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The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries, with a high number of working injuries and fatalities. A special issue for occupational accidents in the construction industry is the use of scaffolds, which is usually attributed to falls from height. Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made upstream from the construction site can influence construction worker safety. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the risk levels for different construction stages on scaffolding, with various work trades, aiming to prevent the occurrence of fall accidents. The use of new techniques and methodologies, such as Building Information Modeling (BIM), is of major importance. The growing implementation of BIM in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) is changing the way safety can be approached. This study reviews the existing literature about BIM and construction safety on scaffolding, to explore useful findings and detect knowledge gaps for future research. Despite the enormous evolution of research and technological innovations based on BIM for construction safety, there is still a flagrant lack of knowledge and solutions for identifying hazards related to construction on scaffolding.
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U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60
ISSN 2183-6493
DOI: 10.24840/2183-6493_005.002_0006
Received: 8 January, 2019
Revised: 11 March, 2019
Published: 29 November, 2019
46
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information
Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic
Review
Mário Rebelo1, Francisco Silveira2, Elżbieta Czarnocka3, Krzysztof
Czarnocki4
1Doctoral Program in Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Porto, Porto, Portugal (up201711584@fe.up.pt) ORCID 0000-0003-1878-1143; 2Doctoral
Program in Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto,
Portugal (up200501168@fe.up.pt) ORCID 0000-0002-4179-5722; 3Faculty of Management,
Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38 D 20-618 LUBLIN, Poland
(e.czarnocka@pollub.pl) ORCID 0000-0003-1706-7861; 4Faculty of Management, Lublin
University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38 D 20-618 LUBLIN, Poland (k.czarnocki@pollub.pl)
ORCID 0000-0001-8790-9417
Abstract
The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries, with a high
number of working injuries and fatalities. A special issue for occupational accidents
in the construction industry is the use of scaffolds, which is usually attributed to falls
from height. Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made
upstream from the construction site can influence construction worker safety.
Therefore, it is crucial to assess the risk levels for different construction stages on
scaffolding, with various work trades, aiming to prevent the occurrence of fall
accidents. The use of new techniques and methodologies, such as Building
Information Modeling (BIM), is of major importance. The growing implementation
of BIM in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) is changing the way
safety can be approached.
This study reviews the existing literature about BIM and construction safety on
scaffolding, to explore useful findings and detect knowledge gaps for future
research. Despite the enormous evolution of research and technological innovations
based on BIM for construction safety, there is still a flagrant lack of knowledge and
solutions for identifying hazards related to construction on scaffolding.
Author Keywords. Construction, Safety, BIM, Building Information Modeling,
Scaffold, Scaffolding.
Type: Review Article
Open Access Peer Reviewed CC BY
1. Introduction
Globally, the construction industry is an inescapable sector of the economy at the
international level, employing a significant percentage of active workers. However, this
industry is classified among the economy sectors that present high occupational risks and an
unsatisfactory level of occupational safety. When comparing workplace accidents in the
European Union (EU) over a period from 2008 to 2016, the construction sector presents the
highest number of fatal accidents (EUROSTAT 2016). Most serious accidents occurred on
scaffolding or on scaffolding sites. Several factors contribute to these statistics (Hide et al.
2003; Gibb et al. 2006) and result in many safety hazards which may arise at any given stage
of the construction process (Gibb et al. 2006; Qi et al. 2014). In recent years, different
technologies and construction methods have been developed with the aim of providing new
ways of enhancing safety management throughout the whole project lifecycle (Martínez-
Aires, López-Alonso, and Martínez-Rojas 2018). The objective is to improve rather than replace
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 47
management-driven safety (Teizer et al. 2010), identifying, for example, human errors and
deal with them quickly to prevent construction accidents, as well as predicting, planning and
controlling the schedule. The different studies have highlighted the possibility of linking the
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and planning process (Cherneff, Logcher, and Sriram 1991) as
an alternative to mock-ups, and have looked at the opportunities that are available in the
near-term data (Tatum, Byrum, and Rourke 1994).The most important shift in information and
communication technology (ICT) for construction industry was the Building Information
Modeling (BIM), which proliferation was occurred in industrial and academic contexts as a
new CAD paradigm (Succar 2009). The international standards refer to BIM as a “shared digital
representation of physical and functional characteristics of any built object which forms a
reliable basis for decisions” (ISO 2010). Some special tools of design, engineering and
architecture professions have recently joined the basic functionalities, like scheduling,
structural analysis, energy analysis, progress tracking or jobsite safety (Becerik-Gerber et al.
2012). BIM is mainly concentrated on the design, preplanning, construction and integrated
project delivery of infrastructure and buildings. However, in recent years, researchers have
shifted their focus from earlier stages of life cycle to the end-of-life considerations such as
refurbishment, maintenance, demolition (Becerik-Gerber et al. 2012; Akbarnezhad, Ong, and
Chandra 2014; Eastman et al. 2011), particularly in complex structures.
Currently, as reflected in the literature, there are many proposals that use BIM technology to
assist with different construction management tasks (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and
Martínez-Rojas 2018). Despite this, the construction industry is a sector which is typically slow
to accept changes, therefor the adoption of BIM has only just begun to increase around the
world in recent years (Silva et al. 2016). Using BIM, conventional three-dimensional (3D) or
four-dimensional (4D) models become nD model that incorporates multiple aspects of design
information required at each stage of the lifecycle of a project (Ding, Zhou, and Akinci 2014;
Shou et al. 2015).
In the early 1990s, Mattila and colleagues predicted that there was a need to study the
connections between good management, in general, and safety (Mattila, Hyttinen, and
Rantanen 1994). Since then, many studies related to safety management have been
developed and research progresses in BIM and its applications, such as occupational safety,
have been achieved (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and Martínez-Rojas 2018).
Scaffolding is a temporary structure which serves as support for operations of work crews and
materials aside under-constructing or existing facilities. Well-designed and well-established,
scaffolding is indispensable for the activities to progress safely, smoothly, efficiently and
successfully (Wang et al. 2016).
The main objective of this paper is to review existing proposals in this field of research, aiming
to identify the applications and evolution of BIM for safety management in the subdomain of
construction safety on scaffolding. As the author will demonstrate, there are many
outstanding proposals for construction safety in general, nevertheless, only a very few
number for construction safety on scaffolding. Additionally, the current situation will be
analyzed and further suggestions will be made with the aim of fostering and directing future
research on BIM concerning the management of construction safety on scaffolding.
2. Background of the Research Domain
Several studies show that BIM could greatly benefit the architecture, engineering and
construction (AEC) industry as a tool that contributes to safety management, e.g. through
scheduling, clash detection, construction progress tracking, design consistency and
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Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 48
visualization, data integration, cost estimations, implementation of lean construction or
improved team member collaboration, etc. (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and Martínez-
Rojas 2018).
A recent review regarding safety studies from 1978 to 2013 (1628 analyzed documents) show
that BIM is not a unique tool for this purpose. The study identifies 21 types of applied
innovative technologies and only 6 documents related to BIM applications (Zhou et al. 2015).
In a recent survey (Suermann and Issa 2009) defined questions to collect data regarding
perceptions about the effects of BIM on commonly accepted construction key performance
indicators (KPIs), which were defined by Cox and colleagues: quality control, on time
completion, cost, safety, $/unit, units/manhour (Cox, Issa, and Ahrens 2003). The results
indicated that some respondents did not realize the advantages for safety or for lost manhours
in construction projects. Ding, Zhou, and Akinci (2014) conducted a study that shows the
percentages of published works on BIM from the perspective of project management, with
7% related to safety management and 17% related to schedule management.
2.1. Planning
From collected data (Council Directive 92/57/EEC 1992), it was possible to stablish that
unsatisfactory architectural and/or organizational options or poor project planning at the
project preparation stage have played a role in more than half of the occupational accidents
occurring on construction sites in the EU. Effective safety planning contributes to the
prevention of accidents and illness of site personnel. Proper planning for safety plays has an
important role in reducing unnecessary costs and delays (Saurin, Formoso, and Guimarães
2004; Sulankivi, Mäkelä, and Kiviniemi, 2009; Bansal 2011). The identification of overlapping
activities is also a concern since the workspace for those activities may be conflicting and
accidents can occur (Moon, Dawood, and Kang 2014).
In 1994, the need to consider a schedule for the overseeing of accidents and their integration
in graphic programs was also stated (Euler 1994), and was developed a framework for a
computerized health and safety knowledge-intensive system that has since been
implemented and integrated with the current critical path method (CPM) scheduling software
(Kartam 1997).
As stated by Volk and colleagues, the applied BIM functionalities can be classified into
numerous subclasses, such as localization of building components, subcontractor and supplier
integration, life cycle assessment (LCA), monitoring, sustainability, performance
measurement, facility management (FM), operations and maintenance (O&M), risk scenario
planning, jobsite safety, emergency management, space management, and scheduling (4D)
(Volk, Stengel, and Schultmann 2014). The term 4D was used by (McKinney et al. 1996), being
defined as 3D plus time (schedule). In 1998, McKinney strongly suggested that the
construction perspective was often neglected because an important dimension for
construction-time was missing and stated the necessary efforts to develop 4D tools that
generate 4D +x models, which more realistically represent the construction process
(McKinney and Fischer 1998). Guo and colleagues concluded that 4D models are a useful
alternative to project scheduling tools like CPM (Guo 2001; Koo and Fischer 2000).
Since 2005, publications have been using the term BIM as we know it today (Tse, Wong, and
Wong 2005), referring the software as BIM, virtual building, parametric modeling, or model-
based design. As previously mentioned, many authors have defined 4D as 3D plus schedule
from the beginning of the BIM studies, such as Hu and Zhang (2011) up to, more recently,
(Zhang, Boukamp, and Teizer 2015; Zhou et al. 2015). Moreover, the concept 4D is not only
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 49
related to other concepts, but also to BIM, such as its utility on projects that involve many co-
builders, and is reflected by Trebbe, Hartmann, and Dorée (2015). Therefore, the potential of
4D CAD models has been widely acknowledged to avoid costly on-site improvisation, providing
tools to better anticipate conflicts in the planning phase (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and
Martínez-Rojas 2018).
More recent digital technologies have led to the development of new construction process
planning techniques, to allow users to establish more effective construction plans by
anticipating project results, such as Genetic Algorithm, Geographic Information System (GIS)
and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and Martínez-Rojas 2018).
GIS is a framework for gathering, managing and analyzing data. It integrates many types of
data, analyzes spatial location and organizes information layers into visualizations using maps
and 3D scenes. CBR is a process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past
problems.
2.2. Innovative technology applications
The most widespread technologies applied to construction safety are: Virtual Reality, CAD 4D,
BIM, etc., being widely used as tools designed for the prevention of on-site risks and safe
delivery of projects (Zhou, Whyte, and Sacks 2012). Other technologies with these purposes
were used before the development and generalization of BIM. Yamazaki (1992) and later, in
1999, Jung and colleagues associated the use of Computer Integrated Construction to
maximize the integrated use of information systems throughout the project’s entire lifecycle
for different functions, including security (Jung and Gibson Jr 1999). Among other, Seo and
colleagues reviewed other research studies concerning Health and Safety, monitoring and
identifying 22 records from 2007 to 2013 (Seo et al. 2015).
Simultaneously, BIM was also used to modify schedules to minimize spatial conflicts (Akinci,
Fischer, and Kunz 2002; Clayton, Warden, and Parker 2002; Dawood et al. 2003; Waly and
Thabet 2003). In other cases, it was used to permit management for construction projects
(Chau, Anson, and De Saram 2005; Chau, Anson, and Zhang 2005; Kang, Anderson, and Clayton
2007; Wang et al. 2004).
More recently, several researchers combined BIM with different technologies, such as
location tracking, Augmented Reality (AR) and game technologies (Park and Kim 2013), Virtual
Prototyping (VP) (Wang, Liu, and Chou 2006; Guo, Li, and Li 2013); RFID (or WSN in a broader
scope) (Motamedi and Hammad 2009). In addition, different research studies combined the
schedule, BIM and simulation as a tool capable to predict risks, aiming to minimize conflicts at
the workplace, as well as to be used as an active schedule management tool (Kim and Teizer
2014; Moon, Dawood, and Kang 2014; Moon et al. 2014).
2.3. Collaboration and communication
Shen and colleagues considered that these technologies can provide a consistent set of
solutions to support the collaborative creation, management, dissemination and use of
information throughout the product and project lifecycle, playing an important role in
improving productivity and efficiency in the construction industry (Shen et al. 2010).
Unfortunately, in this sector one of the main barriers is the lack of communication throughout
the project, and it is a reality that data concerning safety on a construction site are rarely
shared with all other interested professionals (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and Martínez-
Rojas 2018). New research directions on construction safety and digital design could allow, for
example, to focus on technologies that enable constructors to share their knowledge with
designers (Zhou, Whyte, and Sacks 2012).
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 50
A new concept has come, with a short time development, over the last decade, known as
Prevention through Design (PtD) and deserving a wide acceptance, as it has proved to be an
extremely effective tool in eliminating risks during the execution phase of a project (Hinze and
Wiegand 1992; Gambatese and Hinze 1999; Gibb et al. 2006; Frijters and Swuste 2008;
Martínez Aires, Rubio Gámez, and Gibb 2010). In addition, several researchers have shown
how BIM is useful for improving the implementation of PtD (Melzner et al. 2013; Zhang et al.
2013; Zhang, Boukamp, and Teizer 2015; Chavada, Dawood, and Kassem 2012; Qi et al. 2014).
BIM’s application in the design and final stages of the project was shown to be linked to safety
management and the prevention of accidents, and its application from the early stages of
project’s lifecycle is linked to a decrease in the accident rate (Gibb et al. 2006; Martínez Aires,
Rubio Gámez, and Gibb 2010).
From the combination of the results obtained using BIM throughout the lifecycle of the project
with the team member collaboration aspects related to its adoption, result the most positive
financial impacts (Gu and London 2010; Eadie et al. 2013). BIM is a tool used to share
knowledge, provide information and provide a solid basis for decision-making throughout the
project’s lifecycle (Martínez-Aires, López-Alonso, and Martínez-Rojas 2018). Thus, Ding, Zhou,
and Akinci (2014) established the use of BIM from design to demolition, although Shou and
colleagues highlight the fact that the use of BIM is mainly related to the construction stage
(Shou et al. 2015). In addition, it can also be shown that BIM is becoming increasingly useful
due to its upstream use, in the pre-construction phase, as a tool that supports collaboration
(Succar 2009; Succar and Kassem 2015; Wang and Chong 2015).
3. Materials and Methods
This section outlines the systematic review as a methodological approach to explore useful
findings in the existing literature about construction safety and BIM, and to identify the lack
of knowledge for future research. A systematic review is used for identifying, selecting and
appraising all the literature of a certain agreed level of quality that is relevant to a research
question (Booth, Sutton, and Papaioannou 2016). This systematic review is conducted in
accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
(PRISMA) guidelines (Liberati et al. 2009).
The databases sources used were Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus and IEEE. The period
studied ranges from 2008 to 2018 and the search was carried out using the
‘‘Title/Abstract/Keyword’’ field of the databases. The full search is ‘‘Title/Abstract/Keyword
Construction AND BIM AND safety AND (scaffold OR scaffolding)” or ‘‘Title/Abstract/Keyword
Construction AND “building Information modeling” AND safety AND (scaffold OR scaffolding)”.
There were 13 documents identified through a database search and, after removing
duplicates, this number was reduced to a total of 9 documents. Furthermore, 7 documents
under search criteria ‘‘Title/Abstract/Keyword Construction, BIM and Management” were
included. After removing duplicates, this number was reduced to a total of 2 documents. The
topic of Safety was discussed in all of them.
Of the total number of documents (n = 11), 4 were conference papers and 7 were articles. The
systematic review only focused on 5 articles and 2 conference papers, because 2 articles and
2 conference papers are not fully available.
Figure 1 illustrates PRISMA flow diagram, where the number of documents after applying the
selection criterion is shown in each stage. Finally, as can be seen in the figure, 11 documents
were reviewed.
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 51
Figure 1: Flowchart of systematic review process (PRISMA flow diagram)
The publications were found on the considered databases which deal with BIM or Building
Information Modeling on the area of Engineering linked to Construction-Architects, Engineers,
Contractors (AEC).
Considering the results presented in Section 2, five key areas have been identified, which
define BIM use as a safety management tool: i) construction or safety management (SM), ii)
4D schedule and planning (SP), iii) visualization/simulation (VS), iv) collaboration and
communication (CC), and v) identifying hazards (IH). The 7 articles have been analyzed using
the following protocol: (1) work title; (2) year of publication; (3) magazine title; (4) country;
(5) project phase identification where BIM is used: design, construction, maintenance,
namely, during the project’s whole lifecycle; (6) highlights identification; (7) innovative
technology use identification and other differentiating aspects.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Publishing framework
This section results from the above presented steps (1) to (4), which allow to establish the
publishing framework of the texts being analyzed.
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 52
Table 1 shows the number of publications regarding construction safety on scaffolding and
BIM published by authors’ country/region. This information is in line with the research carried
out by Porwal, which proves that BIM implementation is still a challenge for the North
American construction industry (Porwal and Hewage 2013). Succar (2009) shows a non-
exhaustive list of publicly-available guides, reports and models relating to BIM, which shows
that the USA have the greatest number of Construction Safety and BIM research articles
published since 2009.
Country/Territory
Authors
United States
13
Australia*
8
China
5
Taiwan
5
Canada
1
Germany
1
Puerto Rico
1
South Korea
1
*Australasian Joint Research Centre for
Building Information Modelling, Curtin
University, Perth, Australia
Table 1: Number of publications regarding construction safety on scaffolding and
BIM published by authors’ country/region
Table 2 shows the number of publications per source.
Source
Automation in Construction
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management - ASCE
IEEE Proceedings
Advances in Engineering Education
13th International Conference, CDVE 2016, Proceeding Book
Advanced Engineering Informatics
Table 2: Number of documents regarding construction safety and BIM by source
Figure 2 shows the distribution of articles linking BIM and construction safety per year, related
with this study.
Figure 2: Annual distribution of articles
4.2. Highlights of comparative review
The results from steps (5) to (7) of the analysis method are detailed in this section, so the
articles were arranged in Table 3, with the objective of organizing construction safety and BIM
content proposed by the author, identifying the key areas addressed as well as certain
distinguishing features. The first column presents each article by author and year of
publication. The next five present the five key areas established for this study: Construction
or Safety Management (SM), 4D Schedule and Planning (SP), Visualization/Simulation (VS),
0
1
2
3
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 53
Collaboration and Communication (CC), and Identifying Hazards (IH). The seventh column
gathers other distinguishing features from the research published in the articles.
Source
SM
VS
IH
SP
CC
Other
Clevenger, Del
Puerto, and Glick
(2015)
Yes
Yes
Safety training within construction education. OSHA
requirements for scaffolds.
Wang et al. (2016)
Yes
Yes
Mobile application. Requirement analysis
Jin et al. (2017)
Yes
Yes
Yes
R&D. VC. Scaffolding placement requirements.
Kim and Teizer
(2014)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Temporary facilities. Scaffolding systems. Accident
cases. Retrieval system.
Kim, Cho, and Kim
(2018)
Yes
Yes
CPM
Kim, Cho, and Zhang
(2016)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
R&D. Temporary structures. Scaffolds. PtD.
Chi et al. (2017)
Yes
Yes
Yes
AR. VR. Progress and productivity monitoring
strategies for scaffolding tasks.
Acronym
AR
Augmented Reality
BIM
Building Information Model
CC
Collaboration and Communication
CPM
Critical Path Method
IH
Identifying Hazards
PtD
Prevention through Design
R&D
Research and Development
SM
Construction or Safety Management
SP
4D Schedule and Planning
VC
Virtual Construction
VR
Virtual Reality
VS
Visualization/Simulation
Table 3: Key areas Comparative Review
Figure 3 gives a summary of the results in Table 3, which presents the percentages of articles
that addressed the five defined key areas.
85.71% of studies have safety management as their focus, followed by 71.43% which refer to
BIM use for visualization or simulation. The identification of hazards is a key objective,
nevertheless is present in just 14.29% of the documents. Scaffolds are among all the studied
systems. BIM is used as a tool to enable collaboration and communication; these topics are
today’s active research topics and will still be active in the next 5-10 years (Shen et al. 2010).
In this becoming, safety training has resulted the objective of a research study regarding the
use of BIM to improve workers’ education or training (Clevenger, Del Puerto, and Glick 2015).
Figure 3: Key areas and percentage of articles studied
85.71%
71.43%
14.29%
42.86%
57.14%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
SM VS IH SP CC
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Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 54
On the other hand, Figure 4 shows the percentage of publications regarding BIM a project
lifecycle viewpoint. 57.14% of the projects use BIM in the design and construction phase.
Nevertheless, 28.58% of the studies include just the construction stages of the projects, and
14.28% the lifecycle. This demonstrates the usefulness of BIM in terms of prevention of
accidents through design (Melzner et al. 2013; Qi et al. 2014; Zhang et al. 2013; Zhang,
Boukamp, and Teizer 2015). None of the analyzed articles studies the totality of the life stages
of the construction, resulting in 0% of the lifecycle.
Figure 4: Percentage of articles studied from the viewpoint of project life cycle
5. Conclusions
BIM and interoperability of software have emerged with substantial improvements in recent
years, permitting development of digital collaboration. However, to achieve potential
benefits, is necessary to get through the many difficulties of BIM adoption.
The key benefits of BIM adoption are summarized in the following:
Sustainable BIM adoption will improve project communication, allowing stakeholders
to collaborate more effectively and more accurately, diminishing the design errors and
reworks pertaining to the construction activities.
BIM is by nature multidisciplinary. Therefore, BIM brings project members together,
creating constant communication, increasing the integration of design and
construction phase and decreasing the hazardous construction activities on scaffolding
associated with safety issues.
BIM-model can be used as online databases throughout the life of the building,
communicating information to all project members involved.
The key challenges of BIM adoption are summarized in the following:
BIM is a socio-technical system. Therefore, sustainable BIM adoption requires an
integrated approach, combining technical structures and social practices.
Adoption of BIM comes with a learning curve. Consequently, sustainable BIM adoption
requires extensive preparation and training of employees.
BIM collaboration between organizations (and across national borders) appears
problematic. Therefore, there is a need for common standards and documented
procedures.
Design and Construction
phase
57%
Life-cicle
0%
Design phase
15%
Maintenance
14%
Construction
phase
14%
Construction Safety on Scaffolding: Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Safety Management - A Systematic Review
Mário Rebelo, Francisco Silveira, Elżbieta Czarnocka, Krzysztof Czarnocki
U.Porto Journal of Engineering, 5:2 (2019) 46-60 55
Interoperability between BIM tools appears problematic. Consequently, shared
regulations and standardized exchange formats are needed.
BIM adoption leads to organizational change. For example, changes in work practices
and interpersonal dynamics. For changes to be adopted, managers and leaders must
engage.
BIM provides a solid visual understanding of a site and the working conditions before the
initiation of the construction phase, as well as facilitating a visual representation of site
conditions. Moreover, the combined application of various innovative technologies allows
visualization of the workplace in real time owing to the different functions of these
technologies. Therefore, the growing implementation of BIM in the AEC industry is changing
the way safety can be approached.
In this study, the objectives were to identify the applications and evolution of BIM for safety
management in the subdomain of construction safety on scaffolding. It was evidenced that,
despite the enormous evolution of the number of studies and technological innovations of
BIM in construction safety, there is still a flagrant lack of knowledge and solutions for
Identifying Hazards related to the subdomain of construction safety on scaffolding. Potential
safety hazards can be automatically identified, and corresponding prevention methods can be
applied using an automated approach. Moreover, its ease of utilization in worker safety
training and education, design for safety, safety planning (job hazard analysis and pre-task
planning), accident investigation, and facility and maintenance phase safety should be
considered.
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