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Salud auditiva en la comunidad de víctimas del conflicto armado sobrevivientes a la masacre de Bojayá en el departamento del Chocó, Colombia.



Este estudio descriptivo tiene el objeto de establecer el perfil de salud auditiva en la comunidad de víctimas del conflicto armado sobrevivientes a la llamada “Masacre de Bojayá” y se desarrolla en el marco del posacuerdo vivido en Colombia actualmente y a raíz de las secuelas evidenciadas en la población del municipio de Bojayá, Chocó tras los actos de violencia sucedidos en el año 2002, más específicamente la explosión de un cilindro bomba que concluyó en la muerte, desplazamiento y victimización la mayoría de población, junto a graves afectaciones de salud física y mental, entre ellas la pérdida auditiva y factores concomitantes a dicha dificultad.
Salud auditiva en víctimas afrocolombianas del conflicto armado sobrevivientes de
artefacto explosivo improvisado
Hearing health in Afro-Colombian victims of the armed conflict survivors of improvised
explosive device
Introducción: En el año 2002 un artefacto explosivo improvisado estalló sobre la
población civil afrocolombiana refugiada en una iglesia generando una masacre. Los
sobrevivientes presentaron importantes afectaciones en la salud sin estudio completo
hasta la fecha.
Objetivo: Establecer el perfil de salud auditiva en la comunidad de sobrevivientes a la
“Masacre de Bojayá”, Chocó.
Métodos: Estudio de caso descriptivo, a partir de evaluaciones clínicas audiológicas con
anamnesis, otoscopia, audiometría, logoaudiometría e impedanciometría en 61
personas sobrevivientes; la información fue analizada con Epi info Se estudiaron
variables socio-demográficas, factores de riesgo, signos y síntomas auditivos, y
diagnósticos audiológicos.
Resultados: Un 72,13 % de los participantes fueron mujeres y los restantes, hombres.
Además de exposición al estallido de artefacto explosivo improvisado, que les afectó
tanto en recinto cerrado (78, 69 %), como en exteriores adyacentes (3,28 %) o
ubicaciones más distantes, los principales factores de riesgo auditivo encontrados
fueron la infección de oído previa (26,87 %). Un 70,49 % sufría de tinnitus y 14,75 % de
vértigo. El 81,97 % de sobrevivientes (n=50) presentaron alteraciones en su audición, sin
estudio previo. Un 81 % de quienes se encontraron con algún grado de hipoacusia
reportaban el antecedente de exposición al estallido dentro del espacio cerrado de la
Conclusiones: Se encontró importante afectación en salud auditiva entre los
sobrevivientes de la masacre de Bojayá, Chocó.
Palabras Claves: Traumatismos por Explosión; Conflictos Armados; Pérdida Auditiva;
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana; Audiología.
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Extremely high noise levels are characteristic of the military environment. Firearm detonations are considered to exceed the intensity of any industrial noise. The paper approaches the risk factors and vulnerabilities associated with exposure to noise in the military environment, as well as the most recent notions about noise-induced hearing injury and hearing protection. A review was conducted of the most representative papers on the topic using databases Medline and Hinari. Bibliography lists were searched for and created using Procite personal bibliographic reference manager. Google search engine was used to find references to the topic in journals, theses and Internet references. Results confirm the vulnerability of military personnel to suffer from noise-induced hearing injuries resulting from the high noise levels occurring in the military environment, the need to approach such injuries in a multidisciplinary manner, and the importance of implementing efficient hearing protection systems, with a view to improving the quality of life of persons exposed to noise and preventing hearing impairment, based on the certainty that prevention is always the best option.
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The increased use of explosive devices and mines in warfare and excessive noise of weapons has created an unprecedented amount of auditory dysfunction among soldiers. Blast-related injuries may damage the auditory processing and/or balance centers resulting in hearing loss, dizziness, tinnitus, and/or central auditory processing disorders. Some also lead to traumatic brain injury (TBI), postconcussive syndrome (PCS), and/or posttraumatic stress disorder. Some PCS symptoms such as dizziness, loss of balance, hearing difficulty, and noise sensitivity also can signify auditory or vestibular dysfunction and should not be obscured with the PCS package. This article provides information about the mechanisms of blast injury with emphasis on auditory dysfunction and TBI. Audiologists must be prepared to identify those at risk for TBI or mental health problems and adapt audiologic clinical practices to this population. An interdisciplinary comprehensive evaluation of peripheral, central, and vestibular components of the auditory system should be employed in patients with TBI to ensure that auditory dysfunction is accurately diagnosed and that appropriate rehabilitation can be performed.
For more than 40 years, Katz's Handbook of Clinical Audiology has been the go-to resource for graduate audiology students and audiologists. The text offers a clinical overview of current issues in and procedures in audiology, all based in sound science. This new edition incorporates the most recent in physiology, assessment, diagnosis, and management of hearing disorders. The Seventh Edition is divided into four sections: Section I: Basic Tests and Procedures. This section contains basic aspects of Audiology. This is critical information for the introductory graduate course. For this edition the authors are adding a chapter on Diagnostic Audiology. This illustrates how best to synthesize the pieces of their training into a meaningful diagnosis. This may ultimately lead to calling for additional evaluations that may be needed, making appropriate recommendations for minimizing the effects of hearing loss, and for improving auditory skills. Section II: Physiological Principles and Measures. This section contains information about electrophysiological procedures to assess the cochlea, auditory nerve, auditory brainstem and brain; plus measurements of vestibular functions. This section shows how the book has evolved with the field; for the first edition of the book all this information was contained in one chapter. Now there are 14. The new edition adds a chapter on treating dizzy patients and how to rehabilitate them. Section III: Special Populations. This section includes the unique problems of different populations: infants, children, adults, and the elderly. It involves the deaf, those with auditory processing disorders, multiple disabilities, and non-organic hearing issues. There are three new chapters in this section. Hearing Screening involves procedures for testing newborns, school children, and the elderly. Testing of industrial workers is in a later section of the Handbook. Most importantly is the inclusion of chapters on Hereditary Hearing Loss and Tele-Practice. The former is a new subject that is now part of the AuD requirement and the latter is a new practice that enables audiologists to evaluate and provide other services to people in remote places. Section IV: Management of Hearing Disorders. This section relates to aural rehabilitation, how Audiologists can determine the need and makeup of amplification systems, most importantly hearing aids, but also involving cochlear implants and other implantable devices and assistive instruments. It contains technical chapters dealing with room acoustics, the design of hearing aids and how to measure the needs of the individual who requires amplification. One chapter also instructs Audiologists in how to develop a quality and successful practice.
Actually, in International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) are deployed approximately 1500 Spanish soldiers and 40 Guardia Civil members. This force is located in Qala I Now, Herat, Ludina, Muqur and Kabul. The Spanish medical Corp is in these camps too, their members are carry out the mission and they are learning important medical experiences in the field. The objective is to show which is the medical personnel deployed, position, material capability in each echelon, function and the lessons identified by authors during their deployment in Afghanistan.
A 2005 assessment of noise-induced hearing injury (NIHI) among Army audiology clinic patients seen between April 2003 and March 2004 found elevated rates of NIHI among soldiers returning from deployment. Because of study limitations, it was not possible to extrapolate the findings to the entire Army soldier population in relation to deployment status. We performed this study to determine patterns of NIHI incidence among soldiers as a function of deployment status and to determine the accuracy and completeness of provider use of NIHI-related ICD-9CM codes. These refinements to the 2005 study were made with the goal of developing a surveillance process compatible with emerging Defense Injury Surveillance processes. NIHI among soldiers diagnosed during admissions or outpatient visits from all clinics were evaluated for fiscal years 2003 through 2005. Deployment status to the Central Command Area of Operations was con-firmed by referencing medical data to personnel data from two separate personnel data systems. The refined analysis demonstrated higher postdeployment rates of NIHI consistent with the previous analysis. Additionally, vertigo and imbalance disorders were evaluated. This study demonstrates the capability for noise injury surveillance to be integrated into an overall Department of Defense injury surveillance process and identifies additional measures to enhance this analytic process with further data integration and study.
Sumario: Centros colaboradores de la OMS para la Clasificación de Enfermedades. Informe de la Conferencia Internacional para la décima revisión de la Clasifificación Internacional de Enfermedades. Lista de categorías de tres caracteres. Lista tabular de inclusiones y subcategorías de cuatro caracteres. Morfología de los tumores (neoplasias) -- Descripción de la CIE -- Cómo utilizar la CIE -- Reglas y orientaciones para la codificación de la mortalidad y de la morbilidad -- Presentación estadística -- Historia del desarrollo de la CIE -- Indice alfabético: Enfermedades y naturaleza de la lesión. Causas externas de la lesión. Tabla de medicamentos y productos químicos En port.: Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Oficina Regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud Contiene: Volumen 1: Lista tabular -- Volumen 2: Manual de instrucciones -- Volumen 3: Indice alfabético
Tras una introducción en la que se repasa la historia, fisiopatología, anatomía patológica, clínica, tratamiento prevención y legislación del trauma acústico, se señala el interés del estudio del tema, que se ha realizado sobre 1000 individuos a los que se les somete a ruido de armas de fuego. Se analizan los resultados, comprobando la alta incidencia de aparicion de trauma acústico, siendo mas susceptibles los oídos que ya estaban previamente traumatizados y los que dispararon armas mas ruidosas. La evolución mostró cambios transitorios mas frecuentemente que cambios permanentes en los oídos previamente sanos. Las pruebas de fatiga auditiva no mostraron suficiente especificidad por lo que su utilidad no tiene interés.