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Mattering is an indicator of organizational health and employee success


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Mattering, one’s sense of the difference one makes in the world, has been variously described in psychological and philosophical literatures. We propose the experience of mattering is tied to the perceived impact of one’s actions and is best understood as an action-oriented, context-dependent construct. We introduce the Organizational Mattering Scale (OMS) for measuring mattering in organizations. Across four studies, factor analysis revealed a general mattering factor and two sub-factors, recognition and achievement (CFI = .98, RMSEA = .06). Construct validity and predictive validity are established across a range of psychological and organizational measures. Notably, OMS scores were more related to self-efficacy than self-esteem (p < .01), and positively related to key business outcomes, including job satisfaction (r = .51, p < .01), having a leadership role (t = 6.91, p < .01), recent promotions (t = 2.26, p < .05) and retention (r = .31, p < .01).
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The Journal of Positive Psychology
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Mattering is an indicator of organizational health
and employee success
Andrew Reece, David Yaden, Gabriella Kellerman, Alexi Robichaux, Rebecca
Goldstein, Barry Schwartz, Martin Seligman & Roy Baumeister
To cite this article: Andrew Reece, David Yaden, Gabriella Kellerman, Alexi Robichaux, Rebecca
Goldstein, Barry Schwartz, Martin Seligman & Roy Baumeister (2019): Mattering is an indicator
of organizational health and employee success, The Journal of Positive Psychology, DOI:
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Published online: 28 Nov 2019.
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Mattering is an indicator of organizational health and employee success
Andrew Reece
, David Yaden
, Gabriella Kellerman
, Alexi Robichaux
, Rebecca Goldstein
, Barry Schwartz
Martin Seligman
and Roy Baumeister
BetterUp, San Francisco, CA, USA;
Positive Psychology Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA;
Department of English, New York
University, New York, NY, USA;
School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Lucia,
Mattering, onessenseofthedierence one makes in the world, has been variously described in
psychological and philosophical literatures. We propose the experience of mattering is tied to the
perceived impact of ones actions and is best understood as an action-oriented, context-dependent
construct. We introduce the Organizational Mattering Scale (OMS) for measuring mattering in organi-
zations. Across four studies, factor analysis revealed a general mattering factor and two sub-factors,
recognition and achievement (CFI = .98, RMSEA = .06). Construct validity and predictive validity are
established across a range of psychological and organizational measures. Notably, OMS scores were
more related to self-ecacy than self-esteem (p< .01), and positively related to key business outcomes,
including job satisfaction (r=.51,p< .01), having a leadership role (t= 6.91, p< .01), recent promotions
(t= 2.26, p< .05) and retention (r=.31,p<.01).
Received 1 August 2019
Accepted 31 October 2019
Mattering; self-ecacy;
organizational health; future
of work; employee thriving
Act as if what you do makes a dierence. It does.
William James, Letter to Helen Keller (1905)
When people have a real sense of legacy, a sense of
mattering, a sense of contribution, it seems to tap into
the deepest part of their heart and soul. It brings out the
best and subordinates the rest.
Stephen R. Covey, The Stephen R. Covey Interactive
Reader4 Books in 1 (2015)
It is dicult to imagine a scenario in which employees
know their work does not matter to their organization, yet
still continue to be motivated, feel satised, and add value
to the organization. That ones actions matter at work is
therefore a concern for employees, management, and
leadership. What it means to matter to ones organization,
however, and how best to measure mattering, are divisive
questions in a body of literature that spans several dis-
ciplines. The goals of our investigation were to clarify the
concept of mattering, advance a new sense of mattering
for use in organizational settings, and to provide a new
measure for individual dierences in subjective mattering.
Indeed, mattering can be conceptualized as either
objective or subjective. Objective mattering would be
assessed in terms of objective consequences, whereas
subjective mattering would be a persons private sense
that his or her actions have important consequences. To
be sure, one can make the philosophical case that in the
very long run, such as beyond the life earths solar
system, nothing matters objectively (Nagel, 1971). But
in shorter time frames, clearly, some people and events
have more impactful consequences than others.
Subjective mattering can be studied either as a proxy
for objective mattering or as important in its own right.
A common theme across the various senses of matter-
ing in the literature is that it is generally benecial.
Mattering has consistently demonstrated positive correla-
tions with positive aect, self-esteem, and well-being
(Elliott, Colangelo, & Gelles, 2005; Jung & Heppner, 2017;
Marcus, 1991; Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981) and has
shown negative correlations with hostility, aggression,
and several other pathological mental states (Elliott, Kao,
&Grant,2004; Jung & Heppner, 2017; Marshall, 2001;Rayle,
2005). While these ndings provide some information
about mental health outcomes related to mattering, how
mattering operates in organizational settings has been
rarely investigated.
Philosophers have tended to consider mattering as
primarily related to actions and consequence. Recently,
philosopher Rebecca Goldstein (2015) observed one
could conceive of mattering as 1) arête (ρετή), the
achievement of excellence in ones actions, and 2)
CONTACT Andrew Reece
Present aliation for Barry Schwartz is Management Department, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
© 2019 BetterUp, Inc.
kleos (κλέος), the renown accrued for ones excellence in
OBrien (1996) proposed that the most impor-
tant characteristic of mattering was when a subject has
a sizeable inuence, eect, bearing, or impact on [some
object](p. 340).
Given this framing, an individual mat-
ters because they have acted, and because their actions
have had an impact on some object in the environment
(which may be a person, a group, or an abstract entity,
such as society at large). Of course, there are a number of
dierent senses of the term mattering, such as ones
intrinsic worth (i.e. one mattersethically because one
is a human being), but we propose that the most rele-
vant sense of mattering in organizational settings is the
impact of ones actions. Further, we nd the distinction
between excellence in achievement (arête) and recogni-
tion (kleos) in Goldsteins work theoretically valuable
and worth exploring empirically.
This self-assessed action-oriented view of mattering
has been largely overlooked by psychological research-
ers, however. Ones sense of mattering was rst intro-
duced as a topic of interest in the context of adolescent
and family counseling psychology, where it was charac-
terized as the individuals feeling that he or she counts,
makes a dierence(Rosenberg, 1985, p. 215). While
making a dierencearguably implies a degree of
agency and action on the part of the individual, this
line of inquiry has focused more on the aective
mechanisms that cause one person to matter to another.
Examples include feelings of dependence (Rosenberg &
McCullough, 1981), appreciation (Schlossberg, 1989),
and the feeling of being missed (Rosenberg, 1985).
In contrast to the action-oriented view of mattering,
Rosenberg and McCullough (1981) conceptualized mat-
tering in a way emphasizing ones felt sense of whether
others depend on us, [or] are interested in us(p.165). This
feeling-oriented mattering has been explored in several
contexts, including adolescent counseling (Marshall, 2001;
Rayle, 2005,2005; Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981), col-
lege life (Dixon, Scheidegger, & McWhirter, 2009;France&
Finney, 2009;Schlossberg,Lassalle,&Golec,1990;Tovar,
Simon, & Lee, 2009), military education (Myers & Bechtel,
2004), and medical residency (Powers, Myers, Tingle, &
Powers, 2004). A few studies have focused on mattering
in adult populations as well (Connolly & Myers, 2003;
Corbière & Amundson, 2007; Elliott et al., 2004;
Froidevaux, Hirschi, & Wang, 2016; Jung & Heppner, 2017).
Research on this feeling-oriented mattering looks
much like the literature on self-esteem. Self-esteem,
broadly construed, is a measure of positive self-evalua-
tionhow highly one thinks of and how warmly one feels
about oneself (Rosenberg, 1965). This connection
between mattering and self-esteem is not entirely sur-
prising Rosenberg, who was an early proponent of
mattering research, is also widely credited as a primary
author and researcher on self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965;
Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981). There is already a very
large literature on self-esteem, and it is not clear that
advances in theory or measurement of feeling-oriented
mattering would add anything, so that is not our focus.
Action-oriented mattering, by comparison, is more
similar to self-ecacy, the belief that one can accomplish
aspecic task (Bandura, 1977). These two constructs
self-ecacy and action-oriented mattering are related,
in that they both refer to an individualscapacityfor
action, but they occupy dierent positions on the timeline
of action. Self-ecacy refers to ones own self-assessed
potential for action (I can do it). Mattering, on the other
hand, is a form of post-action self-assessment (How did
Ido?). The perceived impact of ones actions provides the
frame of reference. As such, self-ecacy and mattering
can be conceived of as bookends, of a sort, paired
together as precursor and successor of ones own orienta-
tion to action (Figure 1). Self-ecacy, unlike self-esteem,
consistently predicts positive outcomes that are consis-
tent with ones actual circumstances (Ajzen, 2002; Chen,
Gully, & Eden, 2004;Judge&Bono,2001;Pajares,1996;
Parker, 1998).
Self-ecacy, generally speaking, has been shown to
be a more relevant construct than self-esteem for orga-
nizational outcomes.
Parker (1998) demonstrated that
workplace self-ecacy was a distinct construct from self-
esteem, and found self-ecacy to be a stronger predic-
tor of key business metrics than self-esteem. Judge and
Bono (2001) found self-ecacy to correlate with job
satisfaction at almost double the strength of the rela-
tionship between job satisfaction and self-esteem. Chen
et al. (2004) found workplace self-ecacy to be more
related to motivational states and traits (e.g. goal orien-
tation, need for achievement), which in turn predicted
employee performance.
Given the relative abundance
of support for self-ecacy as more relevant to
Figure 1. The relationship of self-ecacy to action-oriented mat-
tering. Self-ecacy describes an assessment of onescapacityfor
action which occurs prior to taking action, whereas action-oriented
mattering relates more to the perception of the impact ones
actions have had on ones environment. Note that the arrow in
the diagram is an indication of time passing, not of causality.
organizational outcomes than self-esteem, instruments
intended to measure organizational mattering should be
closer to self-ecacy than self-esteem.
This more action-oriented and behavioral emphasis
may disambiguate mattering from the related psycholo-
gical construct of meaning (see Figure 1). Meaning is
a central component of well-being (Seligman, 2012)with
a rich theoretical and empirical literature (Baumeister,
1992; Baumeister, Vohs, Aaker, & Garbinsky, 2013;
Fontaine, Haizlip, & Lavandero, 2018;Park,2010;
Prilleltensky, 2014). The relationship between meaning
and mattering may seem obvious, but the correlations
between the two constructs have not been empirically
Moreover, a substantial literature exists on the topic of
meaning in work, which refers to the symbolic connections
people make between aspects of themselves, their work,
and other people (Rosso, Dekas, & Wrzesniewski, 2010;
Wrzesniewski, Dutton, & Debebe, 2003). Work that is
deemed extremely meaningful and central to onessense
of identity is sometimes referred to as a calling
(Wrzesniewski, McCauley, Rozin, & Schwartz, 1997;Yaden,
McCall, & Ellens, 2015). Meaning at work is bolstered by
perceived support from ones organization (Rhoades &
Eisenberger, 2002) and knowing the signicance of the
task that one is engaged in can improve productivity
(Grant, 2008). Characterizations of meaningful work in
a measurement context, however, have so far resisted
convergence; in a recent literature review of workplace
meaning, Both-Nwabuwe, Dijkstra, and Beersma (2017)
found no fewer than 14 distinct characterizations of the
construct across 72 publications, although the authors
identied the Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale
(Lips-Wiersma & Wright, 2012) as one of the most repre-
sentative measures of workplace meaning.
Organizational mattering
Prior work has emphasized feeling-oriented mattering,
sometimes referred to as interpersonal mattering
(Marcus, 1991; Marshall, 2001; Rosenberg & McCullough,
1981) or societal mattering (Elliott et al., 2004;Jung&
Heppner, 2017; Rosenberg, 1985) in the extant literature.
But neither one of these formulations addresses the spe-
cics of a work setting. When considering the relationship
of an employee to the organization, a sense of mattering is
oriented to the impact of that employees work, on the
organization. Rather than focusing on coworkersaective
sentiments (as is typical of feeling-oriented, interpersonal
mattering), or on the broad, overarching implications of
onesworkonones place in society (societal mattering),
organizational mattering hews closer to the themes of
identity and belonging addressed in the organizational
identication literature (Ashforth & Mael, 1989).
Organizations come with their own contained societal
and cultural structures, and assuch,anymeasureoforga-
nizational mattering should consider the organization as
a primary point of reference. Thus, our focus will be on
assessing how much individuals feel that their work perfor-
mance matters to their organization.
Research on mattering in organizational settings has
not addressed the action-oriented view of mattering (our
emphasis), although some preliminary ndings point to
the promise of feeling-oriented mattering (including inter-
personal and/or societal mattering) in organizational set-
tings. Jung (2018) and Jung and Heppner (2017)proposed
that work may be seen as a means of feeling like one is
contributing to society. That work was cast as an explicit
revival of Rosenbergs(1985) suggestion that societal
matteringmight be an important, and altogether dier-
ent, sort of mattering than the feeling-oriented mattering
formulation. But in our view, this more emotional char-
acterization only tangentially addresses the action-
oriented basis for mattering, which is the impact of
ones actions on ones immediate environment, especially,
for our purposes, in organizational settings. In organiza-
tional settings, unlike in family or friend groups, ones
actions usually matter most. We argue that our concep-
tualization of action-oriented mattering, drawing more on
self-ecacy, is more relevant to organizational contexts.
Therefore, we have created the Organizational Mattering
Scale, which operationalizes this more action-oriented
view (see Appendix A for scale items).
Action-oriented mattering in an organizational context,
then, is in part about the recognition of oneseorts, as
opposed to any kind of personal or emotional sentiment
expressed by ones coworkers. Empirical support motivat-
ing this position is provided in García-Herrero et al. (2017),
who showed that recognition of onesactualactionshad
a stronger positive impact on employees than did expres-
sions of social support. In a meta-analysis of 558 studies of
organizational support, Kurtessis et al. (2017)foundthat
employee perceptions concerning the extent to which the
organization values their actual contributions strongly pre-
dicted positive orientation towards the organization, along
with worker productivity and well-being. These results
suggest that organizational mattering is not only of critical
importance for employees but also for employers, as orga-
nizational functioning improves when workers feel their
work matters. We refer to action-oriented mattering in
organizational contexts as organizational mattering.
The measurement of organizational mattering
Despite some indications of the potential value of mea-
suring the action-oriented kind of mattering in
organizational settings, no assessment instrument cur-
rently exists. The two most common mattering scales
are Rosenberg and McCulloughs(1981) original instru-
ment, and the General Mattering Scale (Marcus, 1991),
both of which emphasize feeling-oriented mattering that
is closely related to the self-esteem literature. The
Mattering to Others Questionnaire (MTOQ) is another
interpersonal measure that is typically used in adolescent
counseling work (Marshall, 2001). France and Finney
(2010) developed a University Mattering Scale for under-
graduate collegiate settings, and Elliot et al.s(2004)
Interpersonal Mattering Scale for adult populations, both
of which also focus on the feeling-oriented formulation of
mattering, and are designed for use outside of organiza-
tional settings.
Connolly and Myers (2003) attempted to
apply the feeling-oriented General Mattering Scale
(Marcus, 1991) in an organizational setting, but found
scant support for a link between this sense of mattering
and work outcomes.
And while Jung and Heppner (2017) broached the
subject of societal mattering in a work setting, they
were primarily interested in assessing how ones experi-
ence of work enables the feeling of mattering to society
in general. They largely overlooked the implications of
employee mattering within the organizational context,
per se. In short, organizational science is currently with-
out a satisfactory means of measuring action-oriented
organizational mattering. Thus, there is an opportunity
to measure the action-oriented sense of mattering in
organizational settings.
Organizational mattering is distinguished from pre-
vious formulations by one central tenet: at work, matter-
ing is a consequence of successful actions. According to
this view, an employee knows they matter due to self-
assessment and recognition of their actions, not because
they express emotional dependence. To be sure, expres-
sions of collegiality and social support among coworkers
are generally positive indicators of a healthy work cul-
ture but they do not specically inform this sense of
mattering. According to our action-oriented view of
mattering, employees may know they matter to the
organization more broadly because the quality of their
eorts add value. When considering whether one adds
value in this way, one can assess the quality and impact
of ones own work as well as feedback from others. These
two features of mattering 1) excellence and 2) recogni-
tion are similar to the Greek concepts of arete and
kleos discussed by Goldstein (2015).
In this study, we aimed to operationalize action-
oriented organizational mattering, including items
related to both excellence and recognition. To that
end, we created items and tested them using explora-
tory and conrmatory factor analyses. We then
compared our Organizational Mattering Scale (OMS) to
other mattering scales in the extant literature as well as
related constructs such as meaning, sense of calling,
purpose to check for convergent and divergent validity.
We also compared the OMS with self-esteem and self-
ecacy. Lastly, we correlated the OMS with various posi-
tive organizational outcomes of interest such as raises,
promotions, and retention. An assessment instrument
devoted to organizational concerns should be able to
predict outcomes which are relevant to business and
organizational settings.
Scale development occurred across four phases: (1)
item development and pilot testing, (2) item renement
and exploratory factor analysis, (3) conrmatory factor
analysis, (4) reliability, construct validity, and predictive
validity for organizational outcomes of interest (senior-
ity, promotions, raises, turnover risk, and job satisfac-
tion). We address each phase in turn.
Present research
The present work had two objectives. First, we sought to
develop a new measure of mattering that would apply
specically to organizational and business contexts.
Toward that end, we devised items to assess the belief
that ones work performance had important conse-
quences for the organization. It was intended to be dis-
tinct from both self-esteem and self-ecacy, though
between those two we sought a closer link to self-ecacy
than self-esteem, primarily because the emphasis in orga-
nizational mattering should be on quality of action in task
performance, as opposed to inherent worth, dependence,
or self-love, all of which are prominent in self-esteem.
Second, we sought to link organizational mattering to
important organizational outcomes. Our approach was
correlational because we assumed bidirectional causality
between subjective mattering and organizational con-
tribution. On one hand, people who make important
contributions to the organization should feel that they
matter (to the organization) more than other people. On
the other hand, people who feel that they matter likely
should feel more motivated to perform eectively than
other people (indeed, the feeling that ones work does
not matter would presumably be demotivating).
Therefore, high scores on mattering should be corre-
lated with a variety of positive outcome measures in
organizational functioning. Specically, people who
score high on organizational mattering should be more
likely than low scorers to occupy leadership and/or man-
agerial positions in the organization; they should receive
more promotions and raises; and they should be more
committed to the organization, as indicated by lower
intention of leaving the organization in the near future.
All of these are important aspects of organizational
functioning. Advancing talented people to leadership
positions helps the organizations overall health and
success, so leaders should matter more than followers
and promotions should go to those who matter most.
Meanwhile, employee turnover is often costly and dis-
ruptive to organizational functioning. Indeed, one long-
term goal of our research is to establish that by making
valuable employees recognize how much they do mat-
ter, they can become more likely to stay with the orga-
nization, thereby minimizing costly turnover.
Regarding our two hypothesized subcomponents of
organizational mattering, it seemed logical that both
achievement and recognition would be linked to promo-
tions, raises, and leadership positions. Presumably,
recognition would be more a result of these things
whereas achievement would be a cause of them.
Retention (i.e., low intention to leave the organization)
might well rest more heavily on recognition than
achievement. We reasoned that someone who achieves
a lot but does not receive recognition would potentially
be quite likely to move to a new organization, where his
or her eorts might be more appreciated.
Phase 1: Item development and pilot study
Item development was initially informed by a literature
review of existing work on mattering, and via consulta-
tion with experts. A gathering of scholars from the dis-
ciplines of organizational behavior, social psychology,
positive psychology, and philosophy convened to iden-
tify key themes on the topic of mattering. Based on the
outcome of this extensive group discussion, we collec-
tively generated the items of the OMS.
After drafting a preliminary set of scale items, we con-
ducted a small pilot round of data collection to assess
construct validity and to compare our results with other
mattering scales. Data were obtained from 196 paid par-
ticipants, recruited through Amazons Mechanical Turk
platform. Participants were invited to participate if they
were at least 18 years of age, employed full-time in the
United States (minimum 35 h per week), earned at least
$25,000 per year (pre-tax personal income), and were not
self-employed. These inclusion criteria were imposed to
constrain our respondent pool to people likely to be
employed in organizational settings. Additional vetting
measures, including reCAPTCHA verication, were
employed to improve data quality. These inclusion criteria
were applied to all subsequent phases of this research.
The resulting sample was 60.71% male (male = 119,
female = 77), and ages ranged from 22 to 71 years
(M= 37.65, SD = 9.33). Most respondents identied
as White (67.86%, n= 133). The rest of the sample
was composed of Black (11.73%, n= 23), Asian
(10.71%, n= 21), Latino (6.12%, n= 12), mixed-race
(2.55%, n= 5), Native American (0.51%, n=1),and
Pacic Islander (0.51%, n= 1) ethnicities.
Participants completed the 17-item OMS, which consisted
of items with 5-point Likert-type multiple choice answers,
ranging from Strongly disagreeto Strongly agree.Out
of the 17 items, eight were designed to represent the
achievement sub-dimension, and nine were designed to
represent the recognition sub-dimension of organizational
mattering. Participants also answered demographic ques-
tions, four additional mattering scales, and ve measures
related to construct validity, including self-esteem and
Phase 2: Item renement and exploratory factor
The original 17-item scale was reduced to eight items
(four items for each sub-dimension), and items were
reworded for clarity and cleaner delineation of the
achievement and recognition sub-dimensions. A new
round of data collection was conducted to reassess fac-
tor structure and collect additional construct validation
data. Other mattering and meaning scales were adminis-
tered, as in Phase 1, along with additional correlational
measures, including job satisfaction, life satisfaction,
depression and anxiety, and happiness.
Data were obtained from 569 adults recruited through
Amazons Mechanical Turk platform. Participants com-
pleted the eight-item OMS, along with demographic
questions and several correlational measures.
The resulting sample was 53.43% male (male = 304,
female = 264), and ages ranged from 19 to 69 years
(M = 35.74, SD = 9.45). Most respondents identied
as White (73.81%, n = 420). The rest of the sample
was composed of Asian (8.79%, n = 50), Latino
(6.50%, n = 37), Black (5.98%, n = 34), mixed-race
(3.87%, n = 22), Native American (0.53%, n = 3), and
Pacic Islander (0.18%, n = 1) ethnicities. Two
respondents chose not to disclose their ethnicity.
Bartletts(1950) test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin metric
(Kaiser, 1970) were used to determine whether factor
analysis was appropriate. We employed principal axis
factoring to measure the relationship of scale items to
underlying latent factors. Given that we expected the two
dimensions of organizational mattering, achievement and
recognition, to positively correlate with one another, the
promax oblique rotation was applied (Hendrickson &
White, 1964). Goodness-of-t statistics reported include
the root-mean-square of the residuals (RMSR), the Tucker-
Lewis Index of factoring reliability (Tucker & Lewis, 1973),
the root mean squared error of approximation and its 90%
condence interval, BIC, and mean item complexity.
We checked our hypothesized two-factor structure
against a number of empirical methods for assessing the
most likely number of latent variables for a given sample.
A majority of these methods were in agreement as to the
number of factors supported in our sample (optimizing
for simple structure): Parallel analysis (Horn, 1965)com-
pares proportion of variance accounted for by each factor,
compared against factors generated from random permu-
tations of the sample data; Very Simple Structure (VSS)
(Revelle & Rocklin, 1979) uses a complexity metric to
determine best t; Velicers(1976) Minimum Average par-
tial procedure uses the partial correlation matrix to deter-
mine best t; Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), along
with the Sample-size Adjusted BIC (Sclove, 1987), are
common measures of statistical model t.
Phase 3: Conrmatory factor analysis
We tested the proposed two-factor solution under the
structural equation modeling framework, using the na-
lized seven-item OMS (one item was dropped during
exploratory factor analysis due to cross-loading) with
a new sample. Additional mattering and meaning scales
were administered, along with correlational measures,
including free will, narcissism, and vocational calling.
Data were obtained from 616 adults recruited through
Amazons Mechanical Turk platform, via the TurkPrime
web portal. Participants completed the seven-item OMS,
along with demographic questions and several correla-
tional measures. The resulting sample was 54.71% male
(male = 337, female = 279), and ages ranged from 19 to 81
years (M = 36.60, SD = 10.25). Most respondents identied
as White (76.30%, n = 470). The rest of the sample was
composed of Black (6.33%, n = 39), Asian (8.28%, n = 51),
Latino (5.03%, n = 31), mixed-race (3.73%, n = 23), and
unspecied other(0.16%, n = 1) ethnicities.
Structural equation modeling was used for conrmatory
factor analysis, using a maximum likelihood estimator.
Following the recommendations of Hu and Bentler
(1999), the standardized root-mean-square residual
(SRMR), root mean squared error of approximation
(RMSEA) with 90% condence intervals, Comparative Fit
Index (CFI), and Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) are reported as
goodness-of-t statistics. Analysis of variance is employed
to test for signicant dierentiation among competing
models, using the Χ
metric of t as a test statistic.
Phase 4: Predictive validity for organizational
We administered the nalized OMS to a fourth sample to
establish the predictive validity of organizational mattering
to common organizational outcomes that might be most
relevant to employers. Items included were related to cur-
rent work status and performance, and attitudes towards
work, including items related to job satisfaction, manager
status, recent raises and promotions, and intent to leave.
Data were obtained from 423 adults recruited through
Amazons Mechanical Turk platform. Participants com-
pleted the seven-item OMS, along with work-relatedques-
tions regarding current place of employment: manager
status, dates of recent raises and promotions, and intent
to quit within the next six months. The resulting sample
was 60.28% male (male = 255, female = 168), and ages
ranged from 18 to 69 years (M = 38.65, SD = 9.68). Most
respondents identied as White (80.61%, n = 341). The rest
of the sample was composed of Black (6.38%, n = 27),
Asian (7.09%, n = 30), Native American (3.31%, n = 14), and
unspecied other(0.47%, n = 2) ethnicities. Three percent
of respondents elected not to answer this question.
Convergent and divergent validity from all samples
Internal reliability of scale constructs was assessed using
Cronbachsα(Cronbach, 1951) and the Spearman-Brown
Prophecy Formula measure (Brown, 1910; Spearman,
1910). The Spearman-Brown statistic, a standardized
measure of α, is often identical to α, but behaves more
stably, and so we report only standardized reliability
coecients as α. Polychoric correlation matrices were
used as the basis for all factor-analytic procedures.
OMS items are Likert-type items, and polychoric correla-
tions have been shown as generally more suitable than
Pearson correlations for exploratory and conrmatory
factor analysis of Likert-type items (HolgadoTello,
ChacónMoscoso, BarberoGarcía, & VilaAbad, 2010).
Additionally, OMS item-response distributions demon-
strated a negative skew, and polychoric correlations are
also more robust to moderate violations of normality
than Pearson correlations (Flora & Curran, 2004).
Additional measures were included in each phase of
data collection for construct and predictive validity.
Only a subset of measures was administered during
each phase; sample sizes for each measure are reported
Brief calling scale (Dik, Eldridge, Steger, & Duy,
2012). 4-item measure of a persons belief that she or
he is called upon to do a particular kind of work. Divided
into two sub-scales related to the current presence of,
and the search for, a specic calling. Only the presence
sub-scale was compared to OMS scores. In-sample relia-
bility: α= .78. Example item: I have a calling to
a particular kind of work.(N= 616)
Comprehensive meaningful work scale (Lips-
Wiersma & Wright, 2012). 28-item measure of seven
distinct ways that work can feel meaningful. In-sample
reliability: α= .95. Example item: The vision we collectively
work towards inspires me.(N= 569)
Free will and determinism scale (Rakos, Laurene,
Skala, & Slane, 2008). 22-item measure of personal
beliefs about other people having free will and about
free will related to oneself. In-sample reliability: α= .91.
Example item: I am in charge of the decisions I make.
(N= 616)
General mattering scale (Marcus, 1991). 5-item mea-
sure of interpersonal mattering. In sample reliability:
α= .86. Example item: How much do you feel others
would miss you if you went away? (N= 616)
Job satisfaction survey (Spector, 1985). 36-item
measure of employee job satisfaction. In-sample reliabil-
ity: α= .95. Example item: I like doing the things I do at
work.(N= 569)
Life satisfaction scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, &
Grin, 1985). 5-item measure of global life satisfaction,
a distinct construct from positive aect. In-sample relia-
bility: α= .92. Example item: In most ways my life is close
to my ideal.(N= 569)
Mattering to others questionnaire (Marshall, 2001).
11-item measure of the perception of mattering to
others, designed originally for use with adolescents. In-
sample reliability: α= .90. Example item: People do not
ignore me.(N= 616)
Meaning in life questionnaire (Steger, Frazier, Oishi,
& Kaler, 2006). 10-item measure of the presence of, and
the search for, meaning in life. In-sample reliability:
α= .90. Example item: My life has a clear sense of purpose.
(N= 616)
Multidimensional existential meaning scale
(George & Park, 2017). 15-item measure of meaning in
life as consisting of comprehension, purpose, and
mattering. In-sample reliability: α= .94. Example item:
I am certain that my life is of importance.(N= 569)
Patient health questionnaire, 4-item (Löwe et al.,
2010). Consists of a 2-item depression scale and a 2-item
anxiety scale. In-sample reliability: α= .85. Example item:
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been both-
ered by the following problems: Feeling down, depressed,
or hopeless.(N= 569)
Rosenberg mattering scale (Rosenberg &
McCullough, 1981). 5-item measure, made for adoles-
cents, to assess the feeling that they mattered to their
parents. In-sample reliability: α= .88. Example item:
People depend on you.(N= 569)
Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965). 11-
item measure of self-esteem. In-sample reliability: α=.94.
Example item: I take a positive attitude toward myself.
Self-ecacy (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007).
6-item measure of employeesperceived ability to exe-
cute a specic task within a specic context. Part of the
larger Psychological Capital Index. In-sample reliability: α
= .87. Example item: I feel condent helping to set targets/
goals in my work area.(N= 569)
Single-item narcissism scale (Konrath, Meier, &
Bushman, 2014). Single-item measure of narcissistic per-
sonality. Example item: To what extent do you agree with
this statement: I am a narcissist.(N= 616)
Subjective happiness scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper,
1999). 4-item measure of subjective personal happiness.
In-sample reliability: α= .92. Example item: In general,
I consider myself: (Answers range from Not a very happy
personto A very happy person)(N= 569)
Work mattering scale (Jung & Heppner, 2017). 10-
item measure of the perception of mattering to others
(coworkers) and to society at large. In-sample reliability:
α= .92 Example item: I am connected to society through
my work.(N= 196)
Employment circumstances
Individual items related to the specics of current
employment. Topics included: manager status, recent
promotions, tenure at current job, self-care, and intent
to quit. (N= 423)
All scale development analyses were conducted using
R, a software environment for statistical computing and
graphics (R Core Team, 2013). The tidyverse suite of
packages (Wickham, 2017) was used for data manipula-
tion. The psych package (Revelle, 2018) was used for
reliability and exploratory factor analysis. The lavaan
package (Rosseel, 2012) was used for conrmatory factor
analysis. The corrplot package (Wei & Simko, 2017) was
used to generate correlation plots.
Phase 1: Pilot study
The goal of the pilot study was to establish key elements of
construct validity namely, that the action-oriented char-
acterization of mattering correlated more with self-ecacy
than with self-esteem, and that the OMS instrument was
suciently distinct from other instruments to warrant
further development. Seventeen organizational mattering
items were generated and administered to a small sample
(n= 196).
Principal components and factor analyses indicated a
lack of clear structure across the full 17-item collection.
Removing reverse-coded items (which have been shown to
behave erratically under certain psychometric assessment
conditions, see Barnette, 2000) and eliminating items which
loaded signicantly onto multiple factors, reduced the ori-
ginal 17 items down to seven, which produced a barely
tenable single-factor solution (RMSEA = .10). Despite the
clear need for further item renement, we did use the
available single-factor model to run preliminary construct
validity tests against a number of related measures.
This single-factor organizational mattering construct
was slightly more associated with self-ecacy (r= .64)
than self-esteem (r= .61), although the dierence in mag-
nitude between these two correlations was not signicant.
Notably, all of the other mattering instruments showed
stronger relationships to self-esteem than to self-ecacy
(see Table 1).
Organizational mattering showed positive correla-
tions with the other mattering scales (Work Mattering
Scale: r= .77, Mattering To Others: r= .80, Rosenberg &
McCullough: r= .80, Multidimensional Existential
Meaning Scale: r= .59 (p< .001 for all correlations listed,
see Table 1). Despite the indication from factor-analytic
results that further item renement was necessary, these
initial indicators of construct validity provided early sup-
port for the claim that our action-oriented view of orga-
nizational mattering is similar to, but not identical with,
other operationalizations of mattering.
Phase 2: Exploratory factor analysis
Based on results from the pilot study, we iterated a new
set of eight items to more clearly delineate between the
hypothesized mattering dimensions of: 1) achievement
and 2) recognition. A second sample (n= 569) was
collected and factor analyzed (see Figure 2).
Both Bartletts(Χ
= 2635.31, p< .001) and Kaiser-Meyer-
Olkin (overall MSA = .89) tests indicated factor analysis was
appropriate. Parallel analysis, VelicersMinimumAverage
Partial, and BIC all suggested a two-factor structure best t
the data (Figure 3). An oblique two-factor solution (inter-
factor correlation: r= .61) demonstrated excellent good-
ness-of-t (RMSR = .01; RMSEA = .05, 90% CI: [.02, .08];
BIC = 31.73; TLI = .99). Compared to a two-factor model,
one-factor (RMSEA = .25; 90% CI: [.24, .28]) and three-factor
(RMSEA = .09; 90% CI: [.05, .13]) models showed inferior
goodness-of-t. The two-factor solution accounted for 67%
of the variance in the data. The two factors were positively
correlated (r= .61) as predicted, and the model achieved
simple structure (Mean Item Complexity = 1).
Seven items loaded cleanly onto the recognition and
achievement dimensions, with minimum loadings of .62
and .78, respectively, and maximum cross-factor loadings
of .15 and .18, respectively (the eighth item was dropped
due to cross loading). See Figure 3 for a graphical depic-
tion of the two-factor solution; a full table of EFA factor
loadings can be found in Appendix C.
In addition to achieving a two-factor t with this
revised set of scale items, our primary construct validation
benchmark showed marked improvement. Factor scores
were computed for each mattering dimension in order to
generate correlations with self-ecacy and self-esteem
measures. The recognition sub-dimension of organiza-
tional mattering demonstrated a clear dierentiation in
its relationship to self-ecacy (r=.58,p<.001)compared
to self-esteem (r= .41, p< .001), and the achievement sub-
dimension showed similar clear dierentiation (self-e-
cacy: r=.55,p< .001, self-esteem: r=.34,p<.001).For
both the recognition (t=6.34,p< .001) and achievement (t
=5.26,p< .001) OMS sub-scales, the correlation with self-
ecacy was signicantly larger than with self-esteem. The
total organizational mattering score showed this pattern
as well (self-ecacy: r=.65,p< .001, self-esteem: r=.43,
p< .001, magnitude of dierence between correlations:
Table 1. Construct validity correlation matrix from pilot study.
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Organizational
Mattering Scale: Total
2. Organizational
Mattering Scale:
3. Organizational
Mattering Scale:
0.91 0.72
4. Self Esteem 0.61 0.56 0.57
5. Self Ecacy 0.64 0.59 0.60 0.54
6. Mattering: Work
Mattering Scale
0.77 0.74 0.68 0.48 0.47
7. Mattering:
Existential Meaning
0.59 0.51 0.60 0.76 0.43 0.57
8. Mattering: Mattering
to Others
0.80 0.76 0.73 0.75 0.65 0.66 0.66
9. Mattering: Rosenberg
Mattering Scale
0.80 0.72 0.79 0.68 0.59 0.74 0.69 0.83
Note. N = 196. All correlations are signicant at p< .001.
t=7.09,p< .001). Notably, the other mattering scales
administered in this and the previous sample showed
either the opposite pattern or no signicant relationship
with self-ecacy and self-esteem (see Table 2). Mattering
to Others (MTO) and Multidimensional Existential
Meaning (MEM) tracked signicantly more closely with
self-esteem than self-ecacy. The Work Mattering Scale
(WMS) and Rosenberg Mattering Scale (RMS) showed no
signicant dierences between the strength of their rela-
tionship with self-esteem vs self-ecacy. Taken together,
the magnitude, direction, and signicance of these corre-
lations, as well as their dierential relationship to the
organizational mattering construct, provided a good
match to our theoretical framework.
Phase 3: Conrmatory factor analysis
Arst-order, two-factor model which allowed for covar-
iance between the two latent variables demonstrated
excellent goodness-of-t (SRMR = .03; TLI = .97; CFI = .98;
RMSEA = 0.06, 90% CI: [0.03, 0.08]). This model proved
a superior t to both a single-factor model (Χ
= 264.72, p< .001) and an orthogonal two-factor model (Χ
dierence = 134.17, p< .001).
Figure 2. Parallel analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the Organizational Mattering Scale.
This scree plot compares factor eigenvalues of actual data versus simulated random data. Results from factor analysis (triangular marker) indicate a two-factor
solution, indicated by the eigenvalue divergence observed between actual and simulated data for the rst two factors.
Figure 3. Oblique, Promax-rotated two-factor structure of organizational mattering. Factor-loading model shows two dimensions of
organizational mattering. Factor loadings ranged from .62 to .92, and the two factors were correlated at r= .61.
Following the recommendation of Koufteros, Babbar,
and Kaighobadi (2009), we t a second-order structural
equation, in which the recognition and achievement fac-
tors comprised a general mattering factor. Goodness-of-t
was comparable to the rst-order equation (SRMR = .03;
TLI = .97; CLI = .98; RMSEA = 0.06, 90% CI: [0.04, 0.08]), and
analysis of variance between the rst- and second-order
model indicated t-equivalency (Χ
dierence: < .01,
p= 1.0). The sub-dimensions loaded onto the general
mattering factor at roughly equal strength (achievement:
.76; recognition: .74). See Figure 4 for the full path diagram
of the second-order equation.
Therefore, both the
achievement and recognition constructs emerged as dis-
tinct factors, but also combine to represent a general
mattering construct.
Phase 4: Reliability, validity and scale
The general mattering factor and the two sub-dimen-
sions achievement and recognition all achieved good
internal reliability (mattering total:α= .86; achievement:
α= .84; recognition:α= .83). Construct validity for the
OMS measure of organizational mattering was assessed
across ve validation themes. See Table 35for
a complete listing of correlations.
Theme 1: Emphasizes work and action
Organizational mattering, as a general construct, was
more strongly related to self-ecacy than to self-
esteem (see Results: Phase 2). Notably, this directional
dierence was only observed for organizational mat-
tering; all other mattering scales for which data were
collected either failed to disambiguate between self-
Table 2. Signicance testing correlation coecients between
mattering, self-ecacy, and self-esteem.
Mattering Scale
Esteem pValue t
Organizational Mattering: Total
0.65* 0.43 <.01 7.09
Organizational Mattering:
0.55* 0.34 <.01 6.34
Organizational Mattering:
0.58* 0.41 <.01 5.26
Mattering to Others Scale
0.65 0.75* <.05 2.38
Multidimensional Existential
Mattering Scale
0.53 0.68* <.05 5.27
Work Mattering Scale
0.47 0.48 0.86 0.18
Rosenberg Mattering Scale
0.59 0.59 0.90 0.13
Pilot sample (N = 196).
EFA sample (N = 569). * Indicates a higher
correlation with either self-ecacy or self-esteem with a given mattering scale.
Note. N = 569. All correlations are signicant at p< .001. PHQ-4 = Patient
Health Questionnaire-4. MEM = Multidimensional Existential Mattering
Scale. CWMS = Comprehensive Workplace Meaning Scale.
Figure 4. Structural Equation Model ofOrganizational Mattering. A second-order structural equation model provided the best theoretical
and empirical t to OMS data. A general mattering factor enfolded the achievement and recognition factors, each of which was
represented in roughly equal measure within the general factor. See Appendix D and E for structural equation model specics.
ecacy and self-esteem (e.g. Jung and Heppners
(2017) Work Mattering Scale; Rosenberg and
McCulloughs(1981) mattering scale), or correlated
more strongly with self-esteem than with self-ecacy
(e.g. Marshalls(2001) Mattering To Others
Questionnaire, and George and Parks(2017)
Multidimensional Existential Meaning Scale (see
Table 3). OMS total scores were also more strongly
related to job satisfaction (r= .51, p< .001) than to
satisfaction with life in general (r= .35, p< .001)
(dierence in magnitude of correlations: t= 4.12,
p< .001), which further supports the scale as targeting
a mattering formulation specically relevant to orga-
nizational settings.
Theme 2: Positively correlates with other forms of
Medium-to-strong positive correlations were observed
with other mattering instruments, including Rosenberg
and McCulloughs(1981) mattering scale (r=.67,
p< .001), the General Mattering Scale (Marcus, 1991)
(r= .45, p< .001), and the Mattering to Others
Questionnaire (Marshall, 2001)(r=.58,p<.001).
Correlation between the achievement subscale and
other mattering scales was lower than the correlation
between the recognition subscale and other scales,
which ts with the notion that most mattering scales
focus on feelings, rather than the impact of ones actions
(see Tables 3 and 4).
Theme 3: Positively correlates with measures of
workplace meaning
Although meaning and mattering are distinct constructs,
they are closely theoretically related. OMS total scores
demonstrated strong positive correlation (r= .63,
p< .001) with the Comprehensive Meaningful Work
Scale (Lips-Wiersma & Wright, 2012).
Theme 4: Matches known correlates of mattering
Previous research has found that some forms of matter-
ing are positively associated with positive aect and
well-being (Jung & Heppner, 2017; Marcus, 1991), and
negatively associated with pathological aective states,
such as anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation (Elliot
et al., 2005; Rosenberg & McCullough, 1981; Taylor &
Turner, 2001). In line with these previous ndings, orga-
nizational mattering correlated positively with happi-
ness (r= .41, p< .001, using Lyubomirsky and Leppers
(1999) Subjective Happiness Scale), and negatively with
depression and anxiety (r=.27, p< .001, using Löwe
et al.s(2010) Patient Health Questionnaire). Correlations
are depicted in Table 3.
Theme 5: Validates against novel construct validity
Three novel construct validity measures were added:
narcissistic tendency, work-as-calling, and the percep-
tion of free will (Table 4). No relationship was observed
with a measure of narcissistic personality tendency
Table 3. Construct validity correlation matrix from EFA stage of data collection.
Variable 1234567891011
1. Organizational Mattering: Total
2. Organizational Mattering: Recognition 0.90
3. Organizational Mattering: Achievement 0.84 0.52
4. Job Satisfaction 0.51 0.51 0.36
5. Life Satisfaction 0.35 0.33 0.27 0.47
6. Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale) 0.41 0.39 0.33 0.42 0.70
7. Self Esteem 0.43 0.41 0.34 0.51 0.67 0.71
8. Self Ecacy 0.64 0.58 0.55 0.46 0.44 0.46 0.57
9. Anxiety/Depression (PHQ-4)
0.27 0.26 0.20 0.51 0.53 0.60 0.69 0.38
10. Meaning (MEM)
0.48 0.43 0.41 0.44 0.68 0.67 0.68 0.53 0.46
11. Workplace Meaning (CWMS)
0.63 0.61 0.48 0.79 0.50 0.50 0.52 0.59 0.48 0.56
12. Mattering (Rosenberg Mattering Scale) 0.67 0.61 0.55 0.48 0.47 0.49 0.59 0.59 0.40 0.61 0.58
Table 4. Construct validity correlation matrix from CFA stage of data collection.
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1. Organizational Mattering Scale: Total
2. Organizational Mattering Scale: Recognition 0.88 ***
3. Organizational Mattering Scale: Achievement 0.81 *** 0.44 ***
4. Meaning (Meaning in Life Questionnaire) 0.34 *** 0.26 *** 0.32 ***
5. Narcissism (Single-Item Narcissism Scale) 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.03
6. Mattering (General Mattering Scale) 0.45 *** 0.43 *** 0.33 *** 0.33 *** 0.06
7. Mattering (Mattering to Others Questionnaire) 0.58 *** 0.60 *** 0.35 *** 0.33 *** 0.08 0.66 ***
8. Career Calling (Brief Calling Scale) 0.36 *** 0.32 *** 0.28 *** 0.38 *** 0.05 0.35 *** 0.33 ***
9. Free Will (General) 0.22 *** 0.20 *** 0.17 *** 0.12 * 0.04 0.19 *** 0.17 *** 0.05
10. Free Will (Personal) 0.21 *** 0.18 *** 0.18 *** 0.11 * 0.10 * 0.20 *** 0.20 *** 0.06 0.66 ***
Note. N = 616. * p< .05. ** p< .01. *** p< .001.
(r=.02, p= .41). This provides some refutation of the
perspective that mattering is, at least in part, related to
distorted perceptions of self-importance. Wrzesniewski
et al. (1997), who found that work that is highly mean-
ingful is associated with positive organizational out-
comes. OMS total scores showed a weak, albeit
signicant, positive correlation with the presence of
callingfactor of the Brief Calling Scale (Dik et al., 2012)
(r= .20, p< .01). Besides its extensive pedigree as a topic
in philosophy, belief in free will is another construct
closely tied to self-ecacy (e.g. Bandura, 2008). On the
other hand, the belief in determinism has been tied to
cheating behavior in laboratory settings (Vohs &
Schooler, 2008). OMS total scores were positively corre-
lated with both belief in personal free will (r= .21, p<
.001) and belief in the concept of free will in general (r=
.22, p< .001), as measured by Rakos et al. (2008).
Predictive validity
Instruments designed to measure some aspect of
employee sentiment should be signicantly linked to
relevant organizational outcomes. We collected employ-
ment data for a subset of participants (n=423)and
compared key measures to OMS scores via either correla-
tion or logistic regression (in the case of categorical mea-
sures). Organizational variables of interest included
manager status, intent to quit within the next six months,
job satisfaction
, and recent promotions and raises.
Signicant relationships were identied between organi-
zational mattering and several business- and organiza-
tionally relevant outcomes (see Table 5). The
relationships between total OMS score and organizational
variables are listed as Pearson correlation coecients (in
the case of comparison against metric variables) or
tcoecients (in the case of comparison against binomial
variables). The specicimpactoftheachievement and
recognition sub-dimensions are reported as coecients
from a multiple regression with both sub-dimensions as
the predictors of organizational outcomes.
Organizational mattering signicantly predicted
whether respondents occupied a managerial or leadership
role; high OMS total scores were associated with being
a manager or organizational leader (t=6.91, df = 383.31,
p< .001). This relationship was driven by the recognition
sub-dimension (β= .62, SE = .15, t= 4.23, p< .001); achieve-
ment had a similarly positive, but weaker, relationship to
status (β= .17, SE = .14, t= 1.20, p= .23). OMS total scores
showed strong positive correlation with job satisfaction (r=
.51, p< .001). Both recognition (β= 6.44, SE =.61,t=10.50,
p< .001) and achievement (β= 2.39, SE = .77, t= 3.10, p=
.002) were signicant predictors of job satisfaction.
Organizational mattering was negatively associated with
intent to leave (r=0.31, p< .001), a measure of how likely
an employee is to quit within the following 6 months. This
suggests that employees who experience high organiza-
tional mattering are more likely to remain at an organiza-
tion. Both recognition (β=.08, SE = .03, t=3.18, p< .01)
and achievement (β=.07, SE = .03, t=2.41, p= .02) were
signicant predictors of this measure of retention. The
recognition subscale of organizational mattering was
asignicant positive predictor of the probability of having
received a promotion (β= .52, SE = .25, t= 2.09, p= .04) or
araise(β= .38, SE = .15, t= 2.50, p= .01) within the past 6
months. Neither total OMS total scores nor achievement
subscale scores were signicant predictors of promotions
or raises.
Demographic characteristics
While we did not hypothesize any specicrelation-
ships between demographic factors and organiza-
tional mattering, we report correlations between
OMS scores and a number of common demographic
variables as indicators for potential future research.
Employee age showed a modest positive correlation
with organizational mattering (r=.15,p<.01).Gender
was not a signicant dierentiator of organizational
mattering (t=1.37, p= .17). Respondents selected
from seven response levels to indicate their most
advanced level of education (some high school, high
school, some college, associates degree, bachelors,
masters, professional degree, doctoral). A one-way
ANOVA with organizational mattering as the depen-
dent variable indicated no signicant dierence across
education levels (F= .71, df =6,p= .64). See Table 5.
Table 5. Predictive validity correlation matrix.
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1. Organizational Mattering Scale: Total
2. Organizational Mattering Scale: Recognition 0.92 ***
3. Organizational Mattering Scale: Achievement 0.90 *** 0.66 ***
4. Age 0.15 ** 0.10 * 0.17 ***
5. Gender < 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.10*
6. Leader or Manager 0.33 *** 0.33 *** 0.26 *** 0.04 0.02
7. Intent to Leave 0.31 *** 0.30 *** 0.28 *** 0.21 *** 0.02 0.06
8. Raise, past six months 0.05 0.09 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.02 0.13*
10. Promotion, past six months 0.07 0.10 0.03 0.15 * 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.50***
Note. N = 423. * p< .05. ** p< .01. *** p< .001.
When employees feel like they matter to their organiza-
tion, they are more satised with their jobs and life, more
likely to occupy leadership positions, more likely to be
rewarded and promoted, and less likely to quit. These
ndings lend weight to the basic value of mattering in
organizational contexts. Even given the correlational
nature of these results, the construct of organizational
mattering is, at minimum, a valuable indicator of the
degree to which employees are happy and thriving.
We conceived of organizational mattering as being
composed of two distinct dimensions: recognition and
achievement, based on theoretical work by Goldstein
(2015). Factor analysis of the Organizational Mattering
Scale bore out this theoretical premise, with OMS achiev-
ing simple structure and clean item loadings on each of
the two dimensions. The general construct of organiza-
tional mattering showed good predictive validity, and
the achievement and recognition subscales also dier-
ently related to key constructs and measures.
Achievement was tied more closely than recognition to
self-ecacy, which is a central construct in the organiza-
tional mattering framework. On the other hand, recogni-
tion tracked more closely with manager status,
promotions, and raises than did achievement, a nod to
the importance of ensuring ones good work is noticed
and appreciated by coworkers.
Future work may estab-
lish whether the recognition and achievement subscales
can consistently and dierentially predict organizational
Mattering as action-oriented
In addition to the success of OMS as an indicator of impor-
tant organizational and human resources metrics, organi-
zational mattering also captures many of the positive
psychological states typically associated with mattering in
previous research: happiness, self-esteem, life satisfaction,
and meaning. However, the OMS stands apart from pre-
vious attempts to measure mattering in an important way:
it emphasizes mattering as tied to the fruits of onesactions
more than aect, social circumstances, or self-image. This
emphasis on action diers from the concept of mattering
put forward by previous literature on the subject, which
has focused more on the link between mattering and self-
esteem. Given this framing, we expected that mattering
and self-ecacy should positively correlate, and this rela-
tionship should be stronger than the relationship between
mattering and self-esteem. Across three separate samples,
OMS scores demonstrated this pattern. The other matter-
ing scores we examined, however, did not they either
failed to dierentiate between self-ecacy and self-
esteem, or, in some cases, showed a stronger relationship
to self-esteem.
Organizational matterings proximity to the experi-
ence of organizational identication also presents
a number of intriguing questions for future research.
For example, it may be possible to identify with ones
organization without necessarily having a feeling of per-
sonally mattering to the organization. The converse
case the sense that one matters to an organization
but does not identify with it to be less likely, but
equally intriguing. Whether organizational mattering
and identication occupy their own separate conceptual
spaces, or whether they interact with one another to
predict relevant outcomes for talent development and
retention, are questions that merit further investigation.
Future developments on the topic of organizational
mattering will benet by addressing a number of issues
that limited the present ndings. Sample diversity is one
limitation of the current study. Our data were skewed
towards young (54% under 35), White (75%) respon-
dents, and as such were only roughly representative of
the true demographic distribution of adult working pro-
fessionals in the United States. It is possible that the
experience of mattering interacts with socioeconomic
status, or other demographic variables, in ways that
constrain the relevance of our ndings.
This study did not address causality. The associations
we observed between organizational mattering and other
variables of interest, including job satisfaction, organiza-
tional status, and intent to leave, are strictly correlational.
For the time being, we may only claim that the measure
of an employees sense of organizational mattering can
serve as a useful barometer of employee sentiment and,
perhaps, as a contributing indicator of an organizations
cultural health more generally, though this requires
further empirical study. The hypothesis that an improve-
ment in ones sense of mattering to ones organization
might actually catalyze positive downstream conse-
quences, such as increased engagement or commitment,
remains untested. Future research might attempt experi-
mental manipulation of the experience of mattering to
ones organization, and track the results longitudinally, to
determine whether a causal relationship exists between
mattering and organizational outcomes of interest.
Our research does not address whether the sense of
mattering is a relatively stable phenomenon (i.e., closer to
apsychologicaltrait) or whether it is instead more depen-
dent on circumstance (i.e., closer to a psychological state).
For example, can having a bad day at work make employ-
ees feel like they matter less to their organization?
A number of factors may impact ones experience of
mattering, including organizational uctuations such as
role changes, internal reorganization, and reprioritization
of organizational priorities, as well as psychological fac-
tors, including employee engagement and stress levels.
We predict that organizational mattering is a relatively
stable phenomenon, but subject to modulation when
relatively major changes occur in an employeesworking
life (e.g. switching jobs, or being promoted, or mergers
that alter company culture). Longitudinal studies may be
able to observe how ones sense of mattering responds
to various personal and organizational changes.
Mattering has been previously explored in general and
a few organizational settings from a theoretical perspec-
tive closely aligned with self-esteem, what we call feeling-
oriented mattering. We drew instead from philosophical
perspectives on mattering, which hew closer to the litera-
ture on self-ecacy, insofar as the emphasis is on actual
action. We empirically explored two dimensions of this
action-oriented mattering, achievement and recognition,
in the process of developing a scale for use in organiza-
tional contexts. We found that the resulting Organizational
Mattering Scale (OMS) predicts job satisfaction, occupying
leadership roles, and retention. It appears important,
across several outcomes, that employees feel that they
matter to their organizations and that this sense is
enhanced when it is tied to ones actual actions.
1. In ancient Greece, kleos meant songs that were sung of
ones deeds this was meant in a literal sense and the
term is sometimes even translated as acoustic renown
(Svenbro, 1993; Watson, 2016).
2. OBrien (1996) actually used work as an example of how
mattering is generally framed in a positive context: To
achieve excellence in my work is very important to me
(p. 341).
3. But see Gardner and Pierce (1998), a study of 186 workers
at a Midwestern U.S. electrical company. While they found
positive relationships between self-ecacy, job satisfac-
tion and performance, they found self-esteem to be
a stronger predictor than self-ecacy among this sample.
4. Self-esteem, by comparison, also demonstrated
apositive relationship with performance, but by being
tied to aective, rather than motivational, traits (Chen
et al., 2004).
5. See Chan et al. (2014)for a review of existing mattering
scales, also Jung (2018).
6. Construct validation analyses are explored in-depth in
Results: Phase 4.
7. Given the small sample and exploratory nature of this
initial round of data collection, formal reporting of
factor-analytic statistical criteria are omitted; see
Results: Phase 2 for a fuller treatment.
8. Scoring for the OMS consists of a set of weighted sums:
items in the recognition and achievement sub-dimensions
are weighted by their factor loadings, and the general
mattering dimension is scored via a weighted sum of the
two sub-dimensions. See Appendix B for scoring specics.
9. Job satisfaction data (n = 569) was collected in Phase 2
(exploratory factor analysis phase), but it is reported
here as it is topically related to other Phase 4 measures
of organizational predictive validity.
10. Considering the correlational nature of these data, it is, of
course, possible that becoming a manager or getting
a promotion is itself the cause of feeling one matters via
recognition for ones accomplishments. Our emphasis is
on establishing the associations between mattering and
these organizational outcomes; with this groundwork laid,
future research may work towards establishing causality.
Disclosure statement
All of the authors on the paper who do not list their aliation as
BetterUpwere at one point paid invitees to a small workshop,
tional mattering). All of the BetterUp-aliated authors are paid
full-time employees at BetterUp. The concept and methods were
jointly conceived of by all the authors. As this was intended from
the outset as a scientic collaboration, and the results of the paper
do not position BetterUp to prot or gain in any material sense,
we do not feel the fact that the authors were paid by the sponsor-
ing institution constitutes a worrisome conict of interest.
Andrew Reece
David Yaden
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Appendix A. Items in organizational mattering scale
Achievement Subscale
1. My work contributes to my organizations success.
2. The quality of my work makes a real impact on my organization.
3. My work inuences my organizations functioning.
Recognition Subscale
4. My organization praises my work publicly.
5. My co-workers praise my work.
6. I am well known for the quality of my work in my organization.
7. My work has made me popular at my work place.
Appendix B. Scale scoring information
The items in each of the OMS sub-scales do not load equally onto their respective factors. In addition, the two sub-scales
(recognition and achievement) contribute dierentially to the general organizational mattering factor. As such, a simple sum or
mean of OMS items will not accurately reect the validated structure of the scale. We have provided R code below to compute
a weighted average for each subscale, weighted again by each subscales correlation to the main factor to get the total.
# compute composite scores for each OMSfactor
# expected input: a data frame or tibblewith columns for each of the OMS items, labeled
oms1, oms2, oms3, oms4, oms5,oms6, oms7
# output: input data frame with threecolumns added: achievement_score, recognition_score,
# example use: get_scores(my_oms_data)
calc_oms <- function(df) {
loadings.1o <- structure(
c(0.755, 0.824, 0.704, 0.493, 0.637, 0.690, 0.768),
.Names = c("oms_1", "oms_2", "oms_3", "oms_4", "oms_5", "oms_6", "oms_7"))
loadings.2o <- structure(
c(0.759, 0.741),
.Names = c("oms_achievement", "oms_recognition"))
df %>%
mutate(oms_achievement_score =
oms_1 * loadings.1o["oms_1"] +
oms_2 * loadings.1o["oms_2"] +
oms_3 * loadings.1o["oms_3"],
oms_recognition_score =
oms_4 * loadings.1o["oms_4"] +
oms_5 * loadings.1o["oms_5"] +
oms_6 * loadings.1o["oms_6"] +
oms_7 * loadings.1o["oms_7"],
oms_total_score =
oms_achievement_score * loadings.2o["oms_achievement"] +
oms_recognition_score * loadings.2o["oms_recognition"])
Appendix C. Exploratory factor analysis (loadings and goodness-of-t metrics)
Appendix D. Conrmatory factor analysis (loadings and goodness-of-t metrics)
Appendix E. Conrmatory factor analysis (full goodness-of-t metrics)
... More recently, authors have advocated an understanding of mattering which goes beyond feeling significant to others and incorporates the contributions that one can make (Jung, 2015;Prilleltensky and Prilleltensky, 2021;Reece et al., 2021). It has been increasingly recognized that mattering is important in various domains of life (i.e., personal, interpersonal, and occupational; Prilleltensky, 2020). ...
... It has been increasingly recognized that mattering is important in various domains of life (i.e., personal, interpersonal, and occupational; Prilleltensky, 2020). Though most research has taken place in the context of interpersonal relationships, researchers have also demonstrated the importance of mattering in the workplace (Reece et al., 2021), in the community (Olcoń et al., 2017), and even to the self . Mattering has also been theorized as a contested construct related to social justice and the public good. ...
... Among university students, mattering creates belonging and alleviates marginalization (Schlossberg, 1989;Huerta and Fishman, 2014). For adults, mattering inspires connection with others (Zeeb and Joffe, 2020) and improves workplace engagement and job success, while reducing burnout (Flett and Zangeneh, 2020;Reece et al., 2021). Mattering also improves the transition to retirement communities (Froidevaux et al., 2016) and protects one's health in later life by moderating the relationship between allostatic load and age (Taylor et al., 2019). ...
... Recently, authors have emphasized an understanding of mattering which goes beyond feeling significant to others and incorporates the contributions one makes (Jung, 2015;Reece et al., 2021). Such an approach would mitigate against the shortcomings of a purely needs-based perspective (Nowell & Boyd, 2010) and better capture the diversity of sources of mattering to which people have access (Prilleltensky, 2020). ...
... Occupational mattering has been the subject of several empirical investigations, including the development of workplace mattering instruments (Jung & Heppner, 2015;Jung & Heppner, 2017;Reece et al., 2021). Findings that mattering is a predictor of employee job status and intent to leave underscore the relevance of mattering in the occupational domain (Reece et al., 2021). ...
... Occupational mattering has been the subject of several empirical investigations, including the development of workplace mattering instruments (Jung & Heppner, 2015;Jung & Heppner, 2017;Reece et al., 2021). Findings that mattering is a predictor of employee job status and intent to leave underscore the relevance of mattering in the occupational domain (Reece et al., 2021). As Flett and Zangeneh (2020) argue, mattering as a protective factor for healthcare workers has taken on special significance in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Full-text available
Mattering, defined as synergistic experiences of feeling valued and adding value, is a psychosocial construct with underappreciated pragmatic potential. It has explanatory relevance across disciplines, domains of life, and social contexts. It is also both parsimonious and far-reaching in uniting areas of concern relevant to community psychologists and the needs, values, and goals of diverse communities. Nevertheless, it has received limited attention in the community psychology (CP) literature. This dissertation will develop and provide empirical support for an ecological understanding of mattering suited to community research and practice. Empirical support is furnished in three studies using large, representative U.S. samples. The first evaluates a novel multidimensional measure of mattering (MIDLS), providing evidence of MIDLS’ validity as a bifactor measure of general and domain-specific mattering. The second study provides evidence of differences between demographic groups in domain-specific mattering. Finally, covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) is used to assess the relationships between multidimensional mattering, fairness, and well-being in six life domains. Findings suggest that mattering fully mediates the relationship between fairness and well-being for all domains investigated except economic well-being. Taken together, these studies show that mattering can be conceived and assessed in multidimensional terms; that doing so can yield novel insights; and that mattering has unique value as an organizing construct which helps map the relationship between key community psychology values and outcomes. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of key limitations and implications as well as next steps for a program of research which can actualize the pragmatic potential of multidimensional mattering for community research and practice.
... More recently, authors have advocated an understanding of mattering which goes beyond feeling significant to others and incorporates the contributions that one can make (Jung, 2015;Prilleltensky and Prilleltensky, 2021;Reece et al., 2021). It has been increasingly recognized that mattering is important in various domains of life (i.e., personal, interpersonal, and occupational; Prilleltensky, 2020). ...
... It has been increasingly recognized that mattering is important in various domains of life (i.e., personal, interpersonal, and occupational; Prilleltensky, 2020). Though most research has taken place in the context of interpersonal relationships, researchers have also demonstrated the importance of mattering in the workplace (Reece et al., 2021), in the community (Olcoń et al., 2017), and even to the self (Prilleltensky, 2020). Mattering has also been theorized as a contested construct related to social justice and the public good. ...
... Among university students, mattering creates belonging and alleviates marginalization (Schlossberg, 1989;Huerta and Fishman, 2014). For adults, mattering inspires connection with others (Zeeb and Joffe, 2020) and improves workplace engagement and job success, while reducing burnout (Flett and Zangeneh, 2020;Reece et al., 2021). Mattering also improves the transition to retirement communities (Froidevaux et al., 2016) and protects one's health in later life by moderating the relationship between allostatic load and age (Taylor et al., 2019). ...
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Research has suggested a fundamental connection between fairness and well-being at the individual, relational, and societal levels. Mattering is a multidimensional construct consisting of feeling valued by, and adding value to, self and others. Prior studies have attempted to connect mattering to both fairness and a variety of well-being outcomes. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that mattering acts as a mediator between fairness and well-being. This hypothesis was tested through Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) using multidimensional measures of fairness, mattering, and well-being. Results from a Latent Path Analysis conducted on a representative sample of 1,051 U.S. adults provide support to our hypothesis by revealing a strong direct predictive effect of mattering onto well-being and a strong indirect effect of fairness onto well-being through mattering. Results also show that mattering is likely to fully mediate the relationship between fairness and multiple domains of well-being, except in one case, namely, economic well-being. These findings illustrate the value of a focus on mattering to understand the relationship between fairness and well-being and to provide future directions for theory, research, and practice. Theoretical implications for the experience of citizenship and participation, along with cross-cultural considerations, are also discussed.
... Research addressing extrinsic mattering within a workplace community includes: female social entrepreneurs in developing countries (Chew et al. 2015); induction programs for school counselor's (Curry and Bickmore 2012); valued as teachers (Richards Gaudreault et al. 2018;Richards et al. 2017); perceived organizational membership (Masterson and Stamper 2003;Pelletier et al. 2015); employees actions matter to their organization (Reece et al. 2019); crowdworking (Bucher et al. 2019); job satisfaction and wellness (Connolly and Myers 2003). ...
... In school settings, the importance of induction programs and access to senior administration staff for staff contributes to experiencing dignity (Curry and Bickmore 2012;Richards et al. 2018). The strength of the dignity relationship is suggested in studies where similar self-valuing measures are found, such as in perceived organizational membership (Masterson and Stamper 2003;Pelletier et al. 2015) and where employees actions matter (Reece et al. 2019). ...
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Humanistic management requires an expansion of economistic management to focus on flourishing for all at work through dignity and well-being. A dignity framework engaging the humanistic management perspective is used to explore mattering in organizational contexts. The framework acknowledges moral and spiritual levels of the human experience and incorporates transcendent and religious motivations, representing a more fully humanistic conception. Existential and interpersonal mattering are linked to various levels of the dignity experience at work, providing a practical way of understanding a highly philosophical concept. Implications of mattering at work for humanistic management research, theory, and practice are discussed. Dignity and mattering provide important, human-centered, relationally-oriented concepts to help us understand how people live and experience their lives at work.
... The second dimension of sense of mattering was measured through the Social Generativity Scale (Morselli & Passini, 2015). Following Reece et al. (2021), we used social generativity as the actionoriented view of sense of adding value, which refers to the perception of an intentional impact of one's actions that benefit the community. The Social Generativity Scale is a unidimensional scale composed of 6 items rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). ...
Community participation can be a potential strategy to increase the degree of the subjective wellbeing of immigrants within receiving societies. This study aims to analyze the relationship between immigrants' community participation and their subjective wellbeing, testing the two dimensions of sense of mattering (feeling valued and adding value) and psychological sense of community as potential mediators of this relationship. A total of 308 first-generation immigrants living in Northern Italy filled out a questionnaire (45.1% were members of a migrant community-based organization). We found that immigrants who are members of a migrant organization show a higher level of subjective wellbeing, sense of mattering, and psychological sense of community than those who are not members. We also found that the sense of adding value and the psychological sense of community serve as mediators of the relationship between community participation and subjective wellbeing. The findings suggest that active participation is positively related to immigrants' feeling useful and capable of contributing to society and their feeling of belonging, which, in turn, are positively related to their subjective wellbeing. Practical implications are presented, focusing on the need for generative social policies to move beyond the welfarist perspective in which immigrants only "receive" to embrace an active perspective in which immigrants can also "give."
... In contrast, three other empirical studies have yielded equivocal evidence. Reece et al. (2021) developed a measure of mattering in organizations and reported that GMS scores were not correlated significantly with a one-item narcissism score. Rose and Kocovski (2021) found a weak and seemingly inexplicable positive correlation between GMS scores and a 10-item forced-choice version of the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI) in research on social self-compassion. ...
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The current study uniquely examines mattering and narcissism and reflects our contention that pathological narcissism involves an excessive need to matter and a hypersensitivity to being devalued and not mattering to other people. Specifically, we evaluated the proposed association between pathological narcissism and deficits in mattering by comparing the results obtained with the Anti-Mattering Scale and the General Mattering Scale. We also evaluated anti-mattering as a potential mediator of the link between narcissism and distress. A sample of 168 university students completed the Anti-Mattering Scale, the General Mattering Scale, the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, and a depression measure. Results confirmed that elevated scores on the Anti-Mattering Scale are associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism as well as depression. Mattering assessed by the General Mattering Scale had a weaker association with narcissism, thus highlighting the distinction between the Anti-Mattering Scale and the General Mattering Scale. Further analyses suggested that elevated Anti-Mattering Scale scores did indeed mediate the link between vulnerable narcissism and depression in keeping with anti-mattering as a factor that elicits the vulnerability of narcissists. Our findings attest to the uniqueness of the Anti-Mattering Scale and illustrate the need to consider the role of feelings of not mattering as a contributor to the self and identity issues and interpersonal sensitivity that contribute to pathological narcissism. This work also suggests the need to emphasize an excessive need to matter when assessing the self and when developing future measures of the need to matter.
... Interviews conducted with nursing home social workers identified role-related mattering as one of four main themes that emerged via qualitative analyses, and mattering was seen as central to personal and professional identity (Lee et al., 2016). These findings and other results are very much in keeping with the contention that mattering is central to organizational health (see Reece et al., 2021). ...
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While the importance of having self-esteem is widely recognized and has been studied extensively, another core component of the self-concept has been relatively neglected—a sense of mattering to other people. In the current article, it is argued that mattering is an entirely unique and complex psychological construct with great public appeal and applied significance. The various ways of assessing mattering are reviewed and evidence is summarized, indicating that mattering is a vital construct in that deficits in mattering are linked with consequential outcomes at the individual level (i.e., depression and suicidal tendencies), the relationship level (i.e., relationship discord and dissolution), and the societal level (i.e., delinquency and violence). Contemporary research is described which shows that mattering typically predicts unique variance in key outcomes beyond other predictor variables. Mattering is discussed as double-edged in that mattering is highly protective but feelings of not mattering are deleterious, especially among people who have been marginalized and mistreated. The article concludes with an extended discussion of key directions for future research and an overview of the articles in this special issue. It is argued that a complete view of the self and personal identity will only emerge after we significantly expand the scope of inquiry on the psychology of mattering.
Purpose The concept of well-being has gained attention in the educational literature over time. Teachers around the globe are leaving the profession because they see their well-being being turned into ashes. Teachers' loss of well-being affects them and other actors of the educational system. The purpose of this paper is to look at teachers' sense of well-being through the lens of the construct of mattering. Design/methodology/approach Twenty-one South American Elementary Level teachers were interviewed for this qualitative study. Findings The paper's results suggest that teachers have experienced a loss of their sense of mattering—this sense of mattering impacts their overall level of well-being. If teachers do not feel valued or feel that they cannot add value, they will not function healthily. The author proposes that to regain their sense of mattering and increase their sense of well-being, teachers need to develop a sense of community further. Originality/value This paper seeks to look at the meta-construct from a more microscopic lens. Therefore, given the elusive nature of well-being, the purpose of this paper is to investigate well-being through the lens of mattering. In this paper, using the lens of mattering helps us focus on work-related manifestations of teachers' well-being in teachers working in elementary schools. Even though there are some empirical studies that have investigated the construct of mattering in educational settings, this author is not aware of empirical studies that have specifically focused on the documentation of teachers' perceived sense of mattering.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı örgütsel affetme eğilimi ve örgütsel sağlık ilişkisi ve örgütsel affetme eğiliminin örgütsel sağlık üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmesidir. Tanımlayıcı nitelikte olan bu çalışma, Yozgat Bozok Üniversitesi Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi’nde görev yapan sağlık çalışanları üzerinde 2021 yılında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak anket tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. Çalışmada basit tesadüfi örneklem yöntemi seçilmiş olup, çalışmaya katılmayı kabul eden 307 sağlık çalışanı ile online platformlar üzerinden veriler toplanmıştır. Toplanan verilerin analizi SPSS 22.00 ve SPSS AMOS 24.00 programları aracılığı ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre örgütsel affetme ile örgütsel sağlık ve alt boyutları arasında anlamlı ilişkilerin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca örgütsel affetmenin örgütsel sağlık üzerinde etkisinin olduğu görülmüştür. Araştırmada model testi olarak yapısal eşitlik modellemesi testi uygulanmıştır. Örgütsel affetme alt boyutları olan affediciliği gerekçelendirme ve affediciliği kabul örgütsel sağlık üzerinde pozitif etkiye sahiptir. Affediciliği ret boyutu ise örgütsel sağlık üzerinde negatif etkiye sahiptir. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar ışığında kurum ve kuruluşlar açısından metafor bir kavram olan örgütsel sağlığı geliştirmeleri için örgütsel affetmenin varlığını benimsemeleri gerekliliği vurgulanmış ve gelecekte yapılacak çalışmalar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between organizational forgiveness tendency and organizational health and the effect of organizational forgiveness tendency on organizational health. This descriptive study was carried out on healthcare professionals working at Yozgat Bozok University Training and Research Hospital in 2021. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection tool in the study. Simple random sampling method was chosen in the study, and data were collected through online platforms with 307 healthcare professionals who agreed to participate in the study. The analysis of the collected data was analyzed through SPSS 22.00 and SPSS AMOS 24.00 programs. According to the findings obtained from the research, it has been determined that there are significant relationships between organizational forgiveness and organizational health and its sub-dimensions. On the other hand, it has been observed that organizational forgiveness has an effect on organizational health. Structural equation modeling test was used as a model test in the research. Organizational forgiveness sub-dimensions, justifying forgiveness and accepting forgiveness, have a positive effect on organizational health. Forgiveness rejection dimension, on the other hand, has a negative effect on organizational health. In the light of the results obtained from the research, the necessity of adopting the existence of organizational forgiveness in order to improve organizational health, which is a metaphoric concept for institutions and organizations, was emphasized and suggestions were made for future studies.
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Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.
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Meaningful work is integral to well-being and a flourishing life. The construct of “meaningful work” is, however, consistently affected by conceptual ambiguity. Although there is substantial support for arguments to maintain the status of conceptual ambiguity, we make a case for the benefits of having consensus on a definition and scale of meaningful work in the context of paid work. The objective of this article, therefore, was twofold. Firstly, we wanted to develop a more integrative definition of meaningful work. Secondly, we wanted to establish a corresponding operationalization. We reviewed the literature on the existing definitions of meaningful work and the scales designed to measure it. We found 14 definitions of meaningful work. Based on these definitions, we identified four categories of definitions, which led us to propose an integrative and comprehensive definition of meaningful work. We identified two validated scales that were partly aligned with the proposed definition. Based on our review, we conclude that scholars in this field should coalesce rather than diverge their efforts to conceptualize and measure meaningful work.
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To address conceptual difficulties and advance research on meaning in life (MIL), it may be useful to adopt a tripartite view of meaning as consisting of comprehension, purpose, and mattering. This paper discusses the development of the Multidimensional Existential Meaning Scale (MEMS), which explicitly assesses these three subconstructs. Results from three samples of undergraduates showed the MEMS to have favorable psychometric properties (e.g. good factor structure and reliability) and demonstrated that it can effectively differentiate the three subconstructs of meaning. Regression and relative importance analyses showed that each MEMS subscale carried predictive power for relevant variables and other meaning measures. Additionally, the MEMS subscales demonstrated theoretically consistent, differential associations with other variables (e.g. dogmatism, behavioral activation, and spirituality). Overall, results suggest that the MEMS may offer more conceptual precision than existing measures, and it may open new avenues of research and facilitate a more nuanced understanding of MIL.
The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)