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Huella ecológica, huella hídrica y voracidad de la ganadería bovina industrial vs sistemas agroecológicos en América Latina

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Abstract

Introducción El cambio climático que sufre el planeta, se atribuye en gran medida, al carbono emitido por las actividades humanas más rápidamente de lo que puede ser absorbido por los bosques y los océanos [1].; y la ganadería contribuye con 18% de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) [2], medidos en kilogramos de CO2 equivalentes (CO2eq). De acuerdo con FAO, la ganadería representa 40% del producto interno bruto (PIB) agrícola mundial, genera mil 300 millones de empleos, y medios de subsistencia para mil millones de pobres en el mundo [2]. Los productos de origen animal satisfacen un tercio del consumo mundial de proteínas [2], y a la vez que contribuyen a la pandemia de obesidad, se han visto como una posible solución a la desnutrición. Como consecuencia de los nuevos patrones de consumo impuestos por la globalización y el incremento del ingreso en economías emergentes, se ha modificado la estructura del mercado global, se han incrementado los flujos comerciales y se han intensificado los modelos de producción en naves industriales. Los nuevos modelos de negocio en la ganadería, son dominados por grandes empresas trasnacionales; integradas vertical y horizontalmente, para apropiarse cada vez más de la cadena productiva y de los factores geográficos de producción; a menudo, las materias primas se producen en un espacio, se industrializan en otro y los productos se consumen en un tercero [3]. Los inversionistas de la ganadería industrial buscan maximizar sus rendimientos financieros. En consecuencia, se observa mayor crecimiento de la producción de especies no rumiantes confinadas en naves industriales a la proximidad de los grandes centros de consumo, por ser éstas de ciclos productivos y reproductivos más cortos que los rumiantes, generalmente criados en condiciones extensivas, pero finalizados en confinamiento [4].
Huella ecogica, huella hídrica y voracidad de la ganadería bovina industrial vs sistemas
agroecológicos en Arica Latina

!"#$%&
Introducción
'('#)(*'(')+
'')')(()(*!,-.&/*
(*-01'#+234,5.'6'
$%5+2$%54&
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';99'')* ' ()'' )( ',5.&
)      '  #        '  '    )  ,5.  *     +  
(*)'(+')(<<&
$'+)''))(<*'
'''#'('
 #=' * #')<+&+
'              '  )    ')  /  
+  *  '  )  ))    +  '        )+  *      #
#)</'')'))
*)',;.&
  +          (  '>'    '  #&  
(+'*')<)'#+
      )>'           '  )    !      )+  *
)+'''>+)#
#',8.&
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$(+ $)24 +24 $+24
Figura 1. Comportamiento de la producción mundial de carne de cuatro especies. Se observa un crecimiento más lento en la producción de
carne de especies rumiantes (ovinos y bovinos), sobre la carne de los no rumiantes (porcinos y aves), por ser estos últimos de ciclos
productivos y reproductivos más cortos, y más eficientes en la conversión de alimento a carne.
Fuente: elaboración propia con datos de Faostat (2018).
  '#      '    )<              ')
'(&   '    ) + 5@1   (  
')<#=);;1+(&'
)'*)#)2B91*;91)#4&
  '  ;B1    '  )<  )      <  !  *  @A1   <>  
)<      '*  )  )+    !/    '(!    )(    @81    
')!'(*+*#<'
,5.&
)01'())')<
+  #=  *   )(('    '*  #    '<       '  
(#<2'4,5.&$())<
'('++
'<"'!&
Métodos
+<(+<('(*'(
(++<DE'(''(!
 )F(')2 :*64& ")(<
+<'))+6')
G'  !> ' '(!'  >)  )
<')H>))*/*
G7)%*")>G!>&H#'<#(=
))+I,A. ,@.  J ') ( *
' #'<(+ * 
#'<  (    ')  )+'  '&          (
(+('('K<2')'(
))64'<32(42
))64/'(!<'(')<'(
'*)<)()&
#'<*<')')<('#'*))+
!&
Resultados
(+)'')'
'''*<&)'
((+0;&A1))<
(J2 :L7(*#4*)2$*H4,;.&
"'!))<+)'
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>)(+N"24 >)(+'>24
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Figura 2. La aparición de un brote de BSE, también conocida como “enfermedad de las vacas locas”, a finales de 2003 en el principal país
productor y consumidor de carne del planeta (EE.UU.), dio pie al crecimiento de la ganadería industrial en los países de América Latina.
La causa fundamental a la que se atribuye la BSE, es el uso de desperdicios de origen animal en la alimentación del ganado.
Fuente: elaboración propia con datos de USMEF (2018), ABIEC (2018) y AMEG (2018).
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)809(=?1)-9))
81'')5?9'(0B1,-5.&
  !>  >    '    )J  )      +  )
,-;.=')<('J
)<+')#)#'2-89
G*-9-99!>4*)<
'K)'!'')*))<)+)())
+<*#/'(='(#'+'=*J
  <    * <'/  (=+   <)' )+' 
2'))<'#=('*+'
)/*+))*)+''4
'>'<&
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') ,-8.& ')< ( (++ 
+*+#+)))(<!)+'()
)(  )<  # 2 )   
)4)'J)'((&
<#'*
*'<))(*+)(<>)
)+(,-A.&<')(!
'#+#<')(')#*<
)'<#(#''<
+'('  #+  + )< *
''>)6$%5,-@.&
2GG4)))'#))()
>)      )  6  )#      P    )  ''    ><  *  
#<2+K))*K**K+*'4
,-B.&
Análisis de resultados
"')-01'328-1*5?1)<*
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5;+'*$%5/*@A1<>)<2R5%4$35?@+)$%5
'*)  !R5% )+  !& ' (  (+  A0' 
+B;1*-A1)<'(,-@.&
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)#<#*##)<,-0.&
('<')<!#<
#='/''<>)+
!'(<')
)+(=)'<&"(((
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())*+#=(
')<')*#(#/
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#=)(+*'''=
    '    (<  )      #<#  <
  <  )  #'    *  #    (*      #<    
'*#<'&
 '( '<('+)  '
(+ *  ) (+   ' #+ ')< (  
(++ (+ '**+)
# * )  )  ><& $ !  ( '= (* ' 
<*'=#((<<)+>*
)'+*#+#<+/((=
''3*++#+)
(&
                "'!    !      (=    '(    
'   )  *  '  2:  L N< )/ *
!>LH$"R4&'(*<')<'K
#<B91+'<,-?.*)+)2?91
)<(+:)4*+#=2'**))'4
''')(+'#*)!
'')))<'
#'*'<#&
'>('*')2B@1--&0'
 '' *?91  '  *4 ,59.    !#  
<+')<')'&"('
!>'(!#<'<&
Conclusiones
'    "'!   ') '(
'#<B91+'<*)+)*+
#=&
)J)('#')'*>
''+(+'*)<'
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<(*'')'(
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()')+))P(+#
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Referencias
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  '  (& H) (   )('
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V+&-9&-O%LL59-8&
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B& ":$&  59-0&  "  :      >)    $&  "+(  K
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Evolutionary, meat consumption has meant a great step for humankind, even today, despite the different culinary options, meat is still a fundamental protein source for humans. Nonetheheless, and especially after Industrial Revolution, meat production has become an important source of environmental deterioration, fundamentally due to the handling practice developed since then. In this work, the impacts that animal husbandry has on the environment, the tools developed to measure the impacts, and the mitigation strategies that have been proposed by the scientific community have been reviewed. To reach sustainable meat production three objectives must be proposed: 1) Reduction in the use and contamination of water; 2) Avoid soil degradation, and 3) Reduce greenhouse gas emission. These goals can be reached through the change of handling practices. In some countries, these strategies have been already carried out tending to emissions reduction from 26% until 112%. Authors like Allan Savory and Frank Mitloehner suggest that husbandry can be a mitigating situation facing environmental change.
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The high water demands for agricultural production, has generated the need to quantify the consumption of this resource in order to establish management measures. Therefore a study was conducted to determine the water footprint of a dairy herd under the ecological conditions of the village of Rozo Municipality of Palmira Valle del Cauca. For the assessment took into account the methodology Chapagain, who sets the parameters for measuring the water green , blue and gray. A survey was applied to obtain the production data of the farm. The results showed that to produce one liter of milk 1,9 m3 of water, of which 97,4% are required per crop (fodder) for its production cycle is needed, the above demonstrates the need for alternatives to use and reuse of water within the livestock system.
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The present work studies the business models that have shaped the dominant companies in the international market of beef and veal and contrasted with the company which leads the sector in Mexico exports, in order discuss the possibilities of the network value Mexican beef and its implications for the structure and dynamics of the sector, in the light of the signing of trade agreements with the major producing countries. Intends to answer the question on how much the rivalry between the companies participating in the international market is which has promoted the growth and modernization of Su Karne? among the most important findings was that an important feature in the evolution of this sector, is given by the emerging leadership of signatures coming from countries in development, to a large extent explained by the drop in U.S. exports in 2004 because of an outbreak of BSE bovine (EBS), a phenomenon that opened unprecedented opportunities for Latin exports , and also by innovations in the business model of the emerging companies, which have been very successful to meet increasingly globalized markets.
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The international meat market is led by large corporations that control the most important nodes of the value chain, to transform them into value networks operating in the global context. This study compares two global companies, the Mexican Su Karne and the Brazilian business consortium JBS-Friboi, which is the leader in the world market, and the possible implications of their business models on the network value of Mexican beef meat. First, as context, a revision is made of the recent behavior of livestock production and beef meat exportations from Brazil and Mexico. The cases are analyzed through documental review and interviews with officials and experts involved in the value network. As a consequence of a more competitive environment in the global market, the Mexican packers will have to find new competition strategies, such as diversifying markets and building strategic alliances to exploit economies of scale and scope and standardize quality. (Econlit classifications: J-43, L-10, L-25).
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Conventional wisdom suggests that because of technology and trade, human carrying capacity is infinitely expandable and therefore virtually irrelevant to demography and development planning. By contrast, this article argues that ecological carrying capacity remains the fundamental basis for demographic accounting. A fundamental question for ecological economics is whether remaining stocks of natural capital are adequate to sustain the anticipated load of the human economy into the next century. Since mainstream (neoclassical) models are blind to ecological structure and function, they cannot even properly address this question. The present article therefore assesses the capital stocks, physical flows, and corresponding ecosystems areas required to support the economy using ecological footprint analysis. This approach shows that most so-called advanced countries are running massive unaccounted ecological deficits with the rest of the planet. Since not all countries can be net importers of carrying capacity, the material standards of the wealthy cannot be extended sustainably to even the present world population using prevailing technology. In this light, sustainability may well depend on such measures as greater emphasis on equity in international relationships, significant adjustments to prevailing terms of trade, increasing regional self-reliance, and policies to stimulate a massive increase in the material and energy efficiency of economic activity.
La huella del carbono en la producción, distribución y consumo de bienes y servicios. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) Naciones Unidas
  • H Schneider
  • J Samaniego
Schneider H. Samaniego J. 2010. La huella del carbono en la producción, distribución y consumo de bienes y servicios. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) Naciones Unidas. Chile.
Livestock´s long shadow
  • H Steinfeld
  • P Gerber
  • T Wassenaar
  • V Castel
  • M Rosales
  • C Haan
Steinfeld, H. Gerber P. Wassenaar T. Castel V. Rosales M. Haan C. 2006. "Livestock´s long shadow". LEAD, (FAO), Roma.
Case study research-design and methods
  • R K Yin
Yin, R. K. 1994. Case study research-design and methods. Applied Social Research Methods, Vol. 5 Num 2.
Modelos de negocio disruptivos de dos empresas latinas que emergen desde la red de valor de carne bovina
  • M A Vargas Del Ángel
  • R M Muñoz
  • T Q López
Vargas Del Ángel M.A. Muñoz R. M. López T. Q. 2014. Modelos de negocio disruptivos de dos empresas latinas que emergen desde la red de valor de carne bovina. Custos e @gronegocio online, v. 10, n. 1 -Jan -Mar -2014.
Hacer frente al cambio climático a través de la ganadería -Evaluación global de las emisiones y las oportunidades de mitigación
  • P J Gerber
  • H Steinfeld
  • B Henderson
  • A Mottet
  • C Opio
  • J Dijkman
  • A Falcucci
  • G Tempio
Gerber, P.J. Steinfeld, H. Henderson, B. Mottet, A. Opio, C. Dijkman, J. Falcucci, A. & Tempio, G. 2013. Hacer frente al cambio climático a través de la ganadería -Evaluación global de las emisiones y las oportunidades de mitigación. 0rganización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), Roma.