can be seen in Table
4.3. Hypothesis Test
The full model estimation results showed empirical evidence that not all eSQ dimensions affected eLOY
through eSAT. The following Table 4 explains this further.
Table-4. Hypothesis test result.
Std. estimates
Efficiency E-Satisfaction
Reliability E-Satisfaction
Privacy E-Satisfaction
Responsiveness E-Satisfaction
Contact E-Satisfaction
Webdesign E-Satisfaction
Compensation E-Satisfaction
E-Satisfaction E-Loyalty
Source: Data analyzed.
From the Table 3 we obtained the results of four accepted hypotheses: H3, H6, H7, and H8. In the case of, it proved H8 and that the eSAT influence on eLOY was the key factor for the presence or absence
of the role of eSat mediation on the influence of the eSQ dimensions of privacy, web design and compensation on
eLOY for It means that only three dimensions of the eSQ for affected the eLOY of
its customers.
If we compared the value of standardized estimates, the three dimensions sequentially from the greatest
influence to the smallest, were namely: compensation, web design, and privacy. Empirically, our findings provided
sufficient evidence that the perceptions of compensation provided by regarding any problems that
occur, the positive perceptions of web site design, and the perceptions of how privacy is maintained were
antecedents to customer satisfaction before all three affected Bukalapak .com’s customer loyalty.
The proven hypotheses of H3, H6, H7 and H8 were the amplifiers of the theory of mediation relationship by
eSat on the effect of e-service quality on customer e-loyalty. These results are similar to the two other studies in the
e-commerce sector by Yang and Tsai (2007), Ting et al. (2016). The results of this study are similar to those of Al-
dweeri et al. (2017), Zhang and Prybutok (2005), Lin and Sun (2009), Eid (2011), Quan (2010), Yang (2007).
With the proven influence of three dimensions of eSQ, namely compensation, privacy, and website design, all of
which are human-centered eSQ dimensions, we believe that somehow changes occur in the way consumers and
producers interact. In this case of using a website/app, human natural factors should remain a concern of business
people and the market itself. Market memories of how resolves problems by providing
compensation; about how sentences are structured to encourage favorable perceptions about the fate of their
privacy; as well as how the website / application which is a front-line employees of the company is designed and
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters, 2019, 7(4): 199-208
© 2019 Conscientia Beam. All Rights Reserved.
how it interacts with consumers, will overshadow market behavior in the future. In our study, the influence of these
three dimensions on electronic consumer loyalty was mediated by eSat.
This year, 2019, has made many innovative changes in its electronic services by taking a
human-centered approach such as giving compensation in the form of prizes for participating in games, offering
sweepstakes, and giving away free vouchers, etc. In addition, the website design is also more aesthetic and dynamic.
It seems that our research in 2018 is in line with's policy in 2019.
The conclusion of this study is that the conventional theory of mediation of the relationship of service quality,
satisfaction and loyalty can also be applied and succeeded in explaining phenomena in the world of e-commerce. In
the case of, the dimensions of electronic service quality that affect electronic loyalty by mediating
electronic satisfaction were compensation, web site design, and privacy. These three dimensions are the human
aspects of website design. Practically, must pay attention to increase the loyalty of their customers
by increasing the feeling of being valued by getting compensation, the ease of finding sites / applications with web
designs / applications and feeling safe to transact.
The implication for further research is the need to study a larger population with wider coverage so that the
results can be generalized broadly and are more useful. Future studies also need to look at the appropriateness of
measuring electronic service quality with the research context, where we combine several scales and find
interesting empirical facts.
Funding: The author would like to thank the Republic of Indonesia’s Ministry of Research, Technology and
Higher Education for the PKPT 2019 grant he received. This article is one of the outputs of the funded
Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication
of this paper.
Acknowledgement: The author thank anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and corrections to his
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... A recent study pointed that satisfaction leads to CL (Ramesh et al., 2020). Recent investigation explained that loyalty is a behavioural intention and has an association with E-S (Wibowo, 2019;Walvekar and Kamble, 2019). Satisfaction always stays the central point for the consumer, either it is traditional consumer or consumer over the internet. ...
... A recent study has proven the mediating role of satisfaction in the relationship service orientation and CL (Solimun and Fernandes, 2018). Previous exploration has examined the mediation impact of E-S between the E-SQ and E-loyalty (Wibowo, 2019). That is reason researcher frame the below hypotheses. ...
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The internet has given birth to the new industry called online retailing, which involves vend via the internet. It is hot and fastest-growing industries and can grab the attention of retailers as well as customers. Despite this tremendous attention, the success rate did not meet the expectations. The association between e-service quality (E-SQ) and customer loyalty (CL) has remained ambiguous due to contradictory empirical results and how the relationship between these two variables get affected when e-satisfaction (E-S) and perceived switching costs (PSCs) also comes into the picture. There is such study which talks about the moderated mediation effect of PSC and E-S between E-SQ and CL. Data collected from 242 respondents who entertain him/her self-shopping over the internet. The results exhibited that all three constructs have strong association along with the mediating effect of E-S, but we did not find the moderating role of PSC. Implication, limitation and future study have explained in this investigation.
... Since e-Government has become an essential study in social science, many publications have explained Indonesian e-Government from various perspectives, such as computer science, engineering, and decision science [40], [65], [67]. Several e-Government applications in the Indonesian government have been utilized in several specific subjects, such as taxes [59]; improving the performance of public employees [63]; using social media to capture public participation and public interaction [7], [26], [35], [47]; audit opinion and public finance [62], [68]; open data government [37], [55]; public business models [7]; e-procurement [2], [20], [58]; as well as democracy and e-voting [24], [73], etc. ...
Researches on e-Government in Indonesia continue to proliferate. Although the development and discussion are multidisciplinary, a comprehensive understanding of the research direction and the latest developments is still challenging to understand and limited. This study provides the scientific information related to the Indonesian E-Government in the Scopus database through a bibliometric analysis, using the VOSviewer Software, Nvivo12 Plus, and Wordstat8. The study deals with the evaluation of structure, conceptual evolution, and trends of Indonesian e-Government following related publication. The results are from year 2015-2020, eighty-four publications are exploring Indonesian e-Government. There are seven clusters of concept related to eGovernment in Indonesia. The University of Indonesia is affiliated to most carries e-Government publications. The authors of Indonesia have involved other countries e-Government publications such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and Malaysia. Furthermore, e-Government study practices and theorists are more developed at the local level with the dominant theme of data, information, and services.
... The business model of social media companies requires them to collect customer information and sell them to third parties for advertising purposes. Candra and Juliani (2018), Wibowo (2019) pointed out that involvement of third parties to gather the customer data negatively impacts the perception of privacy among customers. considering the two divergent paths of security and privacy opposing the platform`s need to generate advertising revenue, we put forward: ...
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This study seeks to investigate the service quality in online meeting platforms. The research adopts a deductive approach and a quantitative analysis to test the collated model. The model is measured by distributing an online questionnaire and testing the constructs utilizing regression analysis. The findings indicate that efficiency, availability, privacy and fulfilment of e-service quality positively affect customer satisfaction in the noted platforms. The research provides academics and managers in the technology sector with a framework regarding significant elements of e-service quality. Finally, the research limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
... Various studies included in the literature indicated that satisfaction mediated the relationships among service quality, destination image and perceived value on the one hand and destination loyalty on the other hand (Khatoon, Zhengliang & Hussain, 2020;Wibowo, 2019;Ali & Mugadas, 2015). This study therefore, endeavored to determine whether or not satisfaction mediated those relationships. ...
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This study was conducted to assess the determinants of tourists’ loyalty to Serengeti National Park (SENAPA) in Tanzania. The study involved 1,148 respondents who were international tourists visiting the park from March to December 2018. Data were collected using a structured survey questionnaire. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique was used in the analysis. Findings revealed that service quality was a positive predictor of tourists’ loyalty. Accordingly, destination image and perceived value had positive effects on tourists destination loyalty. Also, satisfaction was found to have positive effect on destination loyalty. Furthermore, the findings revealed that satisfaction had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between service quality, destination image and perceived value on the one hand and destination loyalty on the other. It was concluded that provision of high-quality services increased tourists’ loyalty to the park. Similarly, tourists’ satisfaction and realization of value during their trips increased loyalty. The study calls for SENAPA management to strive to maintain high quality of services provided to tourists by introducing service provision charter that would guide the operations of different stakeholders inside the park. Also, the park’s management should make efforts that would enhance perceived value among the tourists by reviewing costs of items charged on tourists like park entry fees in view of making them competitive compared to similar parks found in Africa.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of e-service quality on e-loyalty, digital leadership on e-loyalty, the effect of e-service quality on e-satisfaction and the effect of e-loyalty on e-satisfaction in e-commerce online shops. The research method is quantitative and the sampling of respondents uses non-probability sampling of 190 online shop consumers. The researchiuses quantitativeimethods with descriptiveianalysis techniquesiand pathianalysis. The resultsiof theionline questionnaireiwere measurediusing a Likertiscale. Data processingiis doneibyipathianalysisimethodiusingiSPSS. The results of his research prove that the variables of digital leadership, e-service quality, e-satisfaction and e-loyalty are in the good category. The results of his research prove that digital leadership has aipositive andisignificantieffect on e-loyalty, digitalileadership has aipositive andisignificantieffect on e-satisfaction , e-serviceiquality has a positiveiand significant effect on e-loyalty, e-service quality has a positive and significant effect on e-satisfactioniand e-loyaltyihas aipositive and significantieffect on e-satisfaction in e-commerce online shops.
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This paper analyzes the role of online satisfaction and e-trust as mediators in the relationship between electronic service quality (e-SQ) and online loyalty (integrating behavioral and attitudinal elements), in the context of e-shopping. In an increasingly competitive environment, e-retailers need to know the determinants of the success of their online distribution channels in terms of service quality and the influence of this on e-satisfaction, e-trust and e-loyalty. Using a sample of 302 website users of in Jordan, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to test the relationship between these dimensions. Three dimensions were found to be the main explanatory factors of e-SQ, namely efficiency, privacy and customer service. In addition, it was confirmed that satisfaction mediates the relationship between e-SQ and behavioral and attitudinal loyalty.
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This research developed e-Service Quality (e-SQ) scale by integrating the E-SERVQUAL instrument with other e-SQ scales to measure e-SQ of a prominent online seller in Malaysia. The relationships between e-SQ, e-Satisfaction and e-Loyalty of online shoppers in Business to Consumer (B2C) e-Commerce were then examined based on the 390 sets of usable questionnaires, which were gathered using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure. The result revealed that e-SQ of the online seller's website was found to have positive and significant relationship with e-Satisfaction of online shoppers. Responsiveness of e-SQ had the strongest impact on e-satisfaction of online shoppers. The positive and significant relationship between e-Satisfaction and e-Loyalty of online shoppers was also observed. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed based on the results of the study.
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With the development of Internet, online shopping is developing rapidly in China as a new way for shopping. Therefore, it is important for this research paper to identify the determinants of consumer satisfaction towards online shopping in China. A total of 350 online shoppers in China had participated in this research. The findings revealed that website design, security, information quality, payment method, e-service quality, product quality, product variety and delivery service are positively related to consumer satisfaction towards online shopping in China.
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The aim of this study is to identify the key factors influencing customer satisfaction through online shopping. In this study four key dimensions of customer satisfaction of online shopping are identified. It is found that website design, reliability, product variety and delivery performances are the four key factors which influence consumers' satisfaction of online shopping. However, there is no significant relationship between saved time and satisfaction. Recommendations are presented which may help foster growth of Malaysian online retailing in the future.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to utilise the existing theories on consumer behaviour and scales within web quality to develop a framework for measuring travellers’ web satisfaction and willingness to purchase tickets through airlines’ web sites. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on the analysis and synthesis of literature pertaining to e-consumer behaviour, web quality and travel and tourism streams. Gaps in the previous research have been identified and a conceptual framework is consequently proposed. In addition, further research and methodology is suggested. Findings – The paper proposes a conceptual framework that can measure consumers’ electronic satisfaction and intention to purchase tickets from airlines’ web sites. The framework includes nine constructs: information quality, system quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, e-trust, airline reputation, price perception, e-satisfaction and intention to purchase. Research limitations/implications – As a conceptual paper, the study is limited to literature and prior empirical research, identifying gaps and proposing a framework. The paper recommends further empirical validation of the proposed integrated model. Practical implications – The framework is helpful for decision makers within airline companies to identify the factors that can satisfy travellers when using an airline's own web site and influence them to buy e-tickets. Originality/value – The paper fills gaps in the knowledge of e-consumer behaviour and web quality within the airline industry through suggesting a framework that helps decision makers to enhance or modify their existing marketing strategies and web site appearance.
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Using the means-end framework as a theoretical foundation, this article conceptualizes, constructs, refines, and tests a multiple-item scale (E-S-QUAL) for measuring the service quality delivered by Web sites on which customers shop online. Two stages of empirical data collection revealed that two different scales were necessary for capturing electronic service quality. The basic E-S-QUAL scale developed in the research is a 22-item scale of four dimensions: efficiency, fulfillment, system availability, and privacy. The second scale, E-RecS-QUAL, is salient only to customers who had nonroutine encounters with the sites and contains 11 items in three dimensions: responsiveness, compensation, and contact. Both scales demonstrate good psychometric properties based on findings from a variety of reliability and validity tests and build on the research already conducted on the topic. Directions for further research on electronic service quality are offered. Managerial implications stemming from the empirical findings about E-S-QUAL are also discussed.
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This study assessed the use of E-SERVQUAL scale to construct e-Service Quality (e-SQ) for internet banking services. In addition, it attempted to examine the effect of e-SQ on e-Customer Satisfaction (e-CS). Construct of e-SQ for internet banking services was developed to determine dimensions of e-SQ based on the E-SERVQUAL instrument, dimensions used to measure e-SQ in internet banking in USA, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden and UK, and the expert opinions. The primary data of e-SQ and e-CS were gathered from 392 internet banking users, representing 76% response rates, of four main public banks in Iran. The finding indicated that efficient and reliable services, fulfilment, security/trust, site aesthetics, responsiveness/contact, and ease of use constitute e-SQ for internet banking services in Iran; indicating that dimensions and items of E-SERQUAL need to be reorganized and reinterpreted when it is used to measure e-SQ for internet banking. A significant positive relationship exists between e-SQ and e-CSI in the internet banking. The regression analysis performed showed that security/trust, site aesthetics, and ease of use of the internet banking services have positive effects on e-CS.
This study considers E-S-QUAL and E-RecS-QUAL, the newly developed multiple-item scales for assessing electronic service quality (e-SQ) in E-commerce, as the antecedents to Website satisfaction and assesses their effects on online consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Using online survey data from those who had nonroutine encounters with Websites, this study examines and validates the effectiveness of the e-SQ in explaining the variance in the e-shoppers' satisfaction and loyalty. The study results show that both E-S-QUAL and E-RecS-QUAL have strong and equal effects on satisfaction and loyalty, and all dimensions of these two constructs are important and influential factors to online satisfaction and loyalty. In addition, the mediating role of online satisfaction was assessed by using a structural equation modeling program when latent variables were included in the model. The findings constitute a contribution to, and extension of, the literature in the application of the e-SQ to Website service loyalty model and e-store management.