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Effect of Organic Additives of Okra Cultivated in Unheated Greenhouses on Certain Fruit Characteristics

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Abstract

The experiment conducted during the winter season 2017-2018 in one of the unheated greenhouse in the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture collage - All Muthanna University in the south of Iraq inAll Samawah city, in order to study the "Effect of addition cows fertilizer , Water hyacinth compost and spray nanoparticle algae minutes and there impact on some qualities of okra fruits (Hasnawiya cultivar)". The experiment was contain (27) factor treatments and separated in possible combinations among three levels of bovine fertilizer (0, 2, 4) kg/m2and three levels of Water hyacinth compost (0, 2, 4) kg/m2and three concentrations of Organic fertilizer for marine algae nanoparticles extract (0, 0.75, 1.5) ml/L.The statistical design is split-split plot design and the experiment performed twice for three randomized sections and compared to the averages of the coefficients using the least significant difference test at the probability level (0.05). The main results are summarized as follows.1. The addition of bovine fertilizers in the levels of (2, 4) kg/m2the Significant increase in the percentage of total soluble solids for fruits, by an increase of (8.64, 7.08%) and dry matter of fruits by an increase (6.04, 9.78)%. Significant increase in fiber content (0.56 and 0.95%) compared to the comparison treatment, respectively, while the level of 4 kg/m2achieved significant increase in fruit content in vitamin C compared to the comparison treatment and an increase of 5.16%. 2. Levels (2 , 4) kg/m2Significant increase in percentage of total dissolved solids Vitamin C increased by 24.85, 42.23% by 20.02 and 27.00% by the percentage of dry matter and by 9.91 and 12.81%, which led to a significant decrease in fiber percentage by 6.28 and 11.78% Comparative treatment, respectively.3. Spraying with nanoparticle algae minutes in two concentrations (0.75 and 1.5) ml/l significantly increased the percentage of total dissolved solids by (27.13, 53.87)% and in the amount of vitamin C by (24.05 and 50.01%) and in percentage. The dry matter of the fruit increased by 5.90 and 12.36%, which resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of fiber by 3.74 and 1.85% compared to the comparison treatment, respectively.4. Some bilateral and triple interference showed significant effect in some studied traits.
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Effect of Organic Additives of Okra Cultivated in Unheated
Greenhouses on Certain Fruit Characteristics
Aman Hameed Jaber ¹*, Abdullah Abdul Aziz Abdullah ² , Dhia Ahmed Taain ³
1 (College of Agriculture / University of Muthanna, Iraq)
2,3 (College of Agriculture / University of Basra, Iraq)
Email: amanhameed@mu.edu.iq
Received : 6/9/2019
Final Revision : 24/10/2019
Abstract
:
The experiment conducted during the winter season 2017-2018 in one of the unheated greenhouse
in the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture collage - All Muthanna University in the south of Iraq in
All Samawah city, in order to study the "Effect of addition cows fertilizer , Water hyacinth compost and
spray nanoparticle algae minutes and there impact on some qualities of okra fruits (Hasnawiya cultivar)".
The experiment was contain (27) factor treatments and separated in possible combinations among three levels
of bovine fertilizer (0, 2, 4) kg/m2 and three levels of Water hyacinth compost (0, 2, 4) kg/m2 and three
concentrations of Organic fertilizer for marine algae nanoparticles extract (0, 0.75, 1.5) ml/L.
The statistical design is split-split plot design and the experiment performed twice for three randomized
sections and compared to the averages of the coefficients using the least significant difference test at the
probability level (0.05). The main results are summarized as follows.
1. The addition of bovine fertilizers in the levels of (2, 4) kg/m2 the Significant increase in the
percentage of total soluble solids for fruits, by an increase of (8.64, 7.08%) and dry matter
of fruits by an increase (6.04, 9.78)%. Significant increase in fiber content (0.56 and
0.95%) compared to the comparison treatment, respectively, while the level of 4 kg/m2
achieved significant increase in fruit content in vitamin C compared to the comparison
treatment and an increase of 5.16%.
2. Levels (2 , 4) kg/m2 Significant increase in percentage of total dissolved solids Vitamin C
increased by 24.85, 42.23% by 20.02 and 27.00% by the percentage of dry matter and by 9.91
and 12.81%, which led to a significant decrease in fiber percentage by 6.28 and 11.78%
Comparative treatment, respectively.
3. Spraying with nanoparticle algae minutes in two concentrations (0.75 and 1.5) ml/l significantly
increased the percentage of total dissolved solids by (27.13, 53.87)% and in the amount of
vitamin C by (24.05 and 50.01%) and in percentage. The dry matter of the fruit increased by
5.90 and 12.36%, which resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of fiber by 3.74 and
1.85% compared to the comparison treatment, respectively.
4. Some bilateral and triple interference showed significant effect in some studied traits.
5.
Keywords: Okra plant, cow manure fertilizer, Water hyacinth compost, organic nutrient, nanoparticle algae, total
TDS, vitamin C, percentage of dry matter and fiber ratio
I. INTRODUCTION
The increased demand in recent years for food produced using organic media free from chemical additives as
they provide a healthy and safe food for humans (Abu Rayyan, 2010).
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers that increase the organic matter in the soil and influence the release of major
nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and the work of compounds Chelating with microelements and
*The research is part of MSc for 1st author
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continuous and balanced processing of elements that accompany the growth and development of the plant and
improve the physical properties of the soil represented by aeration and soil holding capacity of water and thus
increase vegetative and syphilis growth (Jahan and Jahani, 2006).
It is also a source of encouraging Growth such as kaoxins, amino acids and vitamins and give the plant the ability
to grow and develop and increase the plant's absorption of the elements and thus increase the efficiency of
photosynthesis process and increase the accumulated processed materials in the plant, which is reflected in improving
the qualitative qualities of the fruits (Vildirim, 2007), which gives high quality and quality fruits as high content In
addition to reducing the harmful effect of salinity on the plant, it is possible to produce a crop that carries healthy
food and restores the environment to its equilibrium (Ewulo et at 2008) indicated that spraying okra plants with
marine algae extract at a concentration of 2.5% caused a significant increase in fruit content of vitamin C and fiber
compared to non-spray treatment. (Olaniy et al 2010) observed when using organic material for okra plants At the
rate of 4 tons. E-1 had a significant effect in increasing fruit content of vitamin C and fiber compared to comparison
treatment (Adewole and llesanmi 2011).
The uses of 6t/h-1 organic fertilizer caused a significant decrease in the content of okra fruits
fiber, while not significantly affected the content of vitamin C and carbohydrates and got (Gayathri and Krishnaveni
2015) when using 20t/h-1, farm residues of okra plants showed a significant decrease in the percentage of fiber and an
increase in the percentage of protein and vitamin C compared with the recommended NPK chemical fertilizer, and
among (Frimpong et.al 2017).
The use of 200 kg/h-1 mixture of residues of cows, poultry, corn husks and domestic ash significantly affected
Okra fruits of carbohydrates and fiber increased (13.75, 12.9%) compared to the treatment of headquarters
respectively. He observed (Poonkodi et al 2018) when using a recommended conventional fertilizer with 15t/h-
1compost caused a significant increase in the content of okra fruits of vitamin C while the percentage of fiber
decreased compared with the recommended conventional fertilizer treatment and (Smritia and Ram 2018) reported
that The use of farm residues of okra plants resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of total soluble solids
and vitamin C in the fruits compared with the comparison coefficient (Santos et al 2019) confirmed that the addition
of compost to okra plants at the level of 30 tons. In their content of vitamin C while not significantly affected the ratio
of total soluble solids ( Sureshkumar et al 2019) when sprayed okra plants extract marine algae concentration (0, 50
,100) ppm exceed the high concentration of 100 ppm significantly increase in fruit content of vitamin C and a
significant decrease in the content of fiber, compared with the comparison treatment
Due to the lack of previous studies in the country when planting okra plants in unheated plastic houses and the
addition of cows compost and Water hyacinth compost as a soil enhancer and foliar spraying nanoparticle algae
minutes and their effect on some qualitative characteristics of the fruits of okra variety Hasnawiya conducted this
study
II. Materials and working methods
The experiment was conducted in the winter agricultural season 2017-2018 in one of the greenhouses of heated
dimensions (50 × 9) m and an area of 450 m -1 in the agricultural research station (Al Bandar) affiliated to the Faculty
of Agriculture, Muthanna University. Table (1) shows some physical and chemical properties of the soil and the
irrigation water used:
The land of the plastic house was plowed perpendicularly to the plow and then flattened. 40 cm Exhibit and
the distance between the line and the other 90 cm, the seeds of okra variety Hasinawia were planted on 1/12 in the
middle of the terrace after soaking them for 12 hours in a gore away from each other 40 cm Drip irrigation system
After two weeks of planting, the plants were reduced to two plants per jar. Mulching black polyethylene tender
was used to cover the lines before planting with a thickness of 0.8 micron and 80 cm wide for the purpose of
getting rid of the bush and increasing soil heating. The agricultural service was used to produce the crop from
fertilizer, irrigation and harvesting uniformly and for all experimental units (Matlab et al., 1989
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Table (1) Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Field Soil and Irrigation Water Samples
Method
Irrigation
water
Field soil
Type of analysis
Page et al. (1982)


EC (1: 1)


TDS


NaCL


PH

Ready Nitrogen

Ready phosphorus
Black (1965)

Ready Potassium

Organic matter

Excess density

Real density

porosity

Clay ratio

Silty ratio
Sand ratio
Alluvial clay
Soil tissue
Laboratories Department of Soil Science and Water Resources at the College of Agriculture / Muthanna
University
The second factor is the addition of Water hyacinth compost before planting (0, 2, 4) kg. Water hyacinth
after analysis
Table (2) Characteristics of Cows Boom and Water hyacinth Compost after Decomposition
Method
Water hyacinth
Compost
Bettmoos cows
Measuring unit
Type of analysis
Page et al.
(1982
2.3
4.2
ds.m-1
EC
7.2
7.1
-----
PH
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1.1
2.1
g.L-1
TDS
2.4
4.3
%
NaCl
1644.2
1025.4
mg.k-1
Organic C
85.4
54.7
mg.k-1
N total
19.25
18.74
-----
N / C
9.9
12.3
mg.k-1
P total
188.7
174.8
mg.k-1
K total
Laboratories Department of Soil Science and Water Resources at the College of Agriculture / Muthanna
University
The third factor is spraying with three concentrations of nanoparticles of seaweed extract (0.5, 0.75, 1.5) ml.
L-1 by two sprayings, 25 days after germination and 20 days after the first spray
Table (3) Seaweed Content
Macro element (%)
Micro elements (ppm)
Plant hormones(%)
Organic(N) 3.43
Fe 150
Auxin 0.027
P2O5 2.44
Mn 18
Cytokinin 0.021
K2O 4.55
B4
Mg0.68
Zn 75
Ca0.42
A split-split plot design was carried out twice according to the design of full randomized segments with three
replicates.Commit bovine fertilizer levels were reported as the main plot, Water hyacinth compost levels as a sub-plot
agent and spray concentrations with nanoparticle extract as sub-plot agent. I counted all three contiguous lines as one
sector. The number of experimental units was 81 units, the length of each unit is 4.8 m, the width of 0.9 m, the
number of plants has 24 plants, and the intervals between the experimental units were 0.4 m. The chemical
composition of the leaves was determined by taking the fourth leaf from the top of the number of plants from each
experimental unit (Wlsh and Beatous, 1973) after 60 days of germination. The method described by (Goodwin, 1976)
2- Leaf content of total dissolved carbohydrates (mg. 100 g-1 dry tissue) 3- Percentage of nitrogen according to the
method described before (Pag et.at, 1982). Percentage of phosphorus according to the method described before
(Murphy and Ritey, 1962). Percentage of potassium according to the method described above (Pag et.at, 1982).
Percentage of sodium according to the method described above (Pag et.at, 1982).
Specific qualities of fruits were estimated, including
1- The ratio of dry matter in fruits was calculated by the following equation
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Dry weight of fruits / wet weight of fruits x 100
2- Percentage of Total Soluble Solids Using Refractometer as described (A.O.A.C, 1970)
3- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) mg 100 g-1 soft weight as described in (A.O.A.C, 1970)
Percentage of fibers according to the method described in (A.O.A.C, 1970)
The results were analyzed statistically according to the design followed and compared between the
arithmetic averages using the lowest significant difference at the probability level 0.05 using the computer for
statistical analysis
III. Results and discussion:
It is clear from Table (4) that the addition of bovine fertilizer level (2, 4) kg t/h-1 has caused a significant increase
in the percentage of total dissolved solids of the fruits by an increase of (8.64,7.08%) compared with the comparison
treatment, respectively. Both levels differed significantly, while the high added level of 4 kg m -1 caused significant
increase in the fruit content of vitamin C compared to the comparison treatment by an increase of 5.16% and the level
2 kg m -1 did not differ significantly
The addition of Water hyacinth compost at levels (2 and 4) kg.m-1 showed a significant increase in the fruit
content percentage of total soluble solids and vitamin C and an increase of (42.23,24.85)%, (27.00,20.02)% compared
with the comparison treatment Respectively, the effect increased significantly with the addition level
As for the spraying of marine algae nanoparticles, spray concentrations (0.75 and 1.5) ml-1 were significantly
affected in the fruit content in the percentage of total soluble solids and vitamin C with an increase of (53.87,27.13)%
(50.01,24.05)%. The effect was significantly increased by increasing the spray concentration
It is shown from the same table that the bilateral and tertiary interactions did not significantly affect both traits
except the overlap between the levels of Water hyacinth compost and spraying with nanoparticle algae minutes.
Plants gave C2N2 the highest values of 8.361%, 42.00 mg. 100 g-1 tender weight while plants C0N0. The lowest values
were 4.528% and 21.44 mg100 g-1.
The significant increase in organic matter in the percentage of total soluble solids and vitamin C in fruits to their
role in increasing the readiness of nutrients in the soil crop and then absorbed by the plant or by spraying directly on
the leaves leading to the strength of vegetative growth and increase the output of the construction process
Photosynthesis due to the activity of the enzymes involved in this process and its transfer to fruits (Abu Dahi and
Younis 1988), including carbohydrates that are necessary for the formation of ascorbic acid (Bendere, 2003) and
these results are consistent with what was obtained (zodaqe et al, 2008 and olaniyi et al, 2010 Gayathri and
krishnaveni, 2015 and poonkodi et al, 2018 and smritia and ram, 2018)
Table (4) Effect of Cow Fertilizer, Water hyacinth Compost, Spraying with Nanoparticles and their
Interaction in Total Soluble Solids (%) and Fruits Content of Vitamin C (mg. 100 g -1 t).
Fertilizer
cows
T
Water
hyacinth
C
Total TDS
Fruit content of vitamin C
Seaweed N
T * C
Seaweed N
T * C
N0
N1
N2
N0
N1
N2
T0
C0
4.333
4.667
5.500
4.833
18.67
27.67
38.00
28.11
C1
4.667
5.250
7.917
5.944
27.33
35.67
40.67
34.56
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C2
5.167
7.833
7.667
6.889
31.33
36.33
40.67
36.11
T1
C0
4.500
4.833
6.000
5.111
22.33
28.00
38.00
29.44
C1
4.833
6.417
8.833
6.694
27.67
35.67
42.00
35.11
C2
5.333
8.083
7.917
7.111
32.33
36.67
42.00
37.00
T2
C0
4.750
4.917
6.083
5.250
23.33
28.33
38.67
30.11
C1
5.000
5.833
8.167
6.333
28.00
36.00
42.67
35.56
C2
5.333
8.000
9.500
7.611
33.00
38.33
43.33
38.22
L.S.D0.05
N.S
N.S
N.S
N.S
Rate of seaweed
effect
4.880
6.204
7.509
27.11
33.63
40.67
L.S.D0.05
0.4495
1.133
rate of cow
manure
effect
rate of cow
manure
effect
T
*
N
T0
4.722
5.917
7.028
5.889
25.78
33.22
39.78
32.93
T1
4.889
6.444
7.583
6.306
27.44
33.44
40.67
33.85
T2
5.028
6.250
7.917
6.398
28.11
34.22
41.56
34.63
L.S.D0.05
N.S
0.3784
N.S
1.271
Rate of
Water
hyacinth
effect
Rate of
Water
hyacinth
effect
C
*
N
C0
4.528
4.806
5.861
5.065
21.44
28.00
38.22
29.22
C1
4.833
5.833
8.306
6.324
27.67
35.78
41.78
35.07
C2
5.278
7.972
8.361
7.204
32.22
37.11
42.00
37.11
L.S.D0.05
0.7508
0.4418
1.819
0.962
And from Table (5) that the addition of bovine fertilizer cows at levels (2 , 4) kg.m-1 has caused a
significant increase in the proportion of dry matter compared to the comparison factor and by an increase of
(9.78,6.94)% has increased the effect significantly by increasing the level of addition, While both levels caused a
significant decrease in the percentage of fiber in fruits and a decrease of (0.95,0.56)%, respectively, and did not differ
significantly between the two levels
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Also, the level of addition of compost Water hyacinth (2 , 4) kg.m-1significant increase in the percentage of
dry material for fruits compared to the comparison factor and an increase of (12.81,9.91)%, respectively and did not
differ significantly both between them and when they caused a significant decrease. The percentage of fibers
compared to the coefficient of comparison and a decrease of (11.78,6.28)%, respectively and the effect increased
significantly by increasing the level of addition
As for spraying with marine algae nanoparticles, both concentrations (0.75 and 1.5) mL caused a significant
increase in the percentage of dry matter compared to the comparison factor and an increase of (12.36,5.90)%
respectively. Whereas, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of fibers compared to the comparison factor
and a decrease of (1.85,3.74)% respectively. The decrease was significantly increased in spray treatment with
concentration (0.75) mL-1 compared to high concentration (1.5) mL-1 and with a decrease. It reached 1.92%
It is shown from the same table that the bilateral interactions did not significantly affect these traits except
the interaction between the levels of cow manure and spray concentrations in nanoparticle algae particles in dry
matter ratio. The interaction between Nile compost levels and the concentration of spraying with nanoparticles was
significantly affected by the percentage of fibers if the C2N0 plants gave the lowest percentage of 8.706% while the
C0N0 plants gave the highest percentage of 11.001%. Ratio of dry matter has only given treatment plants T2C2N2 the
highest rate of 17.21% while given treatment plants T0C2N0 the lowest rate stood at 12.90%
The significant increase in the addition of organic matter in the ratio of dry matter to fruits may be due to the
fact that it is a complete fertilizer and its decomposition is slow and contains most of the nutrients involved in the
formation of carbohydrates, which are the main component of the dry matter (Morsi et al., 1973) This result is
consistent with what happened (Ismail, 2013) In the increase of dry matter significantly for eggplant fruits when
adding rice straw compared to the comparison treatment. Low fiber percentage when adding organic matter may be
attributed to its role in changing the acidity of cytoplasm cells leading to the decomposition of the fiber constituents
which are cellulosic materials. This is consistent with what he got (Adewoie and IIesanmi, 2011, Gayatwri,
krishnaveni 2015, Poonkodi et at, 2018 and Sureshkumar et at, 2019).
Table (5) Effect of Cow Fertilizer, Water hyacinth Compost, Spraying with Nanoparticles and their
Interaction on Dry Matter Ratio of Fruits (%) and Fruits Content of Fibers(%).
Fertilizer
cows
T
Water
hyacinth
C
Percentage of dry matter in fruits
Fruit content of fiber 
Seaweed N
T * C
Seaweed N
T * C
N0
N1
N2
N0
N1
N2
T0
C0
13.61
14.01
14.87
14.16
11.163
9.983
9.960
10.369
C1
14.63
15.13
16.38
15.38
9.877
9.357
9.760
9.664
C2
12.90
16.16
16.61
15.22
8.743
9.233
9.290
9.089
T1
C0
14.46
14.80
15.38
14.88
10.950
9.893
9.927
10.257
C1
15.40
15.68
16.07
15.72
9.820
9.290
9.753
9.621
C2
16.10
15.88
16.46
16.15
8.713
9.197
9.327
9.079
T2
C0
14.50
14.82
15.70
15.01
10.890
9.873
9.853
10.206
C1
15.49
16.09
16.89
16.16
9.763
9.270
9.787
9.607
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C2
16.45
16.79
17.21
16.82
8.660
9.160
9.273
9.031
L.S.D0.05
1.093
N.S
N.S
N.S
Rate of seaweed
effect
14.84
15.48
16.18
9.842
9.473
9.659
L.S.D0.05
0.364
0.0861
rate of cow
manure
effect
rate of cow
manure
effect
T
*
N
T0
13.71
15.10
15.95
14.92
9.928
9.524
9.670
9.707
T1
15.32
15.45
15.97
15.58
9.828
9.460
9.669
9.652
T2
15.48
15.90
16.60
15.99
9.771
9.434
9.638
9.614
L.S.D0.05
0.587
0.381
N.S
0.0525
Rate of
Water
hyacinth
effect
Rate of
Water
hyacinth
effect
C
*
N
C0
14.19
14.54
15.32
14.69
11.001
9.917
9.913
10.277
C1
15.17
15.63
16.45
15.75
9.820
9.306
9.767
9.631
C2
15.15
16.27
16.76
16.06
8.706
9.197
9.297
9.066
L.S.D0.05
N.S
0.447
0.0733
References
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[2] Abu Dahi, Yousef Mohammed and Muayad Ahmad Younis (1988). Plant Nutrition Guide, Ministry
of Higher Education and Scientific Research, University of Baghdad: p. 411
[3] Nassour, Laith, Badi Samra and Abdul Aziz Bu Issa (2010). Effect of Organic Fertilizer Type and its Ratio
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