Conference Paper

# The 5G EVE Multi-site Experimental Architecture and Experimentation Workflow

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... The Athens experimentation facility is comprised of the 5G-testbed owned by OTE, the largest Greek MNO, and created in OTE's research labs for 5G-EVE [10], and the stateof-the-art warehouse / Logistic-hub facilities of DIAKINISIS, the largest 3 rd Party Logistics (3PL) Greek operator. The 5Gtestbed will be upgraded to 3GPP Rel.16 compliant Stand Alone (SA) version and will be interconnected with the DIAKINISIS facilities with fiber connectivity. ...
... This UC will be validated over the Romanian 5G testbed, which is based on the Orange Romania testbed platform, using parts of the commercial 5G network as well as experimental open-source components, created by the 5G-EVE project [10]. The testbed will be progressively upgraded to a Rel.16 SA, while the upgraded 5G SA infrastructure will be enhanced during the deployment process with orchestration tools, such as ONAP or OSM, automatic services and VNFs onboarding and slicing orchestration. ...
Conference Paper
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As 5G networks are being deployed across the world, more and more vertical industries are discovering the benefits of 5G connectivity and the novel business and innovation models that it has to offer. The Transport & Logistics (T&L) industry is expected to be one of the key adopters of 5G technology, where the 5G enterprise market for T&L is estimated to reach €2.7 trillion by 2026 [1]. However, the adoption and penetration of 5G-based solutions in T&L may be hindered by the knowledge/expertise gap between the vertical industry, the telecommunication experts and the application developers. 5G based Network Applications (NetApps) represent a key enabler for the adoption of 5G solutions, as they can abstract the complexity of the underlying 5G infrastructure for T&L application developers, and significantly reduce the service creation and deployment times, as well as optimize the utilization of 5G resources. The European project VITAL-5G aims to advance the offered T&L services by showcasing the benefits of 5G-based NetApps via real-life trials over state-of-the-art vertical T&L facilities and advanced European 5G-testbeds. To support both internal and 3 rd-party experimentation, VITAL-5G will create an experimentation service portal and online repository to facilitate the creation, deployment, monitoring and (re)configuration of NetApps in the vertical environment.
... Perez et al. J Wireless Com Network (2021 First of all, (1) this monitoring platform has been designed and implemented within the scope of an European project related to the research on 5G networks: 5G EVE [6,7]. This project is deploying a validation 5G multi-site platform, involving four main facilities located in Spain, Italy, France and Greece, where verticals and other projects can execute extensive trials. ...
... More complex functions may estimate the average rate between two points in a defined window time. • Directly provide them to the different tools grouped in the Monitoring/Results collection/KPI tools entity, which is the entity consuming metrics from the Metrics aggregation or the Inter-site broker system, laying the ground for a set of value-added additional components that range from the KPI Framework for performance diagnosis already mentioned, which allows to fulfill requirement (7), to more complex modules such as data analytics platforms, SLA enforcement mechanisms or data visualization services, which can be fed from the monitoring data provided by the system. ...
Article
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The fifth generation (5G) of mobile networks is designed to accommodate different types of use cases, each of them with different and stringent requirements and key performance indicators (KPIs). To support the optimization of the network performance and validation of the KPIs, there exist the necessity of a flexible and efficient monitoring system and capable of realizing multi-site and multi-stakeholder scenarios. Nevertheless, for the evolution from 5G to 6G, the network is envisioned as a user-driven, distributed Cloud computing system where the resource pool is foreseen to integrate the participating users. In this paper, we present a distributed monitoring architecture for Beyond 5G multi-site platforms, where different stakeholders share the resource pool in a distributed environment. Taking advantage of the usage of publish-subscribe mechanisms adapted to the Edge, the developed lightweight monitoring solution can manage large amounts of real-time traffic generated by the applications located in the resource pool. We assess the performance of the implemented paradigm, revealing some interesting insights about the platform, such as the effect caused by the throughput of monitoring data in performance parameters such as the latency and packet loss, or the presence of a saturation effect due to software limitations that impacts in the performance of the system under specific conditions. In the end, the performance evaluation process has confirmed that the monitoring platform suits the requirements of the proposed scenarios, being capable of handling similar workloads in real 5G and Beyond 5G scenarios, then discussing how the architecture could be mapped to these real scenarios.
... Either way, signal strength maps are expensive for both operators and crowdsourcing companies to obtain, and may not be available for all locations, times, frequencies, and other parameters of interest. The upcoming dense deployment of small cells at metropolitan scales will only increase the need for accurate and comprehensive signal maps to enable 5G network management [19,24]. ...
Preprint
Signal maps are essential for the planning and operation of cellular networks. However, the measurements needed to create such maps are expensive, often biased, not always reflecting the metrics of interest, and posing privacy risks. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for predicting cellular signal maps from limited measurements. We propose and combine three mechanisms that deal with the fact that not all measurements are equally important for a particular prediction task. First, we design \emph{quality-of-service functions ($Q$)}, including signal strength (RSRP) but also other metrics of interest, such as coverage (improving recall by 76\%-92\%) and call drop probability (reducing error by as much as 32\%). By implicitly altering the training loss function, quality functions can also improve prediction for RSRP itself where it matters (e.g. MSE reduction up to 27\% in the low signal strength regime, where errors are critical). Second, we introduce \emph{weight functions} ($W$) to specify the relative importance of prediction at different parts of the feature space. We propose re-weighting based on importance sampling to obtain unbiased estimators when the sampling and target distributions mismatch(yielding 20\% improvement for targets on spatially uniform loss or on user population density). Third, we apply the {\em Data Shapley} framework for the first time in this context: to assign values ($\phi$) to individual measurement points, which capture the importance of their contribution to the prediction task. This can improve prediction (e.g. from 64\% to 94\% in recall for coverage loss) by removing points with negative values, and can also enable data minimization (i.e. we show that we can remove 70\% of data w/o loss in performance). We evaluate our methods and demonstrate significant improvement in prediction performance, using several real-world datasets.
... Mobile analytics companies (e.g., OpenSignal [42], Tutela [2]) crowdsource measurements directly from end-user devices, via standalone mobile apps or SDKs integrated into popular partnering apps, typically games, utility or streaming apps. The upcoming dense deployment of small cells for 5G at metropolitan scales will only increase the need for accurate and comprehensive signal maps [22,27]. Because cellular measurements are expensive to obtain, they may not be available for all locations, times and other parameters of interest, thus there is need for signal map prediction based on limited available such measurements. ...
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We consider the problem of predicting cellular network performance (signal maps) from measurements collected by several mobile devices. We formulate the problem within the online federated learning framework: (i) federated learning (FL) enables users to collaboratively train a model, while keeping their training data on their devices; (ii) measurements are collected as users move around over time and are used for local training in an online fashion. We consider an honest-but-curious server, who observes the updates from target users participating in FL and infers their location using a deep leakage from gradients (DLG) type of attack, originally developed to reconstruct training data of DNN image classifiers. We make the key observation that a DLG attack, applied to our setting, infers the average location of a batch of local data, and can thus be used to reconstruct the target users' trajectory at a coarse granularity. We show that a moderate level of privacy protection is already offered by the averaging of gradients, which is inherent to Federated Averaging. Furthermore, we propose an algorithm that devices can apply locally to curate the batches used for local updates, so as to effectively protect their location privacy without hurting utility. Finally, we show that the effect of multiple users participating in FL depends on the similarity of their trajectories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of DLG attacks in the setting of FL from crowdsourced spatio-temporal data.
... The complete 5G solution for both use cases is depicted in Figure 2. It comprises two vertical sites, namely the factory where all the machinery is installed and the headquarters where workers remotely control operations, and the PN interconnecting these sites. The 5Growth and the 5G-EVE [13] [14] platforms embody the 5G service platforms for the NPN (i.e., vertical premises) and the PN, respectively. 5G-EVE is a European platform for the validation and large-scale experimentation on 5G technology, providing full sets of 5G capabilities, including 5G new radio, backhaul, core and service technologies as well as slicing and orchestration. ...
Article
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5G is playing a paramount role in the digital transformation of the industrial sector, offering high-bandwidth, reliable, and low-latency wireless connectivity to meet the stringent and critical performance requirements of manufacturing processes. This work analyzes the applicability of 5G technologies as key enablers to support, enhance, and even enable novel advances in Industry 4.0. It proposes a complete 5G solution for two real-world Industry 4.0 use cases related to metrology and quality control. This solution uses 5Growth to ease and automate the management of vertical services over a soft-ware-defined network and network function virtualization based 5G mobile transport and computing infrastructure, and to aid the integration of the verticals' private 5G network with the public network. Finally, a validation campaign assesses the applicability of the proposed solution to support the performance requirements (especially latency and user data rate) of the selected use cases, and evaluates its efficiency regarding vertical service setup time across different domains in less than three minutes.
... In this setup, the 5Gr-VS interacts with an external PLMN domain managed through the 5G EVE platform [37] [38] to implement the multi-domain communication model based on peer CSMFs (i.e., communication service level). 5G EVE offers a Portal to request the experimentation of vertical services in configurable 5G environments, hosted in multiple 5G-enabled facilities across different European countries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Private 5G networks has become a popular choice of various vertical industries to build dedicated and secure wireless networks in industry environments to deploy their services with enhanced service flexibility and device connectivity to foster industry digitalization. This article proposes multiple multi-domain solutions to deploy private 5G networks for vertical industries across their local premises and interconnecting them with the public networks. Such scenarios open up a new market segment for various stakeholders, and break the current operators’ business and service provisioning models. This, in turn, demands new interactions among the different stakeholders across their administrative domains. To this aim, three distinct levels of multi-domain solutions for deploying vertical’s 5G private networks are proposed in this work, which can support interactions at different layers among various stakeholders, allowing for different levels of service exposure and control. Building on a set of industry verticals (comprising Industry 4.0, Transportation and Energy), different deployment models are analyzed and the proposed multi-domain solutions are applied. These solutions are implemented and validated through two proof-of-concept prototypes integrating a 5G private network platform (5Growth platform) with public ones. These solutions are being implemented in three vertical pilots conducted with real industry verticals. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed multi-domain solutions applied at the three layers of the system enabling various levels of interactions among the different stakeholders. The achieved end-to-end service instantiation time across multiple domains is in the range of minutes, where the delay impact caused by the resultant multi-domain interactions is considerably low. The proposed multi-domain approaches offer generic solutions and standard interfaces to support the different private network deployment models.
... As a result, the implementation of the Monitoring architecture presented in Section 3 over the 5G EVE architecture [4] [18] results in the composition of a specific component chain, depicted in Figure 2. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Fifth-Generation (5G) of mobile networks is designed to accommodate different types of use cases, each of them with different and stringent requirements and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). To support the optimization of the network performance and validation of the KPIs, there exists the necessity of a flexible and efficient monitoring system, capable of realizing multi-site and multi-stakeholder scenarios. Nevertheless, for the evolution from 5G to 6G, the network is envisioned as a user-driven, distributed Cloud computing system where the resource pool is foreseen to integrate the participating users. In this scope, current monitoring solutions are limited, as they have to be able to maintain 5G performance in a distributed system with heterogeneous resources and still be efficient and sustainable. In this paper, we present a distributed monitoring architecture for Beyond 5G multi-site platforms, where different stakeholders share the resource pool in a distributed environment. Taking advantage of the usage of publish-subscribe mechanisms adapted to the Edge, the developed lightweight monitoring solution can manage large amounts of real-time traffic generated by the applications located in the resource pool. We assess the performance of the implemented paradigm, to confirm that it suits the requirements of the proposed scenarios, and discuss how the architecture could be mapped to other 5G or Beyond 5G scenarios.
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