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The Vindolandatablet 88/841 and the cohors I Tungrorum milliaria

  • Province of Limburg
Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia, Monographiae 8, 1995
It woulcl seem that during the Principate the Tungri pro-
vided the Rornan army with especially valuecl soldiers. No
less than three alae and four coholtes were named after this
tribe: the ala I Tungrorun, the ala I Tungrorum Frontoni-
ana, the ala I Asturum et Tungrorum, the cohors I Tungt'o-
rum milliaria, the cohors II Tungrorum nilliaria equitata
c.1., the cohors III Tungrorum and finally the cohors IV
Tungrorum milliaria. Moreover, this civitas also provided
soldiers for a number of other units, A few other equites are
also attested as having served in either an ala or cohors
equitata: the ala Afrorum Veterana, the ala Augusta, the ala
Hispanorum milliaria, the ala Hispanorum Aravacor-um and
the cohors I Asturum equitata. Presumably we should also
add the equites singulares Augusti in Rome. This study will
focus on the cohols I Tunglorum milliaria because of the
notable achievements attributed to this unit tlu'ough scien-
tific research.
h1 1913, in the pre-Hadrianic fort of Chesterholm-Vindo-
landa, archaeologists discovered an archive r-ich in wooden
writing tablets. The tablets were found in a small room to
the south-west of the site, presumably a part of the prae-
torium. This location has been tied in with the stay of the
commancling officer. To date no less than 3000 tablets have
been catalogued.
1. Vindotanda Tablet 88/841
Probably one of the most important documents is tablet
88/841t, measuring 19.5 x 8.3 cm, "The archaeological con-
text in which it was found is the earliest level in which the
tablets are present; it was located in the ditch by the west
wall of the earliest phase of the fort, beneath foul successive
buildings of the later periods"2. Tablet 88/841 waß found in
the archaeological level of period I, c. 903, possibly slightly
earlier. "The ditch appears to have been filled by AD 90192
and the tablet is therefore most probably to be dated c, AD
90". The fragmentary tablet is conserved in the Vindolanda
Trust, Chesterholm Museum, inv, no. 88/841.
XV k(alendas) iunias n(umerus) p [co]h I Tungro-
rum cui praest Iulius Vere-
cundus plaef(ectus) dcclii in (centuriones) vi
ex eis absentes
singulates leg(ati) xlvi
officio felocis
coris cccxxxvii
in is (centuriones) ii
londinio ?(centurio) [i]
U?ç..44[...],..apadq+... vi
in is (centurio) i
l+q... .....+llia viiii
in is (centurio) i
...c...ipçndia!u1n xi
li++ iXXXXV
ÇUlnma absentes cccclvi
in is (centuriones) v
reliqui praesentes cclxxxxvi
in is (centurio) i
ex e1s
aegn xv
volnerati vi
fippientes [x]
summa eor[uml xxxi
leliqui valentfes cc]lxv
in [is (centurio) i]
Translation (by A.K, Bowman and J.D, Thomas).
18 May, net number of the First Cohort of Tungrians, of
which the commander is Iulius Verecundus the prefect, 752
inclucling 6 centurions.
Of whom there are absent:
Guards of the governor 46
at the office of Ferox
At Coria 337
including (?) 2 centurions
At London (?) a centulion
including 1 centurion
including 1 centurion
including 5 centuriotrs
including I centurion
From these:
Suffering from inflammation of the eyes
Total of these
Remainder, fit for active service
including 1 centurion
Total absentees
Remainder, present
For detailed criticism and commentar¡' en the text we
reconrmencl the study of A.K. Bowman ancl J.D' Thomasa.
In any event, where the nalne cohots I Tutlgrotutn is
concelned, it shoulcl be noted that from the palaeographic
viewpoint this leading is fairly suspecl. The historical
context, however, which rve will cover in more detaii later,
is so convincing that the suggested reacling offets no t'oom
fol doubt.
The interpletation cau be briefl1' described as follows'
Tablet 88/841, an interim report on the stlength of the
cohors I Tungrot'um aud one of the archive's most inpor-
tant documents in our understanding of the Roman military
machìne, refels to the state of this unit undel the commaud
of Iulius Vet'ecundus. Technicaliy speaking, the uuit was
still a quingenaria as it counted only 6 centulions. This ties
in with informatior.r taken flotn Hyginuss. He maintained
that a cohors quingenaria was split into 6 centuliae. The unit
had a strength of 152 rnen, inclucling the centulions, and
could therefol e cle ,facto be compat ed with a cohors milliaria
peditata. If the dating is cotrect this would tencl to indicate
that the organisation of the unit was not yet nearing com-
pletion, even so in terms of increased numet'ical stlength'
In this period the fort was doubtless too srnall to support a
unit of this size. The document was written at a time when
456 men including 5 centurions were on active duty' Of
those present at Vindolanda 31 of a total of 296 men were
reported as sick6.
The contents of this tablet give rise to a numbet' of impor-
tant questions. The repoft calls for a thorough analysis set
against the backdrop of our present knowledge on the
cohors I Tunglorum milliaria, its organisational problems,
its missions and finally the comrnand structure of the auxi-
lia. In all of these aleas the Vindolanda Tablet yields new
and sometimes surprising insights.
C.R. Birley
2. The Cohors I Tungrorum milliaria
Since the start of the lulio-Claudian dynasty Rome had
conscripted. besides itregular units, plobably three, maybe
even fouL coholts from the civitas Tungrorum. Priol to
the civil wars of 69Æ0 these units were stationed in the
province of Gemania Inferior. This can be deduced from
the fact that two cohortes Tungrorum formed part of the
army of Fabius Valens, the commander-irr-chief of Germa-
nia Inferior on the eve of the civil wat of 691'70' Both these
units can be identified with the cohortes I and II Tungro-
rum. Moreover, a third cohors Tirngrorum switched ovel to
Civilis during the Batavian revoltT.
Cohors I Tuugrorum millialia.
O 1. Vintiurn; 2. Vinclolanda; 3. Carrawburgh; 4. Castlecary; 5. Housesteacls;
À 1. Malpas; 2. Szöny-Brigetio; 3. stannington; 4. wloxeter'; 5. Vonclolancla.
During the investiture conflict between Otho ancl Vitellius
in 69, Fabius Valens, the committed supporter of Vitellius,
sent both cohorts to Gallia Narbonensis. They were sent to
defend the cities against the thleat of Otho's fleet' In actual
fact, the first indications of the deployment of these units
follow on from the landing of Otho's army on 20 February
69 on the short coastal strip of the Alpes Maritimae, and the
murdering and plundering that ensued. Ft'om there Otho's
army constituted a direct threat to Gallia Narbonensis. The
army of Fabius Valens departed on arouncl Februaly 23rc1.
Together with the two cohortes Tungrorum Tacitus men-
tions another four cavalry squadrons and the ala Trevi'ol'um
led by lulius Classicus. A part of thìs folce was left behind
in colonia Forioiuliensi (Flejus) on around March 9th.
Twelve cavah'y squadlons and an elite selection of infantry,
i'e. the cohortes Tungrorum supported by cohors I Ligurum
and 500 Pannonians, pushed ahead. The two battles between
the Othoniani and the Vitelliani on the 23rd and 27th or
28th of Mar-ch took piace on the coastal strip between
Antipolis and Albigaunum, possibly Luma (Mentone) about
9 km to the east of Cemenelum, The conflict was extlemely
bloocly and ran against the Vitelliani who were clefeated.
Both praefecti of the cohortes Tungrorum were killeds.
The epitaph of a soldier ofthe cohors I Tunglorum found in
Vintium, not fal from the battleground, probabìy relates to
this encountere.
Once the cohortes Tunglorum and the ala Trevirorurn were
defeated, thereby blocking Galiia Narbonensis' Fabius
Valens sent a part of the Batavi to assistr0. The war between
Otho and ViteÌlius was finally won by the latter in a
decisive battle at Cremona. But Vitellius was unable to
take advantage of his victory. For the eastern legions soon
elected T. Ftavius Vespasianus to Emperor thereby sealing
Vitellius' fate. This now paved the way for the Flavian
The difficulties ernbroiling the investiture proved a feltile
seed bed for the Batavian revolt led by lulius Civilis. The
victory of Petillius Cerialis was followecl by a thorough
reorganisation of the auxilia of Gelmania Inferior. The civil
war between the pretendets to the tluone, in which it became
clear that the esprit cle corlts had played a clucial role, was
actually a major n.rotivating factor in this. Additionally, the
involvement of the ethnic units drawn into the revolt of
Iulius Civilis, including of course the Batavi and the Tungri
in the main, provided Vespasianus with ample leaso¡r for
implementing a dlastic resttuctudng of the army in Gerntany.
For that matter, the revolt highlightecl the clearly incalcuiable
character of local irregular formations and ethnic units
encamped close to home, In the new configuration tlie
exelcitus containecl very few of the plevious formationslr.
In the wake of the Batavian revolt trvo cohortes Tungrorum
crossed the channel to Britannia with Petillius Cerialis.
At that point in time the cohols I Tun-erolum was quinge-
narial2. In AD 83 both cohol'tes Tungrolum forrnecl a part
of the arm1, of Gn. Iulius Agricola. They distinguished them-
selves in battle at tÌre Glaupius nons where they fought
alongsicle tbur cohortes Batavolum. It is unlikely that the
cohors I Tungroruin had become a nrillìaria by that timer3.
Exactll, where the unit rvas filst stationed in Blitannia is
uncertah. The Vindolanda Tablet sho$,s that fi'om AD 90
at the latest the cohors I Tunglolurl was stationed in the
fort at Vindolanda. The unit relnained there, with only a
brief interruption, most likely until 122 ol possibly even
unril AD 140i4.
The discovery of the wooden rvriting tabiets at the castellum
of Vindolancla represents plobably the lichest source of
study matelial relative to the Rornan auxilia. Tablet 88/841,
datable to around AD 90, coutains an extremely interesting
interim report on the numerical strength of the cohol's I
Tunglorurn under the corlrnand of praefectus Iulius Vere-
cuudus, and is the only knou'n example dealing u,ith a
cohol's milliaria peclitatal5.
As we have ah'eady seen, the unit was, technically, a cohors
quingenaria, for it counted only 6 centurions amongst its
officers. With a total of 752 men, including the six centur.i-
ons, the unit is theoretically equivalent to a cohors milliar.ia.
This means we cau view the unit as one of the olclest
cohortes milliariae. Above all, as we shall demonsÍ.ate, this
situation would tend to indicate that the organisation of
the unit, especially its command structul'e, was still trot conr-
plete irr terms of numerical strengthl6. Moreover. in ar.ound
AD 90 the fort at Vindolanda was too small to accommodate
a cohors millialia. The leport also shows that a large par.t of
the folce can'ied out missions beyond the camp walls.
It was originally assumed that very soon after AD 90 the
cohors I Tungrorum was relieved froru Vindolanda by the
cohors IX BatavoLum under the contmand of Flavius Ceri-
alis, who has been attested b)' a great uumber of tablets.
It was not clear', howevel, exactly where the cohors I Tuuglo-
rum was stationedrT. A.K. Bowman and J.D. Thomas do
not now rule out the possibility that the cohors I Tungrorum
and the cohors VIIII Batavoruln were partially stationed
together at Vindolanda. They believe that the intelirn report
tends to confirm this viewrE.
The unit is attested for the first time as the cohors I Tunglo-
rum milliaria on the diplorna of Malpas of 103. R.W. Davies
suggests that at that time the unit may have been stationed at
the castellum of Fendocl.r. This fort was clesigned for a cohors
rnilliaria peditata. The only unit of such size known to have
beer present in Britaruria in the 2nd century is the cohors I
Tungrorumre. There is however little doubt that the canrp at
Vindolanda could also have stationed a unit of this size20.
After AD 105 the cohol's I Tungr'olum, uow under tire com-
rnand of Prisciuus and also a rnillia¡ia, cet'tainly returned
again. A second docurnent from the Vindolanda alchive is
actuall¡, a letter clated c. I05 and written by Oppius Niger to
Priscìnus, praefectus of the cohols I Tungrorum millialia.
telling him of the achievements of a few soldiers that Prisci-
nus had sent to governor L. Nelatius Marcellus with a ietter
from Vindolancla2l.
Plecisel¡, how long the unit had been stationed in Vin-
dolanda is uot however clear. A spear head bealing the
inscription Tung(rorurn) was, based upon the archaeological
context, clated respectivily after' 120 or after' 140. The dis-
covery of the militaly diploma of 146 at Vindolancla indi-
cates that the unit was, in all probability, stationed therc
in around 12i. The holder of the diplorna coulcl have been
a solclier sewing in the Vindolanda aLea u'ho. havir.rg been
clischar'ged in 146, r'etuured to the vicus at Vinclolanda.
Finally A.R. Birley is of the opinion that the unit may have
been stationed in the Vindolanda camp until the rniddle of
the seconcl century22. Iu any event, the situation is extremely
cotlplex, ancl especially so as accouut must be taken of
the fact that there rvel'e cletachments of the cohols I Ficla
Vatclullorum and n.rilites legionalii presellt during Vindo-
landa peliod IV23,
The Szöny Bligetio and Stannington diplornata of 122 a¡d
124 respectively, both related to Britannia, mention the
cohors I Tungrorum without its milliaria sign, this in
contl'ast with other units on the same diplomata. This led to
the conclusion that the unit's numerical strength had been
recluced to that of a cohors quirgenaria2a. It was assur¡ed
under an incorrect interpretation of the diplomata of
Mautern ancl Stein (Noricum) that a vexillatio of the unit
had been tlansferred from Britannia to Nolicum fol a long
period25. Recent Lesearch has also revealed that the diplomata
of Mautern and Stein should read cohol's II Tungrorum,
implying that there is no reason to believe a vexillatio of the
cohors I Tungrorum was stationed in Noricum or, for that
matter, had even left Britannia26. Moreover, H, Thaller and
R. Saxer both take the view that the diploma of Eining
(Raetia) oT 141 mentions the cohols I Tungrorum rather
than the cohors II Tungrorum. In the rreantime this view
has also been disregardedz?.
Perhaps an explanation for these facts can be founcl in the
following inscriptions. A votive inscription found at Car-
rawburgh on Hadrian's Wall seems to indicate that the
cohors I Tungrorum helpecl build the Carrawburgh folt dur-
ing the Hadrianic peliocl (117-138). Alchaeological research
has shown that the works did not commence before 129.
The problem l.rere lies in the fact that, by then, the uuit was
already a cohors milliaria and could not therefore have been
stationed at Catrawburgh in full force' Indeed, the camp
could only accommodate a cohols quingenaria2S.
An inscription found at Casllecary in the Nortl.r of Scotlancl
proves that the unit helped build the wall of Antoninus
Pius, This irr.scription can be clated between 138 ancl 161.
R.W. Davies places the clate at ^D f42, when also other
auxilialy troops hacl been used to buitd castella along the
new boundary2e. Noteworthy is the peculiar positioning of the
millia¡ia sign - right at the end of the inscription. This unusuai
position has led R.W. Davies 10 suggest that the inscription
clates back to the period when the vexiLìatio in connection
with the invasion of Scotland had just returned fi'om its sup-
posed stay at Nolictun3o. There is also reason to cloubt that a
full cohols millialia was present because just like Calraw-
burgh, Castlecary had space for only a cohors quingenariasl.
Sources tencl to imply that the cohors I Tungrorum was
always present in Britaunia in its fuil numbers. Its stay in
Vindolauda is attesteci tì'om c. 90 to possibly c. 140, with
account taken of a possibìe short inteütlption around 90-
105. Detachments v,/ere involved in the constructi.on of the
castella at Cauawbugh and Castlecai-y. The dispatch of such
detachments in Blitannia could possibly explain the lack of
the miltiaria sign on the diplomata of Brigetio and Stanning-
ton ancl the unusual positioning of the milliaria sign on
the inscription found a Castlecaly. Indeed, the Vinclolanda
Tablet 88/841 proves that this was not an unusual occur'-
rence. This leport of the numer-ical sfiength of the cohors I
Tungt'orum gives inclisputable proof that a substantial parC
of the unit would be sent on active duty, possibly even for
longer periods. The Wroxeter diploma (Britannia) of 135
may also even mention the cohors I Tungt'orum milliaria32.
In 1939 E. Birley assumed fi'om a stamp on a roofing tile
that the unit was stationed in Bi'doswald neal Castlesteads
during the reign of Hacirian. The location of units on the
basis of building material stamps unsubstantiated by other
forms of proof shoulcl, however, be apploached with caution33.
Accordirg to Birley the cohort was to be transferred from
Bildoswald to Scotland 20 years later, to build the Castle-
cary casteilum on the wall of Antoninus Pius, and filally to
Clamond, where in fact the cohors II Tungrorum was garis-
oned. Finally, he proposecl that the unit was transferred to
Housesteads not before the reign of Severussa' According to
A.K. Bowman and J.D. Thomas it cau also be postulated that
the cohors I Tungt'orum milliaria was immediately trans-
ferred fi'om Vindolanda to Housesteads - perfectly suited
to a cohors milliaria peditata - and stationed there as the
filst unit. The transfer plobably occurred shortly after 1403s'
The diploma of 746, discovered at Vinclolanda - no more
than a few lcm to the south-west of Housesteads - and
issued to a soldier of the coho¡s I Tungrorum, tends to sup-
port this point of view. Moleover, the repositioning of the
milliaria sign can be consiclered as probable, but remains
subject to cioubt36. Any tt'ansfer fi'om Vindolanda to House-
steads at around AD 140 would also imply that the unit's
lnission at Castlecary was complete before 140, and would
date the inscription (CIL VII, 1099 = RIB 2155) at early in
the reign of Antoninus Pius'
That the cohors I Tuugrorum niilliaria was garrisoned at
Housesteacls is attested by a great numbel of inscriptions.
The unit stayed there for the whole of the 3rcl century and,
finalty, is attestecl there for the last time by the Notitia clig-
There is no evidence that this cohors was called equitata, or'
mounted unit, as was the case with the cohors II Tungrorum
milliaria equitata. In any event, Housesteads coulcl not offer
sufficient accommoclation for a cohors rnilliaria equitata dur'-
ing the period that the Tungti were stationed there. House-
steads was, nonetheless. perfectly suited fol an infantry unit
or a cohols peditata. Of the six remaining cohofies milliariae
attested in Britannia, five were cohors equitata. The sixth,
rvhose precise or'ganisation remains unclear, left no epigraphic
trace behind in Housesteads3s. A liighly restored building
inscription seems to indicate a building alteration to the
Housesteacls castellttm, possibly undel L. Alfenus Senecio,
governor of Britannia between 205 and207re.
The schedule below gives an overview of the places where
the cohors I Tungrorum milliaria was stationed.
Ger-mania Inferior
Gallia Nalb.
Alpes Mar.
cletachement officium Ferocis
detachement Coria (Corbridge)
140-3th Century
3. Organisation and fasks
The most immediate question hel'e is exactly when was
the cohors I Tungrorum, like the cohot's II Tunglorum,
remodelled from a quingenat'ia to a miilialia? It is generally
assumed that cohortes milliariae were a Flavian innovation.
They oliginated in two ways: through a uew folmation
and through the doubling up of cohortes quingenariae. The
recently pubiished Vindolanda Tablet 88/841 probably allows
us to date this innovation at at'ound AD 90. Indeed, the
tablet cleady indicates that the olganisatiotl of the cohors I
Tungrorum as a cohors milliaria was not yet compieteao.
It is also cleal that the unit was only partially garrisoned in
the Vindolanda fort at the time in question. Tablet 88/841
mentions that more than half of the cohors I Tungrorum was
absent. At that time the Vindolanda auxilia camp was too
small to station a full cohors millialia.
The Vindolanda Tabtet 88/841 is of particulal interest to the
study of stationing and mobility, in tei'ms of the organisa-
tion and tasks of the unit. 456 soldiels, inclucling 5 centuli-
ons were on active seLvice. 296 soldiers, including only one
centurion wele still in Vindoianda. 31 of these soldiers were
sick ol wounded. 11 is difficult to determine to what extent
those reported sick were dodging duty. However', the use of
the word 'lippientes' would tend to indicate that sevelal
were. The term t'efers to a chrotlic inflammation of the eyes.
In ancient times this affliction was also associated with an
undisciplined and licentious life. Hence its common usage
in the derisive sense. The fact that they wel'e not reported
sick (aegri) could well indicate ironyar. According to E. Bir-
ley, the fact that 295 soldiers wele ullcler the conrmand of
only one centurion in Vindolanda suggests that these were
new fecruits foilowing 'intensive' training with a view to
serving in this coholt4z. Of the soldiels on active service,
46 were added as singulares legati to the officium Felocis,
possibly the legatus legionis Iulius Feroxa3. 337 soldiers
were stationed in Coria (Corbridge)a under the command
of only two centurions. It is possible that anothel unit aside
from the cohols I Tungrot'um detachment was stationed
there. Finally, there were a few other small groups of sol-
diels on active duty elsewhere, including London'
The tablet actually offers a cleat view of how a cohors mil-
liaria opelated, despite the fact that the repoÍ doesn't give
expiicit mention of the soldiels' tasks. A unit such as this
could hardly be conceived as static. On the contrary, this
document reveals extraoldinary dynamics that also shed light
on the stationing of the cohors I Tunglorum at Carrawburgh
and Castlecary. The lablet shows that neithel an ala nor a
cohors had to be entirely stationed in a single castellum. The
votive inscription found at Can'awburghas tray well refer
to the part played by the cohors I Tungrorum in building
Hadrian's Wall (117-138). The inscription found at Castle-
cary46 indicates that the unit helped to construct the wall of
Antoninus Pius in c. 142'In this way the cohots was called
in to assist in developing the Nolthem limes of Britannia'
Finally in this context, it is interesting to point out that the
author of tablet BT 37, plobabll' Flavius Celialis' named
the Vindolanda camp 'Hiberna'. Tablet 88/841 of May the
iSth shows that at the time, in the rnidclle of the seasoti for
nrilitary opet'ations, tnore than half of the cohors I Tuugt'o-
rum \¡¡as absênta?.
On the basis of the above information the transfer of a vexil-
latio of this unit frorn Britannia to Noricum, as assumed
fion a misinterpletation of the Mautem, Stein or Eining
diplomata, can uo longer be assumed. Tours of acti'r'e duty,
even those invoiving substantial pal'ts of the unit, appeal
'to be the rule tather than the exception' The latter is further-
mo¡e confirmed by the existettce of vexiilationes' By no
means, howevel, does this meau that vexilliationes had to
be transferred act'oss provitlcial boundaries. It rvoulcl seem
that the tablet 88/841 contladicts this. The document thete-
fore highlights the need for a Leassesslleut of the stationing
and mobility of othet units4s.
4. Vindolanda Tablet 88/841 and the command structure
of the cohortes Tungrorum
Before taking a rnore detailed look at the command struc-
tule of the cohortes Tunglorum we should outline the pat-
tern of inilitiae equestres as conceived since the end of the
lst century.
The careers follorv a strong pyramidal stlucture. whereby
natulal selection was the fundamental criterion' Only 3Vo of
officers starting in the militia plima could evel hope to
reach the militia quartaae.
militiaprima praefectuscohortisquingenariae
tribunus cohortis voluntariorum/
ingenuorum civium Romanorutn 300
militiasecunda tributtus atlgusticlavius (legionis)
tribunus cohortis milliariae 190
miiitia tertia praefectus alae quingenariae 90
militia quarta pt'aefectus alae milliariae 9
The alae and the cohortes Tungrorum represent respectivily
the militia tertia and militia secunda. Possibly, in this sys-
tem, the prefecture over the cohors I Tungrorum around the
year' 90 coincides with the militia prima. Vindolanda-tablet
88/841 clearly indicates that at the time this unit was slill
in a phase of tlansition from cohot's quingenaria to cohors
miiliaria. With 6 centurions the unit can still be regarded as
a cohors quingenaria. However', with 752 soldiers it was a
cohors milliaria,
We should make at least one important remark with respect
to command in the cohors Tungrorum. The fact that we are
concemed with cohortes millialiae means that the officer
in commancl held the militia secunda. This means fhat
command was usually hetd by a tribunus coholtis milliariae
rather than a praefectus. This was indeed the case for the
cohors IV Tungrorum milliaria to which tribunus T. Claudius
Zeno has been attesteds0. Nevertheless, a praefectus cohortis
took charge of the cohors I and II Tungrorum, a commancl
whose title belongs to the militia prima, but is de facto patt
of the militia secundasl.
A similar situation has been observed with the coholtes
Batavorum. K. Strobeì notes that tribuni are attested in
command of these cohorts only after the 3rd century. He
explains this by the fact that these troops, both the auxilia
Batavorum and the two cohortes Tungrorum, were com-
manclecl by their own primores as a resuit of theil special
status in the Roman army. This special status atose through
official recognitiou of a preferential treaty betweeu Rotne
and the two civitates5z. In this sense the praefectura cohor-
tium milliariarum Batat,oLtlm ancl Tunglol'um wel'e removed
from the nolmal scheme of the militiae equestres ancl
commancl was entlusted to the primoles Batavorum aud
Tungrorum. Let's take a look at the commanders thetn-
selves. For the cohors III Batavorum rrilliaria equitata the
author mentions the praefectus ...] Severus53. On the other
hand, we have the tlibuni M. SimpÌic(ius) Quietussa and
Claudius Tyraunus55. For the cohol's lX Batavorttm, K. Stro-
bel mentions the praefectus M. Victol'iu[s] ProvinciaÌis56
and Flavius Cerialis, no doubt mentioned after Petillius
CerialissT, He was the officer-in-command of the cohors
IX Batavorum at Vindolanda. They wele both of Batavian
origin. Next to these two praefecti stood the tribunus T. Por-
cius Comelianusss. Talcing a closer loolc at the praefecti
of the cohortes Tunglorum. Iulius Verecunclus, praefectus
of the cohors I Tungrorum, r'egar:ded by A.R. Birley as a
possible Tunger'se, would fit into this framework pelfectly.
As the cohors in 90 A.D. was not yet structuled as a mil-
liaria this officel still belongeci to the militia prima. Fol
the cohols I Tungrorum, the following praefecti can also
be mentioned: P. Aelius Modestus60, Q. Fiorius Maternus6l,
P. Helvius Peltinax62, Q. Iulius Maximus63, Paternius6a,
Priscinus65, Q. Verius Superstis66. For the cohors II Tung-
rorum the following praefecti can be mentioned: Albius
Severus6T, Aurelius Optatus6s, P. Campanius Italicus6e,
T. Claudius ClaudiaunusTo, and C. Siivius Auspex71. During
the 2nd century all the praefecti of the cohoi-s I Tungt'o-
rum were occidentales. However, P. Helvius Pertinax was
Italicus. The same conclusion could also be reached for
the cohors l[ Tungrorum. Furthermore, it should be noted
here that praefecti have been attested for this uriit until late
in the 3rd century. Finaliy, K. Strobel's hypotheses takes
account of the fact that the command over the cohors IV
Tungrorum was heid by a tribunus, who is attested in the
3rd century.
However attractive K. Strobel's explanation may be, we
believe there is room fol a second hypothesis. How then can
we thlow another light on the difference noticed above?
Pelhaps the explanation should be sought in the evolution of
the cohortes I and II Tungrorum from cohortes quingenariae
to cohortes milliariae. The Vinclolanda Tablet 88/841 illus-
tl'ates this evoiution, And although the commanding officer
fulfilied the militia secunda he bore the title of praefectus.
The seconcl centuty saw a failure to adjust the command
structul'e of these units to their actual numerical strength.
This may also irnply that the cohors IV Tungrolum, uncler
the command of a tlibunus, was a cohors milliaria from the
time it was set up. If this is the case, the latter unit was
created fol the first time cluring the Flavian dynasty, for no
cohortes rnitliariae have been attesteci before the Fiavian
period72. E. Birley assumes, however', from the inscription
of Iomatius found at Virunum (Noricum) that the cohors IV
Tungrorum must have been cleated at an ear'lier date73.
Though the date of the inscliption is debatable, the author
fincls it diiTcult to accept that auxilialy tloops were still
stationecl at Virunum after the reign of Claudius. The fact
that the solclier may have selved for 33 yeals and had still
not attained Roman citizenship tends to justify a relatively
ear-ly clating. However. it seems to us less acceptable that
auxilia TurgroLutn were operational in that legion even
before the Batavian revolt of 69110'lt is generally assumecl
that they belonged until then to the almy of Germania Infe-
rior. In the civil war between Otho and Vitellius of 69 the
coholtes I and II Tungrolum were actually under the com-
rnancl of Fabius Valens, ally of Vitellius and commander-iu-
chief of Gelmania Inferior. Moreover, on the glouncls of
the Illyrian names of the solclier and his father and because
local recruitment at sttch au early date is improbable, we
have opted for a later date. Fulthermore, the appearance of
the name in the clative and the use of the formula f(iiius)
fac(iendum) cur(avit) suggest that this epitaph dates back to
the eariy 2nd centuryTa. Finally, the situation outiined above
may have been regularised ancl all cohortes milliariae placed
under the command of a tribunus during the thircl century.
5. Extent of authority of the centurions
The highest ranks uncler the principales attested in the staff
of the cohors I Tungrorum are the centutions' Centurions
were subordinate to the centurio princeps' They played an
important role in commanding the cohort, which took on a
special folm in the case of the cohors I Tunglorum. As with
the decuriones alae they folmed the backbone of the cohort.
The Vindoianda Tablet 88/841 also gives a very interesting
insight into the extent of authority. This interim lepor[ on
the effective manpo'wer of the cohors I Tungrorum clearly
indicates that authority was not only limited to the tlurnber
of soldiers under one's commancl, Firstly, we shoulci take
note that since the unit had only 6 centurions it was' tech-
nically speaking, otily a quingenaria at that time' With a
nu*"ii.ut strength of 752 men, including the centurions' the
unit could however be compared with a cohors millialia
peditata. So, the de Peclitata
ïas not Yet comPl that the
cohortes milliariae tlto onlY
6 centuriae. One possible conclusion is that they were com-
posed of 6 centuriae with around I40ll50 soldiers together
wrtlr S turmae of 60fi0 equites each' One such example
would be the cohors XX Palmyrenorum rnilliaria equitataT5'
The Vindolanda tablet 88/841 makes no reference to the
theoretical numerical strength of a centuria' A stlength
of 752 soldiers including centurious implies an average of
124 soldiers pet centurion. On the other hand, the normal
centuria was made up of 80 to 100 soidiers maximum'
whereby, for example, G.L. Cheesman gives preference to
around 80. This means a difference of 24 ot even 44 soldiers
per centurìon76,
Despite this information, tablet 88/841 shows that such a
diviiion was far fi'om striugent. It appears cÌear11' from the
text that manpower was not trecessarily divided pel centu-
rion. Of the cohors I Tungrorum there were 337 soldiers in
Coria, of which 2 wete centulions, and at two unknown
ectivelY, each figure
enturiorr was in Lon-
soidiers rernailred in
single centurion' He
was probablY ne at the
camp. Obviou affect the
powers of thes e clifficult
to define the t the text
seems to show that there was a tendenc)¡ to give olders and
divide the comtnand ot an ad ftoc basis' It is difficult, bear-
ing in mind the limited source material, to uttcover the exact
rnechanisms. This information howevel clearly indicates
that there was a celtain discrepancy between applied theory
and practiceT?. The leport centres in oir the flexibililtl'of
the Roman auxilia. Itr any event, the docurneut leads us to
assume that when the soldiels were on active duty this had
an effect on the duties of the officers, i'e' the centutions'
Each officel teceived a uumber of tnen depending on the
duties he was asked to perform' This is the only way of
explaining the division of soldiers per centuria' It is unfor-
tunate, howevel, that the duties are not specified'
into some of the auxilia's mechanisms, whereby the sol-
dier's lole in this is thrown into sharper relief'
At the end of this stucly it is interesting to give a short reca-
pituiatì.on of the major Points.
l. Thanks to tablet 88/841 it has been possible to obtain a
ghts into the history of the cohors
The process of h'ansition from a
cohors milliaria at the end of the
lst centurl' AD cefiairly deset'ves mention here'
2. Tablet 88/841 determines' atrongst other things' that the
cohols I Tungrorum was always present in Britannia in
full numbers and therefore a vexillatio was nevet stationed
in Noricum' This should be coupled with the ploblem of
detachments. The document shows that these occuned
ad ltoc as the need arose,
3. The cohortes I and II Tungrorum and the cohortes Bata-
vorurn rrilliariae were undel the command of a praefectus
rather than a tribunus. K. Strobel explains this through the
special relations both civitates enjoyecl with Rome' by
which these units were under the commaud of theil own
prinnres. Possibly another explanation for this should be
sought in the process by which these units wet'e cteated'
4. Finally, Vindolanda Tablet 88/841 enables us to assess
the powers ancl duties of the centulions with more preci-
sion' It should be especiall¡' stt'essed that authority u'as
not only based on the number of soldiers' but also in
terms of the duties given.
I wish to thank Prof' Dr'. H. Devijvqr for the mauy usefull
remarks and Prof. Dr. R. Billey for the photo of Tablet 88/841'
Robert NourrysN
Provinciaal Gallo-Romeins Museum
Kielenstraat 15
B-3700 Tongeren
6. Conclusion
In our opinion this summary reveals that tablet 88/841
should be regarded as one of the most important docutnents
in the study of the Roman 'auxilia. SouLces had alread¡'
revealed that the military organisation of auxiliary troops
made them highly flexible and mobìle in performing their'
duties. Tablet 88/841 offers a further, penetrating insight
I A.R. Brnr-rv 1991: 16-201 BowMAN ard Tnotr'tns l99I: 62-'73"
X 1992: 346-34'7.
2 Bowual¡ and Tno,r,las 1991: 62'
3 Bowtut¿N and Tnov¡.s 1983: 62'
4 Bo$'MAN and TrioM.cs i991: 70'
5 Hyginus, 28: "Cohors peditata milliarialabet.centurias X "'
it.rit p"aitutu quingenaria habet centurias VI, reliqua ut supra"'
6 A.R. Brnl-rY 1991: 17'
7 See TAC., Hist., II, 14 e.v.l ClcHoruus 1900: 343; Sren 1932:
220i Atpotov 1968:'13; Stlsrstens 1977: 1'79: Roxlr'¡ 1985:
95-961 8. Btzu-ev, R. BIRI-pv and A' BIxlt'v 1993: 6 We men-
tion this identification with precaution!
s See TAC., His¡.. II, 14 e;v. Cornp. CIcuonIus 1900: 3431
Csersv¿x l9l4:72, n' 1; Var oB W¡eno 1915: 16'7'n 4;
Sr¡r¡- 1932: 220; VaNorWsr'no 1936:358;ScHeruINc 1948:
1356; Sue¡srens 1977: 179: SeophraroN 1982: 107 sqq'
s See CIL,XII,16. Comp. CrcnonIus 1900:343; B¡Nc 1906: 41
sqq.; SreIi.t 1932: 220; V,qu oe Wr¡no 19361 358; ScHenr-ntc
1948: 1356; SMsssr¡ns 197'l: 1'79: SaoowctoN 1982: 68 and
ro See TAC., Hist.,II,28, L
rr Comp. ScHERLINc 1948: 1356; Nessslunu¡ 1960: 158-i59;
Horoen 1980 : 142; S¡oorNctotç 1982: 120 sqq. l Unn,+.N 1985 :
12 Conlp. VnN or W¡rno 1915: 167; SrnlN 1932: 220; ScHen-
Lß{c 1948: 1356; Alpölov 1968: 73; Holoen 1982: 122.
rr TAC., Agr.,36. Comp. ClcHonIus 1900: 343; BeNc 1906:3'7;
VAN DE Weeno 1936: 358; E, BrnI-sv 7939: 189l, idem 7974:
512; Wecr'¡¡n 1953: 99; Sve¡,srsns 19'77:119: D,,rvI¡s 1976-
197'l: 168: Seoor¡lctoN 1982: 93; SrRon¡L 1981: 281-282;
Rox,cN i985: 95; K¡ucnr 1991: 195. According to OcrLvrE
and Rrcul.toNn 1967: 78 and Hu¡sNnn 105 the unit was at that
time already milliaria. Srnossl 198'7: 282 also seems to accept
this when he writes: "Zusammen mit den ca. 1.500 Tungrert
haben sie ..."
14 Comp. HoLDER I9B2l. 122: Borvlr¡N and THor¿ns 1983: 119;
E. BTRLEv 1985:299', Bnrezn ancl DossoN 1987: 252; Rox¡'N
1985:9'7. At least C. 140 the unit leaves Vindolanda. The date
of this departure howevel is depenclent on the dating of the
spearhead with the inscription Tung[rorum] (4.R. BtruEv 1991:
20). Conceming the castellì.un of Vindolanda, see JouttsoN
1983a: 336-338; Bto*lelr- 1985, with extensive bibliogr-aphy.
¡s Comp. also Wrr-r-Es, FINK and Gtllnn 1959: 28-36.
t6 See the military strength report Vindolanda tablet 88/841.
Comp, CnerstvtAN 1914: 27. Compare with the cohols I Britan-
nica milliaria and the cohors I Brittonum milliaria, both men-
tioned on the diploma CIL XVI. 31 of 85. Comp. Kewnrov
1983: 253. HoLDER 1980: 6 accepts the cohors milliaria as a
creatìon of Vespasian. Comp. Davtts 1976-191'7: 168. also
n.2; K¡NN¡ov 1983:253-263: idem 1985: 181-185; S¡.o¡Iltc-
roN 1982: 130-133, 157 sqq., 174: Srnon¡r 1987: 285, n. 84;
Devrrvpn 1989a:276.
r? E.g. 92b, 135, 168, 197, 199, 21 4, 328, 561-3, 601 . 1 25.
Comp. Srnoeu 19871 273-274; A.R. Bru-pv 1991: 19; also
BowrrreN anci Tsoir¿es 1991: 66. BowveN and Tuolvl¡s
198'l: 134 initially accepted that the cohors I Tungrorum was
preceded by the cohors VIII Batavorurn. But against that,
see A.R. BIru-sy 1991: 19: "and there can be no doubt that
the tablets found in the 1970s on which an 'Eight' cohort of
Batavians was iclentified, in fact refers to cohors VIIII Bata-
18 See BowunN and TuoÀ4ns 1991:66.
le D.tvrEs 1976-7977: 168 and 772, n.2: "In the 2nd century
there were at least seven rrilliary coholts: I Aelia Dacorum
presumably Pius afte¡ 146; I Nervana Gennanorum equitata
presumably Nerva 96-8; I Aelia Hispanorum equitata, Hadrian
117-138; I Tungrorum i03; II Tungrorum equitata Hadrian
117-138; I Tunglorum 103; II Tungrorum equitata l21lI25;
I Vangionum equitata 103; I Vandullorurn equitata between
105 and 122".
20 See CIL, VII, 1693 (= XVI 48); ILS, 2001; RIB, II, 1,24011.
Comp. Sr,mrsreas 1977: 179; Holoen 1982: I22; Bouv¡.N
and Ttrov¡,s l99l: 66; E. BTRLEv 1985: 299; Srnoeet- 1987:
289; Roxen 1985: 95-96. Concerning the fort, see R. BnL¡Y
1978: 135; 1989:2'75 sqq.; Bmwerr i985. i
2r See CIL, VIf, 1072 = RIB, 2107. Comp. R. Brnley 1978: 135
and 182; Srnos¡L 1987: 274, n. 22; BowrvnN and THotr¿¡.s
1986: 121 A.R. BTRLEy 1991: 20; E. BrRLEy, R. Brnley and
A. Btnr¡y 1993: 56. Conceming the date, see aÌso BowMAN
and Tuones 199I: 66, ¡.22.
22 Conceming the spearhead, H¡,ssel and Tovlrx t988: 502,
n. 70; idem 1981: 348; E. BRLEv, R. BIRLEv and A. Bnr¡v
1993l.91. Conceming the diploma, Hess¡l and Tolr¡rn 1983:
347-348: Rox¡,N 1985: 93-102; AE 1983: 639; AE 1985:
640; RMD 17; RIB II,I, 2401, 9. Comp. also Bowu¡,x and
Tuouqs l99l: 62. See A.R, Bnr-¡v i991: 20; E. BInlnv,
R. BTRLEY and A. Brnrev 1993: 56.
23 E. Bnr-ev, R. BIRLEy and A. Brnr¡v 1993: 20 and 56. Con-
cerning the cohols I Fida Vardullonrm, see also CIL XYI 43,
51, 69, 70, sqq.
24 Pnvcn 1930: 16-23 = CIL, XVI, 69; CIL, VII, 1195 (= XVI,
70) = 813, II,1,240L6. Comp. BnnrzE 7974: 146; E. Bnrsv
1966: 61 idem 1985: 299; D¡.vrss 196'1: 109: idem 19'16-
197'1 : 169; Holn¡n 1982: 122; Bolwe¡r and Tuov,qs 1983:
119; idem l99l: 166; E. Bnrpv 1985: 115-116; Srnoe¡L
1987:289, n.3; Rox¡N 1985: 96.
25 See CIL, XVI, 174; RMD, 93. Comp. Sex.en 196'7: 28-29;
WAGNER 1953: 99; RADNórI 1961: 98, n.26 and 99, n.29:
DevIEs 1967: 109; idem 19'76-197'l: 169; idem 1978: 368;
E. BIRTEv 1966: 6l: ídem7974:512; idem 1985: 299; Bn¡ezs
1974: 146; Al¡ömv 1974: 144 and 266; Sllspsrsns 1977:
179; H,A,ss,{L and TovI-lN 1981: 348; BREEzE and DoesoN
1987: 252: Gpi.¡s¡n 1986: 289, also n. 156; S:rnos¡L 1984:
102, n. 14; BowMÂN and TsowI¡.s I99l: 66, n. 25; Kutcur
l99l: 204,
26 See CIL, XVI, 174 = TselL¡n 1952: 8'1-98; RMD, 93.
Comp. RMD,97,n.4: Rox.cN 1985: 96; Srnospl 1987:289,
27 Con.rp. THALLER 1952: 93, n. 11; S,+xen 7967: 28-29: "Aus
unbekannten Gründen kam in Hadrianischer Zeit eine Vexilla-
tion der in Britannien stationierten coh. I Tungrorum mill. nach
Noricum. Dieselbe Abteilung ttnd nicht eine coh. II Tung., rvie
im ClL angenommen wird, scheint im rätischen Diplom noch
einmal genannt zu sein". Comp. also Nus¡n 1969: 182-183,
n. 30; Gexsen 1986: 289, n. 156,
28 WnrcHr 1966: 218; D,qvms 1967: 109-110; idem 19'16-19'17:
169; E. Brnlev,1914:512; idem 1985: 299;Bp.sszs andDos-
soN 1987: 244-245; Svresrens 1977:179: Rox¡'N 1985:96;
Srnoe¡r 198'7 289, n. 104; L¡rr.q 7989: 266, n. 3. Concem-
ing the building of the vallurn Hadriani, possibly stalted by
Pompeius Falco c. 120 AD., see J.qnR¡t 1967: 96-104; J¡nn¡r
and M¡,¡¡N 1970: 185 sqq.; BREEZE and Dossori 1972: 182-
104; idem 1987(3). Conceming Canawburgh, see JonNsoN
1983b: 328-329.
?e CIL, VII, 1099 = RlB, 2155. Comp. Clcuontus 1900: 344; E.
Brzu-ev 1932: 57; idem i939: 189; idem 1976: 108; idem
1985: 3001 ScHenLNc 1948: 1356; D¡vr¡s 1967: 110; iclem
1976-1917: 169 and 170; Sveesrens 197'7 i79; Hessal and
Torr¡r-rx 1981: 348; BnEpz¡ and Do¡soN 1987: 105-106 and
252; Holoer. 1982: 122; RoxnN 1985: 96; Le:rr¡ 1989:266.
n. 3. Conceming the building of the Antonine Wall, see J,ctn¡r
and M¡¡¡N 1970: t87 sqq.; RonrnrsoN 1979; Krppm i982: 91-
111; HeNsoN and Mrxwrr-l 1983 with exhaustive bibliogra-
phy. Concerning Castlecary, see Joui''tsoN 1983a: 332.
30 See Devr¡s 196'7: Il0: "It should be noted that the vexillation
had now letumed from abroad and that the cohort, now back to
its full strength, was called milliaria once again. The detach-
ment was presumably brought back for the invasion of Scotland
and the subsequent reoccupation". Also Davrcs 1976'19'77:
169. Comp. Rox¡¡¡ 1985: 96.
3r Cornp. Stnos¡L 1987:289, n. 104. Rox,rN 1985:96 points out
that the cohors I fida Vardullorum c.r, equitata milliaria was
attested at Castlecary. Conceming the possible consequences,
see in detail Roxan 1985: 96.
32 CIL, XVI, 82 = RIB, II, 1, 2401.8. Conceming this vision, see
also Srnos¡L 1987 289, n. 104: "Die Tungrerkohorte scheint
in Zeiten grösserer Aktivität im Norden mehrfach eine Teil-
tluppe für eine gewisse Zeit abgegeben zu haben".
33 EE,IX, 1279. See E. Bnrey 1939: 189; idem 1961: 196. See
also Bnesze 1974 148; Slvteestsns l9'7'll. l'19; Bnr'Eze and
DossoN 1987: 54 and 251. Comp. VeN DE WEERD 1936:359'
But RoxAN 1985 97: "The pt'esence of tiles, unless supported
by other evidence, must be used with caution \ilhen considering
folt garisons. There ìs the possibility that sutplus material of
this kind was moved ovet'quite some distauce to fulfill buil-
ding needs at various periods..., Nevertheles a single tile is
extrenel)¡ portable and would give slight foundation for siting
auxiliary units even if it had been found within the fort itself".
Conp. also with tlie lead sealing of Sewingshieldsl RIB' II, 1'
3a Concernìng his vision E. BRLEY 19'14: 511-573 made a cortec-
tion. But see also p. 512: "At Housesteads, all of its iuscrip-
tions seem assignable to the third century, and it ought there-
fore to be not earlier thau the time of Severus that it set up that
dedication which we are concerned", Comp. E. Btnl-¡v 1965:
179: idem 1932: 51 and 58; idem 1985: 300. This vision is
followed by LETTA 1989: 266, n. 3. Conce¡ning Cratnond.
see CIL, VII, 1084 = ILS, 4801 = RIB, 2135' Coucetning the
castellum of Housesteads, see JonNsoN 1983a: 368-370.
3s BowMnN and THov¡.s 1983: 119: "It seems mole thar likel)¡
that it was, in fact, the first ganison of Housesteads (which is
known to have occupied in the third century) and that it was
moved there direct from Vindolanda when the wall was built".
36 Comp. Bowr¡aN and Tnovas 1983: 119; E. Brnlsy 1982/
1983 273; Rox¡w 1985: 96-97:; Pxzpzy and Do¡soN 1987:
2521 Srnosel- 1987: 289, n. 103.
37 See Not.Dign.Occ., XL. Comp. Ctcsontus 1900: 343-344:
SNTEEsTERs 1917: 179 HoloeR 1982: 123; Rox¡N 1985:
96. Comp, Srnoset. 1987 289-290: "das Statlmlager del
Truppe wal jedoch seit hadrianischer Zeil in Housesteads, wo
die gesamte Einheit nach der rritte des 2. Jh' sicher bezeugt
3s The conceming units are cohors I Aelia Dacorum milliaria,
cohors I NerviaA.Ier-vana Germanonrm milliaria eq., cohors I
Aelia Hispanorum millialia eq., cohors II Trurgrorutn milliaria
eq., cohors I Vangionum milliaria eq., cohors I fida Vardul-
lonrm millialia eq. CR. See HolorR 7982: ll2 sqq. Comp.
Rox¡N 1985: 96-97, Finally, this means that the altar of Cla-
mond, dedicated to the Mat¡es Alatervae et MaÍes Catlpestres,
was llot erected by the cohot's I Tungrorurn, but by the cohors
II Tungronrm mill. eq. According to BnB¿ze and DonsoN 1987:
14112, the cohors I Tungrorutl was duling the 3¡tlt centul'y
reinforced by the cuueus Frisiorutl a¡d the nunetus Hnaudi-
3e See Vy'nlcnt 1,96'1 : 205-206, n. 17: Rox¡,N 1985: 96.
a0 See E. Brnlpv, R. BInl¡v and A. Bm.lev 1993:6-7.
al Cornp. e.g. MrnrtaLts, VI 78, 196l: 12.
a2 See E. Bnlev, R. BIRLEY and A. Btru-e,v 1993: 6. But the 335
soldie¡s, garnizoned at Corja, stood under the command of two
a3 Concerning Ferox, possibly Fet'ox, legatus legionis,
comp. Bowr,tAN and Tuot'¡,qs 1991:7I; A.R. Blnlev 1991: I7
and 19. Concerning detachments of that kind see also Bn¡ezs
1974: 146: "The soldiels in surall detachnrents stationed at
outposts weLe drawn fi'om all the centuries and turtnae, appal-
entl)/ in a l-raphazald way. Soldiers could serve for at least three
years in an outpost".
aa Conceming Corbridge JoHNSoN 1983a: 343. The ala Petriana is
attested here during the Flavian period.
4s JRS, 56, nr. 5, 1966, p.218,
46 CIL. VIJ, 1099 (= RIB, 2155).
a7 See E. BrRLEy. R, BtRlev and A. Bnlev 1993: 20.
a8 Especiall¡, concernin-{ the beginning of the 3rth centtlr)/, comp.
Bn¡sze 1974: 145.
ae Concernilg the sttïcture of the lnilitiae equestres we would
like to cite Curssr¿nx 1914:36-3'7; E. BIRLEY 1966: 54 sqq.;
idem1952:133 sqq.; idem i957: 3-20:93-ll4; especially 105
sqq.; HoLDER 1980:'77 sqq.; Drvtrven 1986: 109-225, espe-
.øly tlO-lt6; idem 1989b: 78 sqq.r idem 1989c: 44 sqq.;
idem 1992: especiaill, 73 sqq., 275 sqq. and 396 sqq'; LE BoHEc
1989 : 42 sqq.; SPEÌDEL 1992: 103-104.
50 See AE, 1966, 606. Comp. Curesu¡N 1914: 36 and 66-67;
E. BIRLEY 1966: 6l Su¡¡st¡ns 1977 182; Srnoset- 1987:
290; Rox¡¡¡ 1985: 96.
-5r Como. Var.{ \¡r'¡eno 1936: 359; Kom¡ 1962: 414; Sures-
r¡ns^19i7: 179 and 180; E. BInl-et 1983:75' n.6; Rox¡N
1985: 96; Srnosel 7987: 290-291; Devtrvrn 1988: 210;
A.R. BInl-rv 1991: 20.: BowMAN and Tnov,qs 1991: 66 and 70.
52 See also Stnoesl 1987: 284
r PME, S 101, Batavus,2" h.2" - b.3o century.
54 PME, S 54, Batavus, 2121222.
s5 PME, C 190, Asia, by Drvt:vtn dated a, 157, butb)'Srno¡¡l
1987: 288 dated 3r'th centurY.
s6 PME, V 112, Occidentalis (Batavus?), mid. 2' century'
s7 PME, F 43bis; see Stnos¡L 1987:287 sqq' (especially p.291);
E. BIRLEY. R. BIRLEY and A, BInr-ev 1993: 8-9.
58 PME, P 95, MassiÌia, Gallia Nalbonensis, 3' century'
se See E. Btnlsv, R. BIRLEI'and A. BInlev 1993:23: "'Verecun-
dus' is particulary popular in Belgica and the Germanies and
there is no difficulty in supposing that Julius Verecundus was
himself from this a¡ea, perhaps even a Tungt'ian! See also lelo,
60 PME, A 49, occidentalis?,2"-3o cenluly.
6r PME, F 86, occidentalis, 2o century'
62 PME, H 9, Italicus. 2o centuq'.
63 PME, I 85, origo?, 3o ceütuly,
64 PME, P i5bis, occidentalis 146.
65 Pl4E, P l3Oter, origo?, ca. 100-150 (iu the first leading Ct'ispi-
66 PME, V 70, GeflIania, 3' centuq'.
67 PME, A 98, Italicus?. 3o century'
68 PME, A247,Orrgo?,3o centutl',
6e PME, C 70, occidentalis, 3o centur5'.
70 PME. C 131, Origo?, I jan 241.
7r PME, S 53, occidentalis, 2'h. 2" celltury.
72 We propose this hy on, See in the fìrst
place Srnoner- 1987 iese Eigenheit wohl
zu Recht auf eitten avet- und Tuugrer-
koholten itn rönrischen Heere nach dem Jahre 70 n. Chr'
zurückführen dürfen. auf eine besondere Steilung, die aus den
zwischen Rom uncl ihren Heirnatcivitates bestehenden Sonder'-
konditiorretr resultierte. Compare also KoLs¡ 1962: 474' also
note 26 ¡vhat ptoves that a more exhanstive stud¡' of these prob-
Iems is necessary. Conceming the origin of the cohortes mil-
liariae cornp. KBNneov 1983: 253-263; idern 1985: 181-185;
Slootxcto¡l 1982: 130-133, 157 sqq., 174; Horoen i980: 6;
DsvrJvrn 1989a:276,
73 See E. BIRLEY, R. BtRI-ev and A. Bruev 1993: 5-6' Concern-
ing the inscription LEBER 1972: 67: AE, 1982' 755; Holorn
1980: 2271. it is important to mention that the inscription, in
stead of stip. XX)CII, possibly contains stip, XXII. See Holprn
1980: 56, n. 3,
7a See HoLopx 1980: 153; NouwEN 1993: 445. AE' 1982,755'
dates at the end of the 1st century. Comp. ALFÖLDY 1968: 13;
Arrör-ov 1974:268.
75 Comp. BowN{AN and Tuou¿.s 1997: 67; Holo¡n l9B2: 37 attd
16 Cw.ent Archaeology 128, 1991, p. 346 sqq.; A.R. Brzu-¿y
1991: 16 sqq,; Bowl\{AN and Tuorl.qs I99I: 62 sqq. Fr-a.vIus
Iosepuus, Bell. Iud., III, 67. Comp. Cs¿esu¡N 1914:27 sqq':
E. BInuv 1966: 54-55: D¡vrss 1967: 111; Ktpete 1991:
p. 182 sqq. Concerning their dtilies, comp. BnenzE 19'14: L45'
7? See also BotvveN and 1991: 68: "Even so, given the
small amount of documentaly evidence for the actual size and
organisation of auxiliary units, it is striking that almost all of it
diverges in some degree from what orthodoxy regards as the
1. Textedìtiolrs
TAcrrus, Agricokt, Transl. by M. HurroN, rev. by R.M' OGILvIE,
it Tacitt'ts in Fit,e \/olttmes,I (Loeb Classical Library)' Lon-
don, Cambligde, Massachusetts, 1970.
Co¡.r¡¡u T¡cnt, cle vita Agricola, ecl. R.M. OclLvrc and I' RtcH-
r¿oNo, Oxford, 1967.
H. HuEBNER, Konnæntar zunt Agricola des Taciilts, Göttingen.
2. Inscriptions and tabellae
AE = L'Année Épigrnphique , Rewte cles puhlictttions épigraphi-
c¡tes relcttit,es I'antiquité rontoine, Paris, 1888-.
BowMAN, A.K. and J.D. Tno,\rcs 1983. The Latin Writing-Tablets.
Bri.tannia Monograph Seri¿s. London'
Bowu¡.N A.K. and J.D. Tnor,t¡'s 1986. Vindolanda. 1985: the Nerv
Writing Tablets. /RS 76: 120-123'
BowNIAN A.K. aud J.D. Tnort¡s 1987, New Texts from Vindolanda,
B rit a tuú ct 18 : I25 - I 42.
BolvMAN. A.K. and J.D. T¡torl,A,s 1991. A Military Strength Report
fi'onr Vindolanda. JRS 8l: 62-73'
CIL = Corpus Inscriptionwtt Ltttinarntt.
D¡.vres, R.W. i967. A Note on a Recentl¡' Discovered Inscription
from Cauawburgh. ES 4: 108-i11.
H¡ss,rL. M.W.C. ancl R.S.O. To,rlt-l'l 1981. Roman Britain in 1980'
IL lnscriptions. BriÍannia 12: 394'
Hess,ql M.W.C. and R.S.O. ToMLIN 1983. Roman Britain in 1982.
II. Inscriptions. Britcumia 74: 34'7-348.
Hrssel M.W.C. and R.S.O. Toultr,l 1988. Roman Britain in 1988.
II. Inscriptions. Britanniq 19: 502.
lLS = Dasseu, H. 1893-19i6. Inscriptiones Lotinae Selectae.I-IIL
Kolss, H.G. 1962.Der Pertinaxstein aus Brühl bei Köln BJ 162:
Lo¡nn, P.S. 1972. Díe itt Käntten seit 1902 geftnrlenen röntiscltett
Stei ninscltriften.
Nueen, H.U. 1969. Bemerkungen zu Militär'diplomen uud ein neu-
gefundenes Fragment aus Munnigen, Ldkr. Nördlingen Ger'
tttct¡tia 47:178-181.
Pnvcr. F.N. 1930. A New Diploma for Roman Britain. -IRS 20: 16-
Re¡¡¡ófl, A. 1961. Neue r'ätische Militärdiplome aus Stratrbing
und Eining. Gernania 39: 93 sqq,
RlB = CorrINcswooD, R.G. and R.P. WntcHr 1965-1990' The
Ronrcn Inscriptiotts of Britain Oxford.
RMD = Rox¡.r.r, M.M. 1978 and 1985. Ronun Militarl'Diplomas
1954-1977 - Ronrun MÌlitu'1' Diplontts j,978-19ß4' Occasional
Publicution 2 and9. London.
THeLren, H. 1952. Fragment eines Miiitärdiplomes von Mautem.
JOAI 39: 87-98.
WnrcHr, R.P. 1966. Roman Brìtain in 1965. II. Inscliptìons. "IRS
Wntcnr, R.P. 1967, Roman Britain in 1966. II. Inscriptions. -IR.l
57: 205-206.
3. Studies
3.1. The Cohors I Tungt'orum milliaria
Bnr-¡v, E. 19']'4. Cohors I Tungromm and the Oracle of the Clarian
Apollo. Chiron 4: 511-513.
Blnr-Ev, E . 1939. Die cohors I Tunglorum und das Orakel des klari-
schen Apollo. Gerntaniu 23: 189-190'
LETTA, C. i989. Le dediche dis deabusque secundum interpreta-
tionem Oraculi Clar:ii Apollinis e la Constittttio Antoniniana.
Srudi Ctassici e Orientali 39: 265-280.
NouwEN, R. 1993. De Ttmgri in hel Intpetirtnt Ronunum tijclens
lrcl Principaat. Leuven. (not published)
Sirr¡nsr¡ns. i. tçll , Les Tungri àans I'armée romaine. État actuel
de nos connaissances. Beih B"I 38: 175-186.
V,qir Wpsx.o, H. 1915. De Tungri in het buitenland' BSSIL 33:
I 53-178.
V¡N Wreno, L. 1936 and 7937. De Belgen in het Romeinsche
leger, AC 5: 341 sqq. and,4C 6: 7l sqq.
3.2. General
ALFöLDv. G. 1968. Die Hilfstruppen in der tömischen Provinz
Getmania inferior'. ES 6. Dässeldorf.
ALFoLDY, G. l9'74. Noricuttt. London and Boston'
ALFöLDY. G. 1987. Römisclie Heeresgeschichte. Beiträge 1962-
1985. Mavors, Rorttnn Arnry Reseu'ches III, Amsteldam'
B¡Na. M. 1906. Die Gernrunen im rötttischen Diensl bis zntt
At'trt'itt Constatr¡ins L Berlin.
BTDwELL. P.T. 1985. The Rontrm Fot'r of Vindolanda or Chestet-
I t o I tn N ortht nnb erlct nd. Ar c h a e o I o gi c a I Rep o rt l. Lonclon'
BIRLEY, A.R. i989 anrl 1991, Vindolanda: New Writing Tablets
1986-1989. Rongn Fronrier Stuclies: 16-20'
BrnLev. E. 1932. Roman Gatrisons in the North of Britain ' JRS 22:
BIRLEY, E. 1953. Rontctn Britttitt cutcl the Ronrut Arnty. Collected
Pcqters. Kendal.
Brru¡v, E. 1957. Promotions and Transfe¡s in the Roman Army:
Senatorial ancl Equestrìan Officer-s. Carnntttutt Jtthrbttclt: 3-
20. Rontun Arnry: 93-11'4 = BRLEY, E. 1988: 93-114'
BIRLEy, E. 1961. Resecn'ch on Hadt'ian's i4la//. Kendal.
BIRLEy, E. 1966. AIae and Cohortes Miiliariae. Corolla ntentoricLe
E. Swobocla dedicata. 54-6'7.
BIRLEY, E. 19'76. An Inscription from Cramond and the Matres
Campestres. Glasgow Arcltaeologicol Jounnl 4: 108-110'
BiRLEy. È. tSf S. Alae Named after theil Commanders. AncSoc 9:
Btnr-sv, E. 1982-1983. Veterans of the Roman Army in Britain and
Elsewlrere. AncSoc 13114 265-2'76. Rorttn Arnry': 2'12-283 =
BIRLEY, E. 1988: 272-283'
BInlev, E. 1983. A Roman Aitar from Old KilpafÌck and Interim
Commanders of Auxiliary Unifs. Latontus 42"
BIRLEY, E, 1985. More Links between Britain and Noricltm Fes¡-
schrift H. Vetters: lI4-119'
Bmrev. E. 1988. The Roman Army Papers 1929-1986 Mavors,
Rotnan Anny Reseatches 6. Amsterdam.
BIRLEY, R. 1978. Vinclolandct' Eine rönùsche Grenzfestmg ant
Hatlriantstvctll, Bergisch Gladbach' = BIru-ev' R. 197'7 ' Vin-
cl.olantla. A Rontan Frontier Post on Haclrian's Wall'London'
Btnrev, R. 1989. Vindolanda. Current ArclrcteologT' 116:275-279'
BIRLEY, E., R. BtnI-ev and A. Btnl¡v 1993' Vindolanda Resecn'ch
Reports, New Series, Vol. IL The Early Wooden Forts. Repot'ts
on the Auiliaries, the Writing Tablets, Inscriptions' Brands
and Grffiti. Hexham.
BowMAN, A.K. 1983. The Roman Writing Tablets fi'om Víndolancla'
Bne¡.2¡, D.L 19'74. The Roman Foltlet at Barburgh Mill. Brirurutia
BReezr. D.J. and B. DoBSoN 79'72. Haùtan's Wall: Some Pro-
blems. Britannia 3: 182-208.
BRe,ezr, D.J. and B. DossoN 7987. Hadrian's l4ld/. London (3).
CuBssrr,t¡t¡, G.L. 1914. The Auxilía of tlrc Roman Imperial Army,.
CIcHonIus, C. 1900. Cohors. RE IV: kol. 231-355.
D,qvI¡s, R.W, 1976-1977. Roman Scotland and Rornan Auxiliary
unirs. PsAs 108: 168-173.
DAVIEs, R.\ /. 1978. Some Tloop Movements to Roman Britain.
KIio 60:363-370.
DevI¡ven. H. 197 6-1993. P rosopo graphi a nti I itia¡i.utn equ estri ilnI
r¡tn.e fuerunt ab Augusto ad Gallien.unt (S),, A/3), 5 T.
Leuvelì. (cited PME)
DrvItwn, H. 1986. Equesnian Officels f¡onr the East. In P. Fnr,s-
trlax and D. KÐ${EDv (eds), The Defence of tlte Roman a.nd
B),zantine East (BAR LS.297). Oxford: 109-225 (= Devuvrn.
H. 1989a: 273-389).
Dnvllven, H. 1988. Les 'militiae equestres' de P. Helvius Peltinax.
ZPE 75: 207-214 (= DevI;ven, H. 1992: 11-18).
DE\/rt\ER, H, 1989a-1992, The Equestrian Officers of the Roman
Imperiai Army, Mators, Rontan Arnt1, Reseatcltes VI and IX.
Amsterdam - Stuttgafi. 2 dln.
DrvtweR, H. 1989b. Equestrian Officers in the East. The Eastem
Frontiel of the Romau Empile. Proceedings of a. CoLloc¡uiunt
held at Ankara irt Seprentber 1988, (BAR 1.S. 55J), I:77-111
(= D¡vr¡ven, H, 1992:66-100).
Drvr¡ven, H. 1989c. L'Egypte et I'histoire de I'armée romaine.
Egitto e storia antica dal.l'Ellenismo sll' etcì arct.bct. Bilancío di
rut cottfi'ortto: 37-54 (= Devt¡r,rr., H. 1992:22-39).
Gr,t.¡sen, K. 1986. Der östereichische Donaulimes in der Römel'-
zeit. Der römi.sche Lintes in Osten'eich 33. Wien.
He¡-soN, W.S. and G.S. M¡xwrll 1986 (=1983). Ronte's Norrh
West Frottier ,.. The Antonine i4zr¿l/. Edingburgh.
HorprR, P.A. i980. Sndies in tlte Auxilia of the Ronnn Arnty front
Attgustus to Trajan,.B,4Ã 1.S. Oxford.
Horoen, P.A. 1982. Tlte Rontatt Arnty irt Britain. London.
JanRer, M.G. i967: Aktuelle Probleme del Hadliansmater. Ger-
nwnia 45: 96-104.
Jannsr, M.G. and J.C, MANN 1970. Britain frorn Aglicola to Gal-
lienus. B,/ 170: 78.
JouNsoN, A. 1983a. Romatt AtttiliaD) Fot'ts. Tlrc Constructi.on and
Plaruùng of An;iliarl, Forts in tlrc Western Rontan Entpire. v,ith
Pa.rticular Reference to Brilain. antl the Gerntan Pt'ot,i.nces.
Ph.D. thesis. Cardif.
Jorn-soN, A. 1983b. Rotnan Fot'ts o.f the lste and 2nd Cenn.u'ies AD
i.n Btitain ancl tlrc Gerntan Proyittces. London,
Kexuç.oy. D.L. 1983. Milliary Cohorts: the Evidence of Josephus,
BJ,m!) (67) and of Epigraphy. ZPE 50:253-263.
KeNwrny, D.L. 1985. The Construction of a Vexillation from the
Arnry of S)'ria and tbe Oligin of the Alae Milliariae. ZPE 6I:
Keppte, L. 1982. The Antorine Wall 1960-1980. Britannia 13: 9I'
KeppIe, L, 1991 (=1984). The Making of the Ronrun Arnq' fi'ont
Republic to Enpire . London.
KNIcHT, D.I. 1991. The Movenleuts of the Auxilia from Augustus
to Haû'ian. ZPE 85: 189-208.
LE BoHEC, Y. 1989. L'annóe ronta.ine sous le Ha.uÍ-Enpire. Patis.
NnsseluaqÉ, H. 1960. Umriss einer Geschichte des obet'gennani-
sclren Heetes. JURGZM 7: 151 sqq.
RoxeN, M.M. The Rornar Mìlitary Diploma. In P.T. Btov¡ell 1985:
S¡ooINcroN, D.B. 1982. The Detelopnrcnt of the Ronta.n Auxiliary
F o rc es .fi' ortt C ae sa r to V e s
p a si a n ( 49 B.C. -A.D. 79 ). Zin'babwe'
Sexen, R. 1967. Untersuchungen zu den Vexillationen des römischen
Kaiserheeres von Augustus bis Diokletian. ES 1. Düsseldof.
Scsezu-ntc, K. 1948. Tungri. iRE, VII, A: 1345-1359.
Sp¡Iost-, M,A. 1992. Roman Atmy Pay Scales. ,/AS 82: 87-106.
Sralx, E. 1932. Die Kaiserlichen Beanûen und Truppenkörper int
rönùschen Deutschl.antl unter clett¡ Prinzipat. Wien.
Stnossl-, K, 1984. Unterschungen zu den Dakelkrjegen Trajans.
Studien zul Geschichte de nrittleren und unteren Douautaumes
in der Hohen Kaiserzeit, Antiquitcts Reihe 1, 33. Bonn.
STRoBEL, K. 1987. Anmerkungen zur Geschichte der Batavenko-
horren in der hohen Kaiserzeit. ZPE 70: 271-292.
WAcNER, W. 1953. Zur Geschichte der ala I Pannoniorum Taur-
piana victrix. Festscltrift RGZM IIi: 97-101.
UneAN. R. 1985. Der "Bataveraufstand" und die Erhebung des lulius
Classicus, Trierer Historische Forschrutg¿r, 8. Trie¡.
X. 1992. Vi¡clolanda, Cmren[ Arclmeoloelt l2g' 346-347.
4. Abrevations of Periodicals
Remar'trr: For Abl'eviations of most periodicals. see L'Année Philo-
BSSLL = Bulletin de Ia Société Scíentifique et Littéroit'e du Lint'
¿S = Epigropltisclte Studien.
OLL = Het Oude Land t,an Loon,
The redaction of this article was closed the 23 august 1994. The
follorving publication which we could not corrsult at the time, has
to be mentioned: Bowll¡N A.K. and J.D. THoñtAs 1994. The Vin-
dolanda Writin-s-Tablets 2, Tabula Vindolandensis II, Blitish
Museunt Press.
Full-text available
Limburg - Het Oude Land van Loon, 76
VnN or W¡rno 1915: 167; SrnlN 1932: 220; ScHenLß{c
  • Conlp
Conlp. VnN or W¡rno 1915: 167; SrnlN 1932: 220; ScHenLß{c 1948: 1356; Alpölov 1968: 73; Holoen 1982: 122.
  • Tac
  • Agr
rr TAC., Agr.,36. Comp. ClcHonIus 1900: 343; BeNc 1906:3'7;
BrnI-sv 7939: 189l, idem 7974: 512; Wecr'¡¡n 1953: 99; Sve¡
  • Van De Weeno
VAN DE Weeno 1936: 358; E, BrnI-sv 7939: 189l, idem 7974: 512; Wecr'¡¡n 1953: 99; Sve¡,srsns 19'77:119: D,,rvI¡s 1976-197'l: 168: Seoor¡lctoN 1982: 93; SrRon¡L 1981: 281-282;
According to OcrLvrE and Rrcul.toNn 1967: 78 and Hu¡sNnn 105 the unit was at that time already milliaria. Srnossl 198'7: 282 also seems to accept this when he writes: "Zusammen mit den ca. 1.500 Tungrert haben sie
  • Rox
Rox,cN i985: 95; K¡ucnr 1991: 195. According to OcrLvrE and Rrcul.toNn 1967: 78 and Hu¡sNnn 105 the unit was at that time already milliaria. Srnossl 198'7: 282 also seems to accept this when he writes: "Zusammen mit den ca. 1.500 Tungrert haben sie..."
HoLDER I9B2l. 122: Borvlr¡N and THor¿ns
  • Comp
Comp. HoLDER I9B2l. 122: Borvlr¡N and THor¿ns 1983: 119;
Bnrezn ancl DossoN 1987: 252; Rox¡'N 1985:9'7. At least C. 140 the unit leaves Vindolanda. The date of this departure howevel is depenclent on the dating of the spearhead with the inscription Tung
  • E Btrlev
E. BTRLEv 1985:299', Bnrezn ancl DossoN 1987: 252; Rox¡'N 1985:9'7. At least C. 140 the unit leaves Vindolanda. The date of this departure howevel is depenclent on the dating of the spearhead with the inscription Tung[rorum] (4.R. BtruEv 1991: 20). Conceming the castellì.un of Vindolanda, see JouttsoN 1983a: 336-338;
Compare with the cohols I Britannica milliaria and the cohors I Brittonum milliaria, both mentioned on the diploma CIL XVI. 31 of 85
  • Cnerstvtan Comp
Comp, CnerstvtAN 1914: 27. Compare with the cohols I Britannica milliaria and the cohors I Brittonum milliaria, both mentioned on the diploma CIL XVI. 31 of 85. Comp. Kewnrov 1983: 253. HoLDER 1980: 6 accepts the cohors milliaria as a creatìon of Vespasian. Comp. Davtts 1976-191'7: 168. also n.2; K¡NN¡ov 1983:253-263: idem 1985: 181-185; S¡.o¡Iltc-roN 1982: 130-133, 157 sqq., 174: Srnon¡r 1987: 285, n. 84;
BowveN and Tuolvl¡s 198'l: 134 initially accepted that the cohors I Tungrorum was preceded by the cohors VIII Batavorurn
  • A R Bru-Pv
A.R. Bru-pv 1991: 19; also BowrrreN anci Tsoir¿es 1991: 66. BowveN and Tuolvl¡s 198'l: 134 initially accepted that the cohors I Tungrorum was preceded by the cohors VIII Batavorurn. But against that, see A.R. BIru-sy 1991: 19: "and there can be no doubt that the tablets found in the 1970s on which an 'Eight' cohort of Batavians was iclentified, in fact refers to cohors VIIII Batavorum".