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Culture, Norms, and the Assessment of Communication Contexts: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

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... This inevitably also produces a conflict of work requirements, which often emerged during the ten meetings. Different definitions and operationalizations of norms lead to a lack of consensus when and to what extent norms may influence behaviour [48]. ...
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Since 2011, the organisational and management process of the Italian Prison Administration has started to change. The Open section and Dynamic supervision measures introduced into the Italian penitentiary system, requires that all prison workers participate in the observation and treatment of the prisoners' activities, carried out within a multidisciplinary perspective. This may imply a significant increase, in both the workload and possible sources of stress for prison workers and, therefore, hinder the organizational change. To enable the process of change, while monitoring the employees' wellbeing, monthly multidisciplinary meetings have been planned, involving the ward staff of each prison. This study aims to both understand the impact of the organisational change on the employees of a prison in northern Italy and to explore the sustainability of the ward staff tool. Ten multidisciplinary meetings were analysed over a year, focusing on topics discussed within the group and relational positions assumed by the members. Content analysis has been performed through the T-LAB software, whereas the analysis of the interactive modalities has been carried out through the application of the Interaction Process Analysis grid. Results showed the group's tendency to focus on the task, neglecting the relational dimension and moments of shared reflection related to the process. The study allows us to reflect on those aspects that may undermine the organisational and employee wellbeing and to assess the sustainability of a new organizational tool.
... Beyond these, Ogay and Edelmann (2016) addressed unclear and insufficiently complex conceptualizations of "culture" (cf. Moon, 1996) or context (Lefringhausen, Spencer-Oatey, & Debray, 2019). Ting-Toomey and Dorjee (2019) recently provided critiques of weaknesses in the above approaches, and also noted strengths to build on. ...
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As our team's research continues on examining untold stories in the intercultural communications (IC) research or praxis narrative, this forthcoming 2020 chapter further follows and builds on a Bourdieuan "sociology of science" (proposed in Kulich & Zhang, 2012) and Foucauldian genealogical approach. Extensive chronological tables are provided as appendices to supplement the textual focus on (1) pre-1900s thinking on culture and social relations, (2) early USA initiatives (pre-Hall and pre-1970s) on IC conceptualization, operationalization, and critiques that helped shape the field(s), and (3) formalization of IC and CC fields running parallel since the 1970s and developing many of today's prominent theory, publication, and application areas. Continuing critiques and areas for future development are also noted.
... Much work in social/cross-cultural psychology and the intercultural field has focused on the impact of different values on behaviour (e.g., Gudykunst, 2004;Hofstede, 2001;Triandis, 1995), but recently there has been increasing awareness of the potential impact of conceptions of situation or context Leung & Morris, 2015;Smith, 2015;Ting-Toomey & Oetzel, 2013). The notion of situation or context can be unpacked in various ways, but for understanding communicative interaction, Brown and Fraser (1979) classic depiction is extremely useful (see Lefringhausen et al., 2019 for an overview). They draw a fundamental distinction between participants and scene, and within the latter they propose several particularly helpful concepts, one of which is activity type. ...
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50 university students observed short videotaped scenes from the "American Family" TV series and then made global, bipolar scale ratings of each interactor. Trained coders analyzed the transcripts of these conversations using a new speech act classification scheme. Multidimensional analysis replicated the 4 dimensions found in prior studies of hypothetical communication, as well as results obtained in studies of personality and interpersonal relations and behavior. The 5 speech act factors, which had some correspondence with concepts underlying interaction process analysis, are interpreted as (1) asking vs informing, (2) initiatory vs reactive, (3) dissension vs approval, (4) forceful vs forceless, and (5) judgmental vs nonjudgmental. These factors and the specific speech act variables had significant correlations with the bipolar factors. Results support the claim that rating scales can effectively measure interpersonal communication. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The increasing trend toward field theory in psychology (i.e. in variations of psychoanalysis and in theory of the conditioned reflex) makes the clarification of the meaning of field theory especially important at this time. The field theory cannot be called a theory in the usual sense for it can hardly be called correct or incorrect. " Field theory is probably best characterized as a method: namely, a method of analyzing causal relations and of building scientific constructs." In discussing the principle of contemporaneity and the effect of past and future, it is emphasized that any behavior or any change in a psychological field depends only upon the psychological field at that time. To determine the properties of a field at a given time, one may base one's statement on conclusions from history, or one may use diagnostic tests of the present. The latter has been employed extensively in psychology. Nevertheless, psychologists need to take into account a certain time period which depends upon the scope of the situation. The psychological past and the psychological future are simultaneous parts of the psychological field existing at a given time. The author concludes with an evaluation of Brunswik's treatment of the role of statistics (see 17: 2543). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research has shown that cultural identification is influenced by the congruence between people's personal values and intersubjectively represented cultural values. The current research extended this finding to voter choice and behaviour. We hypothesized that people whose values and attitudes are similar to the collective representations of the political party that an election candidate belongs to would be more likely to vote for that candidate. Also, this relationship would be mediated by party identification. We found support for our hypotheses in two studies, one on the Legislative Council election in Hong Kong and the other on the 2004 US presidential election.