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Expanding the Concept of Literacy

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... Ministry of Education, 1989, FCT 1992Silverblatt, 2014 2 Hobbs, 1997 Koltay, Rosenbaum, Beentjes, & Konig, 2008 Koltay , Rosenbaum et al., 2008Buckingham, 2003198019901997a Journal of Communication 1998Vol. 48, No. 1 19901990Buckingham, 2003Koltay, 2011Masterman, 19852014Potter, 20101997bBrown, 19982014Brown, 1998Hobbs, 2011aLivingstone, 2004 Bawden 2001 Aufderheide, 1997 Hobbs, 1997Meyrowitz, 1998 Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989FCT 1992 Aufderheide, 1997 Hobbs, 1997Meyrowitz, 1998 1998 Thoman & Jolls, 2004 Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989FCT 1992Potter, 2010 ...
... Ministry of Education, 1989, FCT 1992Silverblatt, 2014 2 Hobbs, 1997 Koltay, Rosenbaum, Beentjes, & Konig, 2008 Koltay , Rosenbaum et al., 2008Buckingham, 2003198019901997a Journal of Communication 1998Vol. 48, No. 1 19901990Buckingham, 2003Koltay, 2011Masterman, 19852014Potter, 20101997bBrown, 19982014Brown, 1998Hobbs, 2011aLivingstone, 2004 Bawden 2001 Aufderheide, 1997 Hobbs, 1997Meyrowitz, 1998 Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989FCT 1992 Aufderheide, 1997 Hobbs, 1997Meyrowitz, 1998 1998 Thoman & Jolls, 2004 Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989FCT 1992Potter, 2010 ...
... Ministry of Education, 1989, FCT 1992Silverblatt, 2014 2 Hobbs, 1997 Koltay, Rosenbaum, Beentjes, & Konig, 2008 Koltay , Rosenbaum et al., 2008Buckingham, 2003198019901997a Journal of Communication 1998Vol. 48, No. 1 19901990Buckingham, 2003Koltay, 2011Masterman, 19852014Potter, 20101997bBrown, 19982014Brown, 1998Hobbs, 2011aLivingstone, 2004 Bawden 2001 Aufderheide, 1997 Hobbs, 1997Meyrowitz, 1998 Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989FCT 1992 Aufderheide, 1997 Hobbs, 1997Meyrowitz, 1998 1998 Thoman & Jolls, 2004 Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989FCT 1992Potter, 2010 ...
Article
The purpose of this review is to investigate the concept of media literacy relative to critical thinking. The findings identified several associations. (1) At the stage of access to media, media literacy research emphasizes the acquisition of skills for device manipulation and knowledge of audiovisual information. In contrast, critical thinking research emphasizes the importance of linguistic ability and indicates that the critical thinking process begins from the decision on whether critical thinking should be used. (2) At the stage of analysis and evaluation of the media information, it is possible that enjoyment of certain content might inhibit critical thinking on that content. (3) At the stage of information transmission, the media use might be characterized by taking action towards others and be more controlled by factors related to social aspects than that of other stages. The implication of these results for future research on media literacy and critical thinking is discussed in detail in this paper.
... The United States National Adult Literacy Survey's definition of literacy states " using printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one's goals and to develop one's knowledge and potential " [cited in 46, p. 91] . In an expanding world of technology and in an increasingly diverse society, this traditional definition fails to account for diverse ways of becoming and being literate including comprehending information through music, storytelling, drama, sign language, media, technology, and personal use and forms of communication such as diaries [47, 48]. These diverse literacies or multiple literacies as they are currently referred to474849 expand traditional notions of literacy as reading and writing to develop cognitive processes to the idea that literacy is social construct [39] developed in multiple ways [50] for social as well as educational purposes [39]. ...
... In an expanding world of technology and in an increasingly diverse society, this traditional definition fails to account for diverse ways of becoming and being literate including comprehending information through music, storytelling, drama, sign language, media, technology, and personal use and forms of communication such as diaries [47, 48]. These diverse literacies or multiple literacies as they are currently referred to474849 expand traditional notions of literacy as reading and writing to develop cognitive processes to the idea that literacy is social construct [39] developed in multiple ways [50] for social as well as educational purposes [39]. Brian Street explains that diverse literacies are often interconnected and expand how learners make sense of the world and construct knowledge [51]. ...
... Brian Street explains that diverse literacies are often interconnected and expand how learners make sense of the world and construct knowledge [51]. In modern society, new literacies include developing personal literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, and information literacy [48], which Douglas Kellner argues are critical to meet the challenges of a multicultural and changing society [49, p. 103]. Culture has been defined in multiple ways during the past century primarily within fields such as anthropology [52, 53], sociology [54], cultural psychology [39, 40], and cultural anthropology [55] . ...
Article
Today's twenty-first-century library and information science (LIS) professionals are faced with the challenge of a growing population of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds, many of whom are from minority and underserved populations rep-resenting the poorest segments of society with little or no experience with libraries. This article argues that although considerable efforts have been made by LIS pro-fessionals to meet the needs of minorities and underserved populations, a cultural competence framework is needed for these efforts to be successful. This article proposes a conceptual framework for developing cultural competence for LIS pro-fessionals and identifies three domains in which cultural competence is developed: cognitive, interpersonal, and environmental. The development of cultural com-petence within these domains is discussed, and essential elements needed to de-velop cultural competence within the domains are identified.
... Media literacy also augments our ability to evaluate information. Like science literacy, media literacy is a complex concept that generally refers to the ability to analyze and evaluate information (14,15), much of which we now access online. Evaluating online information includes considering strategies used to create content; identifying a media producer's purpose and perspective; recognizing the social, political, and historical contexts in which information is created and consumed (14); and determining credibility (16). ...
... Like science literacy, media literacy is a complex concept that generally refers to the ability to analyze and evaluate information (14,15), much of which we now access online. Evaluating online information includes considering strategies used to create content; identifying a media producer's purpose and perspective; recognizing the social, political, and historical contexts in which information is created and consumed (14); and determining credibility (16). Media literacy equips us with the ability to negotiate meaning and engage with information that is available in a variety of media formats. ...
Article
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Many visible public debates over scientific issues are clouded in accusations of falsehood, which place increasing demands on citizens to distinguish fact from fiction. Yet, constraints on our ability to detect misinformation coupled with our inadvertent motivations to believe false science result in a high likelihood that we will form misperceptions. As science falsehoods are often presented with emotional appeals, we focus our perspective on the roles of emotion and humor in the formation of science attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors. Recent research sheds light on how funny science and emotions can help explain and potentially overcome our inability or lack of motivation to recognize and challenge misinformation. We identify some lessons learned from these related and growing areas of research and conclude with a brief discussion of the ethical considerations of using persuasive strategies, calling for more dialogue among members of the science communication community.
... Hobbs states that literacy defined as such would restore the important connection between school and culture, making education more relevant to the communities in which students belong. Besides, it reflects the kind of authentic learning which occurs when reading and writing take place in contexts where «process, product and content are interrelated» (Edelsky, Altwerger and Flores, 1991: 9 cited in Hobbs, 2001). In this view, language skills and learning are conceived of as being inherently social processes, requiring direct engagement and experience tied to meaningful activity (Hobbs, 2001: 172). ...
... The ensuing argument is that if media education is a part of an education for responsible citizenship to which every child has a right then its incorporation in an established part of education is the most effective way to achieve the goal. Linking media literacy to educational reform and authentic learning could assist to achieve multicultural educational goals by developing close links between the classroom, the home, and the community (Hobbs, 2001). ...
Chapter
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... Among academics, there is no consensus about which approach should be preferred. The interdisciplinary approach has been praised due to the fact that it does not rely on hiring new staff, which makes it more accessible, and can allow for the use of media content to enhance the teaching of other disciplines (Hobbs 1997). It has also been shown that the inclusion of media literacy into the syllabus of writing classes had a significant positive effect on students' abilities to identify the key ideas in an article (Hobbs & Frost 2003). ...
... Question 122 from 2011 and question 30 from 2013 present texts from different sources on the same subject and ask students to compare the two opinions. Although there is no reference to a political agenda behind the texts, which would be required in a more radical approach to media literacy education, these questions are consistent with Hobbs's (1997) suggestion that the media content should not only be presented, but also discussed and criticized. ...
... Critical analysis and interpretation help citizens make informed and less emotional decisions about mediated information. Empowering consumers with information management skills can bring about constructive change and increase the positive aspects of media use (Cortés, 2000;Hobbs, 2001;Kellner, 1998b;Potter, 1998;Silverblatt, 1995). As Kilbourne (1999) noted, "in recent years, there has been increasing understanding of the relationship of media literacy to substance abuse, violence and other societal problems. ...
... 274). Hobbs (2001) pointed to how portfolio based models of assessment are consistent with the idea of developing multiple literacies in students, so students can make direct connections between their reading, writing, viewing, and analysis of images, and the process of creating messages using various symbols (p. 178). ...
... Texts are social/cultural constructions built from a wide range of aspects that not only vary, but perhaps even contradict (Hobbs, 1996;Frost, 2003, Tyner, 2001). Deconstruction, a critical practice which focuses on these contradictions and examines multiple meanings, brings to the forefront that readers construct these meanings and they are neither explicit nor impartial. ...
... Kubey and Baker (2000) and Baker (2004) noted that nearly all states refer to aspects of media literacy or media education within their standards and benchmarks; however, the term-media literacy‖ may not be explicitly used. Media literacy education is an approach that emphasizes constructivist, interdisciplinary, collaborative, and inquiry-based processes of learning ( Alvermann et al., 1999;Bazalgette, 1993;Brunner & Tally, 1999;Considine & Haley, 1999;Hobbs, 1996;Hobbs, 2005;Masterman, 1985;Watts Pailliotet & Mosenthal, 2000). Media literacy education involves cognition processes used in critical thinking related to language, literature, and other disciplines in the liberal arts, such as perception, reflection, reasoning, and evaluation (Brown, 1998). ...
Article
This study investigated the impact of a media literacy education plan on the reading test scores of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) at an urban high school in Central Florida. A team of 9th and 10th grade teachers created a professional learning community and developed a treatment to enhance language arts instruction with various forms of media. This media literacy education plan included four lessons utilizing media such as television commercials, magazine photographs and the Internet; the lessons were taught during the four months leading to the administration of the 2007 FCAT. Data were gathered from the 2006 and 2007 FCAT scores of students in a control and treatment group. Using these pre test and post test data, statistical analysis comprised two independent t-tests and one repeated measures ANOVA. The data revealed statistical significance at the 9th and 10th grade level, but did not show statistical significance at any particular reading level (Levels 1-5). Implications from this study included strong professional learning communities produce effective teachers and that student achievement increases when a media literacy education plan is included in English Language Arts instruction. Furthermore, this study illustrates the need to embrace modern media as viable classroom instructional tools. Recommendations were made for further research utilizing different materials, different forms of media, different student populations. This study also concluded that further qualitative research be conducted. Ultimately, this study makes a strong argument for the inclusion of media and media literacy education in the secondary English Language Arts classroom.
... Language learning with new literacy perspectives in universities in the Industrial Revolution Era requires universities to implement new literacy (data literacy, technological literacy, and human literacy) (Aoun, 2017;Hobbs, 2018;Jalinus, 2021;Khan et al., 2021). In addition to increasing student understanding of linguistic material, new literacy improves writing and speaking skills based on data and technology. ...
Article
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This study raises the issue of how to improve speaking skills using the smartphone-based Pinterest application for second-semester students. The purpose of this study was to determine the improvement of speaking skills using the smartphone-based Pinterest application for second-semester students. The type of research used in this research is Classroom Action Research (CAR). The research subjects are second-semester students. The research instruments are an observation sheet and a performance test sheet. The data analysis technique used is the descriptive statistical technique. The results of the study on second-semester students, experienced a good increase from the learning outcomes of the first cycle to the second cycle, with the standard value of student learning mastery of 85 classical standards. The average value in the first cycle is 48.00 with the level of completeness of learning outcomes in the first cycle of 10% and 90% incomplete. While the learning outcomes in the second cycle with an average value of 85.46 with the completeness level of learning outcomes in the second cycle of 96%, this figure indicates that the average value of the first cycle and the second cycle has increased so that the smartphone-based Pinterest application in improving speaking skills can improve student learning outcomes. HIGHLIGHTS: • Student skills in terms of pressure on speechreading and host script reading have gone up by 2.03; • Student skills in terms of grammatical aspects have gone up by 2.2; • Students' speaking skills in terms of vocabulary have gone up by 2.04;
... Im Lauf der Zeit haben sich unterschiedlich akzentuierte Konzeptionen von media literacy entwickelt, die mit verschieden pädagogisch-didaktischen Implikationen und Zielsetzungen einhergehen und in unterschiedlichen Graden medienkritische Bezüge aufweisen (vgl. hierzu Grafe, 2011;Hobbs, 2008; Potter (2010) war das media literacy-Modell von Hobbs (1997;2017a), die neben Jenkins (2006) sowie Mihailidis und Thevenin (2013) Bewertung ebendieser vor dem Hintergrund des jeweiligen sozialen, politischen, historischen, ökonomischen, und kulturellen Kontexts vorzunehmen (vgl. Hobbs, 2011, S. 14). ...
Thesis
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Im Fokus dieser Arbeit stehen drei Studien, die sich basierend auf den Prinzipien gestaltungsorientierter Bildungsforschung auf die Entwicklung, Durchführung und Evaluation zweier Unterrichtskonzepte zur Förderung von Medienkritikfähigkeit im Kontext zeitgenössischer Propaganda beziehen. Studie 1 widmet sich der praxis- und theorieorientierten Entwicklung und Evaluation eines fächerübergreifenden Unterrichtskonzepts für die zehnte Jahrgangsstufe an Gymnasien zur Förderung propagandaspezifischer Medienkritik- und Analysefähigkeit. Die auf Basis des Konzepts entwickelte unterrichtliche Handlungslinie nahm vor allem extremistische Propagandabeispiele in den Blick und wurde im Sozialkunde- und Englischunterricht umgesetzt. Die Evaluation erfolgt unter Verwendung von Mixed Methods und belegt die Wirksamkeit des Unterrichtskonzepts. Studie 2 resultiert aus einer Iteration von Studie 1 und behandelt die Entwicklung und Evaluation eines fachspezifischen Unterrichtskonzepts zur Förderung allgemeiner Medienkritikfähigkeit von Schüler*innen der zehnten Jahrgangsstufe an Gymnasien. Die Umsetzung des Unterrichtskonzepts im Englischunterricht ermöglichte eine stärkere Akzentsetzung auf Propagandaformen der gezielten Desinformation und belegt mit Blick auf die Ergebnisse dieser Mixed Methods-Studie die Zielerreichung der Förderung von Medienkrititkfähigkeit. Studie 3 widmet sich der differenzierten Darstellung und Evaluation der Gestaltung von Counter-Narrativen, die einen elementaren Bestandteil in beiden Unterrichtskonzepten ausmacht. Die vor dem Hintergrund theoretischer Grundlagen zu (Counter-)Narrativen und zur Mediengestaltung aus medienkritischer Perspektive entwickelten Produkte wurden mithilfe verschiedener Techniken der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen unter anderem, dass medienkritische Fähigkeiten im Rahmen der Gestaltung der Counter-Narrative angewandt wurden und unabhängig vom jeweiligen Grad an Narrativität zu identifizieren waren.
... 98, No. 20, p. 12. 40 As formulated here: ŠEBESTA, K.: Výchova komunikační a výchova mediální. In Český jazyk a literatura, 1995-1996 ŠEBESTA, K.: Od jazyka ke komunikaci: Didaktika českého jazyka a komunikační výchova. Praha : Karolinum, 1999, p. 129. 42 For more information, see: BAACKE, D.: Kommunikation und Kompetenz: Grundlegung einer Didaktik der Kommunikation und ihrer Medien. ...
Article
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Nowadays mediatised society, with significant grow of popularity of so-called new media, calls for a new or at least innovated media (literacy) education. In this study I challenge this assumption and critically approach the current state. In my text, I review the current discussion in the Czech Republic, as well as historical mediaeducational moments, which I consider crucial and exemplary in order to showcase the fragmentation of the whole field. I point out the elementary educational principles and their more or less explicit inclusion of media, as already formulated by Comenius in the 17th century. Further in the text I focus on the didactical use of film at schools and the aesthetically framed film education of both the 1960s and 2010 (when it was introduced to the school curricula). This leads me to a critical analysis of the curricular Media Education as it has been introduced to the whole Czech system of formal education since 2006. By discussing these three fragments, I create a momentum of continuity within the field; a continuity that provides a rich body of theoretical framing(s), terminological and practical experience and tools. This enables me to advocate for an integrated, historically rooted approach to media (literacy) education which will be not only suitable for the current situation of traditional and new media, but will also be capable to adjust educational actions with less effort and less fragmentation to the future development of media.
... Beyond the general conceptualization of literacy as an ability to read and write, researchers have defined and investigated numerous types of literacy including: computer, cultural, digital, functional , media, and visual (Aufderheide, 1993; Eisenberg, Lowe, & Spitzer Kathleen, 2004; Elmborg, 2006; Hobbs, 1996; Kellner, 2004; D. Moore & Dwyer, 1994 ). An overarching conceptualization of information literacy is adequate for the purposes of this study. ...
Article
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Colleges and universities are increasingly being called upon to demonstrate that they are indeed educating students and to justify the increasing tuition fees they charge (Education Consortium, 2006). Using data collected as part of the 2005 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), this study examines the relationship between the assignment of higher order thinking activities during programs of study and student perceptions of the extent to which their universities have contributed to their general academic development and job preparation. The empirical evidence provided by this study indicates that the extra efforts faculty exert to engage their students in higher order thinking activities make a difference and are acknowledged, at least implicitly, by students as contributing to the development of critical life skills.
... The moves in the direction of an approach which views reading as socially situated (Baynham 1995) need to be extended to include a wide range of texts such as those drawn from popular and traditional culture (Prinsloo and Ashworth 1994;Lankshear 1997;Hobbs 1997) and from advertising materials. ...
... Various writers have described key concepts of media literacy (e.g., Hobbs, 1997) and basic questions to ask about any media message (e.g., Thoman, 1999). We have found the following set of questions to work well with students from elementary school through college: ...
Article
Media literacy can be used effectively as a pedagogical approach for teaching core content across the K-12 curriculum, thus meeting the needs of both teachers and students by promoting critical thinking, communication, and technology skills. This article focuses on the work of Project Look Sharp at Ithaca College, a media literacy initiative working primarily with school districts in upstate New York. Basic principles and best practices for using a curriculum-driven approach are described, with specific examples from social studies, English/language arts, math, science, health, and art, along with methods of assessment used to address effectiveness in the classroom.
... Some scholars have focused on the cultural level and argued that the media create a false consciousness in society to further their own ideological agenda (Alvarado & Boyd-Barrett, 1992; Bazalgette, Bevort, & Savino, 1992; Brown, 1991; Masterman, 1980 Masterman, , 1985), and media literacy is therefore seen as a way to empower individuals to be able to read media texts better (Buckingham, 1990; Messaris, 1994; Meyrowitz, 1998; Potter, 2001; Zettl, 1998) or to be able to identify the ideologies underlying media messages (Buckingham, 1998; Lewis & Jhally, 1998 ). Scholars have written about the need for the institution of education to focus more attention on media literacy (Anderson, 1980; Bazalgette, 1989; Blanchard & Christ, 1993; Buckingham, 1998; Christ & Blanchard, 1994; Hobbs, 1997; Kubey, 1997; Limburg, 1994; McLaren, Hammer, Sholle, & Reilly, 1995; Piette & Giroux, 1997; Sholle & Denski, 1994; Silverblatt, 1995; Sinatra, 1986). And some organizations have advocated a stronger public policy on media literacy (Aufderheide, 1993; Speech Communication Association, 1996). ...
Article
The thesis of this article is that the individual should be regarded as the locus of media literacy—not schools, parents, or the media industries. Furthermore, the article argues that it is not sufficient to educate individuals about the nature of the media and the potential harm of various messages. There is an issue more fundamental than education and that is the building of greater understanding about how the human mind works. Therefore, we need a cognitive theory that will focus on the special characteristics of media exposure and will explain how people filter messages and construct meaning from those messages.
... Children spend almost as much time watching television, listening to music, playing video games, and/or surfing the Internet as they do in school. Scholars in media studies have suggested the need to expand the notion of literacy beyond reading and writing to encompass media literacy, which is a critical understanding of the media (Hobbs, 1997). The field of media literacy examines methods designed to critically "access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate, media messages (Kubey, 1997, p. 2-3). ...
Article
To understand the role the media play in educational politics, it useful to consider the media's role in a participatory democracy. The concept of the news media as "thin" public sphere serves as a pragmatic theoretical lens through which to examine the possibility that the media might play a critical but limited role in participatory democracy. The focus of this special issue is not to enter the fray in the debate over media bias but instead to draw attention to the important role that the media play in educational politics and to make a case for research that is attentive to the intersection of educational politics and media coverage.
... With the burgeoning interest in encompassing authentic learning and Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) paradigm into the sphere of language learning (e.g., Goodman and Goodman, 1990; Hobbs, 2001), it is anticipated that the inter-meshing of CALL and mobile learning can become a viable solution to blend learners' learning environment into their real-life contexts. The ready-to-hand access of mobile devices, which could function as a personal ―learning hub‖ (Wong, Chin, Tan, Liu and Gong, in-press), creates the potential for a new wave of evolution of technology-enhanced learning, characterized by ―seamless learning spaces‖ (Chan et al., 2006, p.3). ...
Article
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In recent years, we witness the rise of communicative and contextualized approaches in language learning theories concomitant with developments in the paradigm of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL). In this paper, we present two novel case studies in MALL that emphasize "creative learner outputs". In learning English prepositions and Chinese idioms respectively, students in the two studies used mobile devices on a 1:1 basis to capture photos of the real-life contexts pertaining to the prepositions or idioms, and to construct sentences with them. Subsequently, in-class or online sharing and discussions took place, enhancing the students' understanding in the proper usage of the prepositions or idioms. The learning designs are grounded in the seamless learning model [1] that encompasses in-class formal learning and out-of-class informal setting, and personal and social learning spaces. The student learning processes and artifacts have manifested some indicators of "seamless language learning" that has the potential of transforming language learning into an authentic learning experience.
... A fairly common and broad concept of media literacy is defined by Potter This definition is a bit broader than the usual ones, such as those of Pattison (1982), Aufderheide (1993), Silverblatt (1995, Messaris (1998) and Meyrowitz (1998), that purely define media literacy in terms of knowledge of the media. Potter and some others such as Hobbs (1996), Brown (1998) and Adams & Hamm (2001) add the notion of skill. Potter (2004, p. 59) lists a number of skills of media production and seven primary cognitive skills required to attain knowledge: Potter and many others working with the traditional concept of media literacy develop a cognitive view on literacy. ...
Conference Paper
Although traditional and digital media skills contain many similarities, digital media literacy increases the differences observed in traditional literacy. On the one hand computers and the Internet make things easier as they enable systematic information retrieval from innumerable sources simultaneously. At the other hand computers and the Internet make information seeking and improving literacy more difficult as they assume a number of new operational and formal skills to start with. Additionally, they require particular information and strategic skills that partly are different from those required for the use of traditional media. All four skills taken together probably make the gap between people with different educational, occupational and age backgrounds bigger in the new than in the traditional media. Very few operational definitions and measurements of traditional media literacy are available. In this paper a general framework has been proposed to define and measure media literacy that can be applied to both traditional and digital media. The similarities of literacies have been emphasized: they all require operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The differences are caused by the characteristics of the medium under consideration and by the social and usage context that inspire special attention to particular skills.
... Children grow up in a culture where most of their information and entertainment comes through the mass media, and teachers can promote the development of critical thinking skills by using television and video materials as texts to be interrogated and analyzed (Buckingham, 2003). Media literacy skills can be developed by asking critical questions about media messages, comparing newspapers to TV news, analyzing patterns of representation in documentaries, or studying television and film adaptations of literature (Aufderheide, 1993;Hobbs, 1996). But these practices might be misunderstood or unappreciated if large numbers of teachers use videotapes or other mass media resources to fill time, as a reward for good behavior, or as a substitute teacher. ...
Article
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This paper examines some instructional practices concerning the non-optimal uses of video, films and other mass media in the K–12 classroom. Based on a six-year process of observing and interviewing teachers regularly in two school districts in Massachusetts, USA, this paper presents a typology of seven common patterns of non-optimal media use, instructional practices that diminish or weaken the value of film and video viewing as a learning tool. A telephone survey was conducted with a purposive sample of 130 middle-school and high-school teachers to provide additional evidence concerning teacher perceptions of the frequency of their colleagues' non-optimal use of video. Teachers in the USA report that their colleagues frequently use media for non-educational purposes, including to fill time, to keep students quiet, as a break from learning, or as a reward for good behavior. The implications of non-optimal media use are considered in light of renewed interest in integrating media literacy into K–12 instruction.
... With the burgeoning interest in encompassing authentic learning and mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) paradigm into the sphere of language learning (e.g. Goodman & Goodman 1990; Hobbs 2001), it is anticipated that the inter-meshing of CALL and mobile learning can become a viable solution to blend learners' learning environment into their real-life contexts. The ready-to-hand access of mobile devices, which could function as a personal 'learning hub' (Wong et al. 2010), creates the potential for a new wave of evolution of technology-enhanced learning, characterized by 'seamless learning spaces' (Chan et al. 2006, p. 3 ). ...
Article
In recent years, we have witnessed the concomitant rise of communicative and contextualized approaches as well as the paradigmatic development of the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) framework in analysing language learning. The focus of MALL research has gradually shifted from content-based (delivery of learning content through mobile devices) to design-oriented (authentic and/or social mobile learning activities) study. In this paper, we present two novel case studies of MALL that emphasize learner-created content. In learning English prepositions and Chinese idioms, respectively, the primary school students used the mobile devices assigned to them on a one-to-one basis to take photos in real-life contexts so as to construct sentences with the newly acquired prepositions or idioms. Subsequently, the learners were voraciously engaged in classroom or online discussion of their semantic constructions, thereby enhancing their understanding of the proper usage of the prepositions or idioms. This work shows the potential of transforming language learning into an authentic seamless learning experience.
... Therefore, MLE focuses both on the construction of mass media and the messages it transmits. Hobbs (1996) and Aufderheide (1993) outlined five core concepts addressed by media literacy education programs: & All media are constructed with specific purposes for specific audiences. & Media construct (and are constructed by) representations of reality. ...
Article
The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers’ to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability. KeywordsSocio-scientific–Media–Sustainability
... Medya okuryazarlığı ile ilgilenen eğitimciler, muhakeme ve iletişim becerilerini geliştirmeyi (Brunner ve Smith, 1994; Hobbs, 1996), ırk, sınıf ve toplumsal cinsiyet eşitsizlikleri ile yüzleşmeyi (Eriksen-Terzian, 1992), demokrasi, yurttaşlık ve siyasal katılıma yönelik tutumları geliştirmeyi (Carnes, 1996; Jospin, 1992; Landa, 1992; Morduchowitz, 1997; Newspaper Association of America, 1995; Sandroni, 1992), iletişim siyasası ve/ya da medya endüstrisi uygulamalarını yeniden biçimlendirmeyi (Center for Media Education, 1997; Kumar, 1992), kişisel gelişimi kolaylaştırmayı (Mendez ve Reyes, 1992), gençler arasındaki madde kullanımını ve şiddeti önlemeyi (Carnegie Council of Adolescent Development, 1995; Gorley, 1997; ONDCP, 1996), meslek becerilerini artırmayı (Freedom Froum, 1994), inanç ve toplumsal adalet sorunlarını gündeme getirmeyi (Center for Media Literacy, 1993; Mahony, 1992), materyalizm ve kültürün metalaştırılması konularında farkındalığı telkin etmeyi (Boihem ve Emmanouildes, 1996; Citizens for Media Literacy, 1993) ve eğitimin niteliğini iyileştirmeyi (Dichanz, 1995; Hobbs, 1998c; Piette ve Giroux, 1996) içeren, geniş bir çeşitlilikteki hedefleri, güdüleri ve amaçları benimseyebilirler ve benimsemektedirler. Anababaların popüler kültürü temsil eden " basit yığını " na ( " avalanche of crud " ) ilişkin kaygıları, yetişkinlerin, çocukların medya erişimlerini denetleme yetersizlikleriyle ilgili genel kaygıyla birlikte son yıllarda yeniden canlanmış durumdadır (Denby, 1996). ...
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