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European Union Directive 2002/49/EC relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise (named as END) in article 6 paragraph 3 states that "harmful effects may be assessed by means of dose-effect relations referred to in ANNEX III". In this still unfinished ANNEX III there are formulas which present how to calculate the number of people affected by a given noise. The dose-effect relations have been recently presented in WHO document "Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region". These Guidelines allow to predict the percentage of people who will be affected by a specific kind of noise. E.g. it is shown how to calculate the percentage of highly annoyed people for a given value of noise index, Lden. In our paper we propose how to calculate the total number of people affected by noise in their living conditions and discuss the implementation of methods recommended in ANNEX III in Poland.
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Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (1 of 8)
Estimating the Population Exposed to Transportation Noise:
a Case Study on Poznań City
Anna PREIS
Institute of Acoustics, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland,
apraton@amu.edu.pl
Jan FELCYN
Institute of Acoustics, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland,
janaku@amu.edu.pl
Piotr KOKOWSKI
Akustix sp. z o.o., Przeźmierowo, Poland
Michał GAŁUSZKA
Akustix sp. z o.o., Przeźmierowo, Poland
Paweł LIBISZEWSKI
Akustix sp. z o.o., Przeźmierowo, Poland
Abstract
European Union Directive 2002/49/EC relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise
(named as END) in article 6 paragraph 3 states that “harmful effects may be assessed by means of dose-effect
relations referred to in ANNEX III”. In this still unfinished ANNEX III there are formulas which present how to
calculate the number of people affected by a given noise. The dose-effect relations have been recently presented
in WHO document “Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region”. These Guidelines allow to
predict the percentage of people who will be affected by a specific kind of noise. E.g. it is shown how to calculate
the percentage of highly annoyed people for a given value of noise index, Lden. In our paper we propose how to
calculate the total number of people affected by noise in their living conditions and discuss the implementation
of methods recommended in ANNEX III in Poland.
Keywords: ANNEX III, number of people affected by noise
1. Introduction
The main purpose of the Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region [1] is
to provide recommendations for protecting human health from exposure to environmental
noise originating from various noise sources. EU Member States agreed that
recommendations from these guidelines should be observed in constructing the revision
of ANNEX III of the Environmental Noise Directive (END). The recommendations
introduced in the working version of ANNEX III [2] refer only to noise produced by three
kinds of transportation sources: road traffic, railway and aircraft. The recommended Lden
values for these three kinds of environmental noise sources could be a preventative
measure for the occurrence of four specific types of harmful health effects associated with
high noise levels: ischaemic heart disease, stroke, high annoyance and high sleep
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (2 of 8)
disturbance. Such harmful effects may be assessed by means of dose-effect relations
presented in WHO document, as well as, in the ANNEX III (Equations (3) to (20)).
The basic aim of ANNEX III is to define the best assessment method for calculating
the number of people affected by noise produced by various transportation noise sources.
The proposed methods are quantitative and are designed to calculate separately the number
of inhabitants exposed to each of the three kinds of transportation noise. These calculated
values can later be ranked according to the relative importance of a particular noise source.
In sum, ANNEX III contains methods allowing to calculate the number of people
affected by three kinds of noise sources with respect to four types of harmful effects.
However, the guidelines neglect the data informing about the population structure of the
considered urban area. Therefore it is not possible to calculate the relationship between
the number of affected people and their living conditions. For example, the regulations in
ANNEX III do not allow to relate a given place in a city to highly annoyed people exposed
to road traffic. Such data are important in constructing an efficient action plan which
recommends means to reduce noise in a given area in a city under consideration.
The higher the number of highly annoyed people in a given area the more vital is the action
towards reduction of noise. Since ANNEX III is still unfinished it should be decided if it
should focus on a general or a more specific solution. The first, general approach will
consist in proposing methods allowing to calculate the total number of highly annoyed
people in a whole city. In such a case, one has to answer the question how these
calculations can be used in constructing an efficient action plan? The second, specific
approach will demand much more work, but would be easier to implement.
2. Methodological problems in a working version of the Annex III document
Before ANNEX III will be established as a law in noise management some important
methodological problems should be addressed. We will discuss one of them.
The document assumes that harmful effects of noise causing an increase in the risk of
ischaemic heart disease (IHD), as well as an increase in the risk of stroke (STR), can be
quantified by the relative risk. This assumption can be presented in the form of
the following equation:
 

(1)
where RR is the probability of an event occurring (e.g. developing a disease) in the exposed
group to the probability of the event occurring in the non-exposed group. The RR values
are calculated for each kind of noise source separately.
The calculations of RR for a given harmful effect and noise source require insertion
in the equation of (1) the specific values of Lden at which risk of IHD or STR starts.
An example of such specified equation for the incidence rate of the IHD for road traffic
is:
   

(2)
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (3 of 8)
Values for other kinds of noise sources and harmful effects could be calculated without
problems. The problem arises when we want to calculate the number of people affected
by given harmful effect caused by particular noise source - 
  
(3)
  
(4)
where PAFx,y is the population attributable fraction, P is the total population of the area
under assessment (the sum of the population in the different noise bands). To perform
these calculations we need data of incidence rate, Ly and mortality rate, My. These data
should be obtained from statistics on health region or country where the area is located.
However, in some countries (e.g. in Poland) such data are difficult or even impossible to
obtain.
This problem does not occur, when two other harmful effects: high annoyance (HA)
and high sleep disturbance (HSD) are taken into consideration. These harmful effects can
be quantified by the absolute risk (AR) defined as: “Occurrence of the harmful effect in
a population exposed to a specific level of environmental noise”. There are well known
equations (see: (7), (8) and (9)) for three different kinds of noise sources which can be
used for the quantification of the number of highly annoyed (HA) people. Similar
equations (see: (10), (11) and (12)) could be applied in calculations of the number of highly
sleep disturbed (HSD) people.
For HA and HSD the total number N of people affected by the harmful effect y (number
of attributable cases) due to the source x is derived (for each combination of noise source
x - road, railway, aircraft, and harmful effect y - HA, HSD) by the following equation:
  
(5)
where ARx,y is the absolute risk of specific harmful effect (HA, HSD) and nj is the number
of people that are exposed to the j-th exposure band of noise. What needs clarification is
the decision which approach to choose: general or specific. What should be calculated:
the number of affected people for the whole city or the number for a given area in the city?
3. The current, legally recommended in Poland, method of calculation of the number
of people affected by noise
Noise maps in Poland are calculated for five kinds of noise sources separately: tram,
railway, road, aircraft and industry noise. In addition, the map for each kind of noise source
has several layers with different noise level recommendations. Within each layer the
places (expressed in a number of people in a given layer - m) where the recommended Lden
value is exceeded are identified. For these places the difference (∆L) between the actual
Lden value and the recommended one is calculated. These parameters are input values for
the equation for index M, which is related to the number of people exposed to a given
kinds of noise source:
   
(6)
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (4 of 8)
The difficulty in calculating index M is that there are no rules how to relate its value
to the different areas. As can be seen from equation (6) neither the number of people
exposed to a given noise source nor the dose response relationship for different harmful
effects are calculated.
4. Environmental noise guidelines implementation in Poland. A case of Poznań
In our opinion, the environmental noise guidelines can currently be implemented in Poland
in a limited form, only for two harmful effects: high annoyance (HA) and high sleep
disturbance (HSD). Our calculations are performed for three kinds of noise sources: road
traffic, rail noise (rails + trams) and aircraft noise.
To assess the actual number of (HA) or (HSD) people in the studied area it is
recommended to use local exposure response function (ERF) (the exposure response
function was earlier called dose-response relationship). However, in Poland such data are
not available. In such case the generalized ERFs (cf. questions 7 to 13) can be applied.
We decided to divide the whole city of Poznań into squares 200x200 m. There are
6902 squares which cover the whole city ~262 km2. Each square represents one point
in the maps of HA and HSD people. The results are presented in a form of two different
maps (for %HA and %HSD respectively) and as two numbers: %HA and %HSD, for the
whole Poznań.
The new acoustic map for Poznan constructed along these lines has already been
calculated. The results of these new calculations will be compared to the M values
calculated earlier.
4.1. Calculations of the number of highly annoyed people due to road, railway and aircraft
noise
The input data to this calculations are the number of residents of the given square
in Poznań exposed to each kind of noise source, in 5 dB classes ranging from 55 dB to
at least 75 dB Lden . Using the ERF for high annoyance, for each kind of noise source
separately, the absolute risk (AR) of HA people for each Lden value was calculated.
By multiplying this AR value by the total number of people exposed to a given Lden
we obtain the number of HA people. Having those two numbers: the number of people
exposed to a given value of Lden and the number of HA people, it is possible to calculate
the %HA people for each Lden.
There are three equations which should be applied to calculate the AR value for road
traffic, railway and aircraft noise:
      

(7)
      

(8)
      

(9)
These equations are valid under the assumption that the harmful effects of noise
causing high annoyance start at: Lden = 40 dB for road traffic, Lden = 34 dB for railway noise
and Lden = 33 dB for aircraft noise. To obtain the number of %HA people in a given square
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (5 of 8)
area we have to divide the number of all people exposed to a given kind of noise source
(for all Lden values in a given square area), by the number of HA people in this same area
and multiply it by 100. The same procedure should be repeated for each specific noise
source. The maps showing the percentage of %HA people and the M index for three kinds
of noise sources are presented in Fig. 2(a), (b), (c) respectively.
Figure. 1. Noise map of Poznań representing %HA people and index M,
exposed to the (a) road traffic noise, (b) rail noise and (c) aircraft noise
As can be seen from the Figure 1, the method of calculations proposed here is much
more precise than predictions based on the M index. The number of highly annoyed people
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (6 of 8)
is higher than predicted with M index and the endangered areas are delimited more
accurately (see also Table 1.).
4.2. Calculations of the number of highly sleep disturbed people due to road, railway and
aircraft noise
The same procedure was applied when calculating the number of highly sleep disturbed
(HSD) people. There are three equations which should be applied to calculate the AR value
for road traffic, railway and aircraft noise:
      

(10)
      

(11)
      

(12)
These equations are valid under the assumption that harmful effects of noise causing
sleep disturbance start at: Lnight = 43 dB for road traffic, Lnight = 43 dB for railway noise
and Lnight = 33 dB for aircraft noise. The maps presenting %HSD people for three kinds of
noise sources are presented in Fig. 2(a), (b), (c) respectively. Analyzing the diagrams
in Fig. 2 a similar conclusions can be drawn. The number of highly sleep disturbed people
is higher than predicted with M index and the endangered areas are delimited more
accurately. In the case of aircraft noise the endangered areas in the maps are similar to
those delimited with the index M, but the number of affected people is larger than index
M predicts.
4.3. Calculations of the number of highly annoyed and highly sleep disturbed people for
the whole city of Poznań
In a generalized approach to HA and HSD harmful effects of noise for the whole city
we calculated one value for each kind of noise source separately. These values can be
compared to the values obtained with the M index. Table 1. shows that the use of index M
results in the underestimated number of HA and HSD people.
Table 1. The %HA and %HSD people, the absolute number of HA and HSD
and index M calculated for three kinds of noise sources for the whole city of Poznań
Source
% of HA
M for Lden
% of HSD
N of HSD
M for Lnight
Road noise
10.92
11 014.1
3.26
16 601.0
8 843.1
Rail noise
0.27
119.5
0.73
3 714.0
147.5
Air noise
1.08
747.2
0.04
219.2
112.3
4.4. Calculations of the number of highly annoyed and highly sleep disturbed people due
to two or more concurrent noise sources
It is well known that in everyday life people are exposed to noise that is produced by
several different sources. The question is: how can we calculate the overall harmful effects
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (7 of 8)
Figure 2. Noise map of Poznań representing percentage and index M of highly sleep
disturbed people exposed to the (a) road traffic noise, (b) rail noise and (c) aircraft noise
generated concurrently by two or three noise sources? Based on the results of our
preliminary study [3] we propose the summation of the number of people exposed to
different kinds of noise sources at the same time with a special weighting. The weighting
depends on deciding which noise source is dominant. Generally, we take into account
100% of people for the dominant sound source and 50%, 25% or 0% for the other noise
sources. Such summation was performed for the HA harmful effect. For the HSD effect
we simply summed up, with equal weight, the number of people HSD from all three kinds
Vibrations in Physical Systems 2019, 30, 2019120 (8 of 8)
of noise sources. The map representing the HA and HSD people from all noise sources is
presented in Fig. 3.
Figure 3. Noise map of Poznań representing the percentage of highly annoyed (a)
and highly sleep disturbed (b) people
5. Conclusions
In this study we presented a case study of an implementation of the assessment methods
for harmful effects of noise proposed in ANNEX III. Our study allows for the following
conclusions:
Two out of four harmful effects recommended in ANNEX III can be considered
in the assessment process in Poland. These are: high annoyance (HA) and high sleep
disturbance (HDS). The results of our calculations are presented both in the form of
maps displaying the endangered areas, and generally as the number of the HA and
HDS people in the whole city of Poznań
The numbers of highly annoyed and highly sleep disturbed people were calculated
based on the well documented exposure response functions. The hitherto calculated
L value (equation (6)) which is used for calculation of the index M has no reference
to any harmful effects.
We have shown that calculated number of HA and HSD people significantly differs
from the one calculated with index M
Finally, we propose a new method of summation of the number of people affected by
two or more concurrent noise sources.
References
1. Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region. World Health
Organization 2018, ISBN 978 92 890 5356 3.
2. ANNEX III on the establishment of assessment methods for the harmful effects of noise
according to Directive 2002/49/EC -working version of the document, 2019.
3. J. Felcyn, Model of total annoyance due to combined transportation sound sources
in simulated noise scenarios 2019, PhD Thesis, UAM Poznań.
... However, proper spatial planning of areas near railway lines should include consideration of their actual impact on the environment. Noise is the primary and most substantial risk (Makosz 2015;Podawca & Staniszewski 2019;Preis et al. 2019). According to reports from EU member states received by the European Environment Agency in 2010, railway noise during the day was a problem for about 12 million EU inhabitants who were exposed to noise levels above 55dB (EU Directive 2002/49/WE) and, at night, for about 9 million people, who were exposed to noise levels exceeding 50dB (Clausen et al. 2012). ...
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Model of total annoyance due to combined transportation sound sources in simulated noise scenarios
  • J Felcyn
J. Felcyn, Model of total annoyance due to combined transportation sound sources in simulated noise scenarios 2019, PhD Thesis, UAM Poznań.
Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region
Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region. World Health Organization 2018, ISBN 978 92 890 5356 3.