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Chemical control of Chilo partellus on maize crop in district Mansehra


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Considering the economic importance of the maize crop and the losses caused by the maize stem borer. A research was conducted during the Kharif season 2015 to investigate an infestation of insect pest and evaluating certain granular insecticides as a chemical control method against maize stem borer on maize cultivar BS-1, at the Agricultural, Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra. In this trial, some granular insecticides like Fipronil 0.3G, Furadon 3G, Diazinon 5G, Disulfoton 5G, and Padan were evaluated for the control of maize stem borer and effect on crop production. The results were determined based on the number of the larvae per plant, several dead hearts, and damaged plants per plot. It can be inferred from the obtained data that Padan was the most efficient in reducing the number of larvae Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) (0.11), number of dead heart plants (0.11) and plant damage (0.55) followed Furadon 3G (0.17), (0.18), and (0.89), Diazinon 5G (0.21), (0.37) and (1.32), Fipronil 0.3G (0.24), (0.47) and (1.6), Disulfoton 5G (0.30), (0.66) and (1.95) in descending order as compared to check (0.60), (1.11) and (3.15) respectively. A granular form of insecticides should be preferred the liquid form. Moreover, the granules Padan and Furadon may give better results than the other granular insecticides available in the market.
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Chemical control of Chilo partellus on maize crop
in district Mansehra
Zahid Khan
&Mian Sayed Khan
&Qurat ul Ain
&Abdur Raqib
&Lianxi Xing
Received: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019
#African Association of Insect Scientists 2019
Considering the economic importance of the maize crop and the losses caused bythe maize stemborer. A researchwas conducted
during the Kharif season 2015 to investigate an infestation of insect pest and evaluating certain granular insecticides as a chemical
control method against maize stem borer on maize cultivar BS-1, at the Agricultural, Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra. In this
trial, some granular insecticides like Fipronil 0.3G, Furadon 3G, Diazinon 5G, Disulfoton 5G, and Padan were evaluated for the
control of maize stem borer and effect on crop production. The results were determined based on the number of the larvae per
plant, several dead hearts, and damaged plants per plot. It can be inferred from the obtained data that Padan was the most efficient
in reducing the number of larvae Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) (0.11), number of dead heart plants (0.11)
and plant damage (0.55) followed Furadon 3G (0.17), (0.18), and (0.89), Diazinon 5G (0.21), (0.37) and (1.32), Fipronil 0.3G
(0.24), (0.47) and (1.6), Disulfoton 5G (0.30), (0.66) and (1.95) in descending order as compared to check (0.60), (1.11) and
(3.15) respectively. A granular form of insecticides should be preferred the liquid form. Moreover, the granules Padan and
Furadon may give better results than the other granular insecticides available in the market.
Keywords Granular insecticides .Chilo partellus .Dead heart .Damage plant .Grain yield
The maize crop is cultivated and developed in different envi-
ronmental and geographical zones and covers 4.8% of the total
cropped area of the world. Russia, Europe, United States of
America, Brazil, Mexico, Africa, China, Asia, India, and
Pacific Island are major corn-growing countries (Tagne et al.
1995; Mallapur et al. 2015; Chouraddi et al. 2016). In Pakistan,
3261.5 thousand tons of maize grain was obtained from an area
of 935.10 thousand hectares (Ijaz-ul-Hassan et al. 2012). In
KPK it was cultivated over an area of 509.5 thousand hectares
which produced 957.9 thousand tons of grain with an average
production of 1880 kg /ha during 2008 and 2009 (MINFAL
The maize crop production is severely affected by insect pests,
diseases, weeds, nematodes, birds and fluctuating environmental
factors (Khan et al. 2019a;Sayyidetal.2018; Heinrichs and
Muniappan 2018;Khanetal.2019b). Among these insects,
Jawar stem borer, Chilo partellus is considered the most destruc-
tive one, which causes loses from 15 to 60% (Etterson et al.
2017; Karavina et al. 2014) sometimes from 24 to 75%
(Kumar 2002; Chouraddi and Mallapur 2017). Maize stem borer,
C. partellus is worldwide distributed and is ranked as a major
pest of this crop in many Asian and African countries (Siddiqui
and Marwaha 1993;Murthyetal.2013;Khanetal.2015;Khan
et al. 2019b). The damage is done by feeding on leaves, stem,
central shoot, tassels, grains and cobs resulting in stunted growth
and low yield, while the root is avoided from the damage of stem
borer such as being a non-growing point, soil covered and also
due to its hardness (Khan and Amjad 2000; Ali et al. 2014). De
Groote (2002) and Okweche et al. (2013) reported that 12.9% of
economic damage resulted from spotted stem borer
(C. partellus), which is a significant pest of maize in Kenya.
As its nature of the damage, the borer feeds on leaves and then
*Lianxi Xing
College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, No. 229, North
Taibai Rd, Xian 710069, China
Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Agriculture Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, University of Swabi, Anbar campus, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
make its entrance downwards into stem through the central
whorl, getting new shot of the maize plant (Rahman et al.
1994;Singhetal.2011; Tilahun and Azerefegne 2013).
Presence of shot holes, whorl (twist) damage and dead hearts
are typical signs of borers infestation (Van den Berg et al.
2013; Mutyambai et al. 2015). The damaged plants become
stunted and appear into dead hearts after infestation in all resistant
varieties, and crop production gets decreased (Doebley
et al. 1990; Songa et al. 2001; Pedda Ghouse Peera et al.
2016). However, a low number of holes showed a small popu-
lation along with light infestation (Mulaa et al. 2001).
Environmental factors tremendously affect the status of a pest
and cause fluctuation in the pest population. Optimum conditions
(relative humidity and temperature) help in growth and develop-
ment, while heavy rain and hot, dry season suppress the popula-
tion of insect pests (Gouse et al. 2005; Zulfiqar et al. 2010).
Ecological factors have a crucial role in pest control measures,
change in ecological factors creates disturbance in reproduction
and multiplication of a pest species result in reduced and low
damage of the desired crop (Osman et al. 2014). However, dif-
ferent approaches can be made by man to get the pest population
suppressed at the desired level (ETL). These include biological
control method, cultural control method, and use of non-toxic
products (Nwanze and Nwilene 1998; Farmanullah et al. 2011;
Arif et al. 2013). Insects may have been prevented by chemical
and other methods in the globe (Javid and Aslam 2005;
Vassilakos et al. 2015). Pesticides, which should be the last op-
tion, reduce pests population but impose ill effects on non-target
species such as pollinators and predators (Schmidt et al. 2004;
Devine et al. 2007; Gavish-Regev et al. 2008).Keepinginview
the importance of the maize crop on the one hand and crop losses
due to maize stem borer (C. partellus) on the other hand, the
present study was planned to achieve the following objectives:
(1) To record C. partellus on maize crop in Mansehra. (2)
To compare the effect of different methods of granular insec-
ticides application against maize stem borer (C. partellus)in
maize crop. (3) To analyze the crop yield from different treat-
ments against C. partellus.
Materials and methods
Study area
Mansehra district is divided into three tehsils, Mansehra,
Oghi, and Balakot. It is situated from 34° - 14to 35° - 11´
North latitudes and 72° - 49to 74° - 08East longitudes. The
whole district consists of 4579 km
(ERRA 2007).
Experimental field and seed variety
The present studies were conducted in maize growing region
of Mansehra district. The experiment was laid out at the
Agricultural Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra-Pakistan dur-
ing the year, 2015. The maize variety BS-1 was selected for
the experiments because this variety is well adapted to the
climate of the area as well as their productions are higher than
the other cultivars grown in this region. There was an exper-
imental trial, namely: control of the maize stem borer by sys-
temic insecticides. This experiment was laid out in RCB de-
sign. Land preparation, method of sowing, fertilizer applica-
tion, cultural practices, and other crop production techniques
were performed uniformly.
Land preparation
The experimental field was prepared thoroughly by extensive
ploughs with the help of a tractor. The selected field was prop-
erly measured for this trial. In this way, the pieces of land were
divided into required treatments and were replicated three times.
The size of each replicated plot was 15 m
for the selected trial.
Row to row distance was kept as 75 cm and plant to plant as
20 cm for this trial. The row to row and plant to plant distances
were accurately measured with the help of agricultural imple-
ments called marker and dibbler, respectively. Sowing was per-
formed when the soil was in good wattar condition. The germi-
nation started after 3 days and completed within a week time.
Control of the Chilo partellus
The trial was laid out for testing the comparative efficacy of
some granular insecticides (Systematic in the mode of action)
against the maize stem borer (C. partellus). Cultivar BS-1 was
cultivated on June 25, 2015, in the same way as described
above. The crop was being closely and carefully inspected
since completion of germination to record infestation of maize
stem borer. However, the treatment comprising granular forms
of systematic insecticides were applied through leaf whorls
10 days after germination. On the appearance of the pest after
weeks, the data record was started and continued up to crop
maturity. The parameters considered for observation were a
population of the maize stem borer, several dwarfs and stunted
plants, plant or leaf damage, and any other symptoms of the
pests infestation. Therefore, the effectiveness of the treat-
ments was determined based on infestation levels of the target
pest (C. partellus). Some of the visible symptoms of infesta-
tion by C. partellus were a physical injury or whorl damage as
performed by Kumar (2003), presence of dead hearts as
adapted by Ajala et al. (2010)severityofleafdamageasre-
ported by Mohamed et al. (2004) or presence of faeces on
leaves or stems. The symptoms of infestation were observed
critically to record the incidence of the maize stem borer.
Central two lines were selected in each plot for recording the
data to avoid mix up the nearest treatments with each other.
All the infested plants were tagged for future observations.
The data were recorded at weekly intervals until harvesting
Int J Trop Insect Sci
of the crop. All other agricultural practices, fertilizer applica-
tion, weed control etc. were done uniformly by recommenda-
tions of the agricultural scientists.
There were six treatments consisted of five granular formula-
tions of insecticides and one check (zero treatment).
Applications of the treatments were done after 10 days of
germination as per method listed below in (Table 1). The
generic and trade names of pesticides are written in Table 2
to understand their effectiveness.
Formula for data sampling
So, for each data sampling of C. partellus, five plants were
randomly selected inside the two central lines of each chem-
ical treatment among the three replications and formulated as
Effect of treatments on crop yield
For yield data, corn ears were collected from five selected
plants. The ears were dried, weighed, and shelled with the
help of an electric sheller, separately. Then the weight of grain
and cobs of each treatment were recorded individually to find
the effects of treatments on crop yield and compared with
those of untreated plots to determine if there would be any
correlation or interaction among the treatments.
Statistical analyses
The data were compiled into tabulated form for statistical
analysis and elaboration of the results. Analysis of variance
(ANOVA) tests were performed by using Graph Pad Prism 5
software for statistical analyses of the data in the present trial
Tab le 3.
Control of the Chilo partellus
The data in Table 3showed that all the treatments were signif-
icantly effective against the target pest, C. partellus.Average
numbers of larvae/plant recorded during the first week of ob-
servations were 0.13 in the plots treated with Fipronil 0.3G. The
same number was found in the last week of observations (Fig.
1). These results were followed by 0.20 (2nd and 8th week),
0.27 (3rd, 4th, and 7th week), 0.33 (5th week) and 0.40 (6th
week) of observation in ascending order. In a 2nd week, the
number of larvae in Fipronil treatment showed the highest sig-
nificant difference with zero treatment while in 1st, 3rd
and 7th
week it showed higher significant variation Fig. 2.
Additionally, in the 4th week, the population showed sig-
nificant variation, but in 8th and 9th week, it displayed insig-
nificant differences. The population recorded in the plots treat-
ed with Furadon 3G showed a similar trend to that of Fipronil
0.3G treated plots. The infestation started in the second week
(0.07 larvae/plant) and increased gradually up to the 6th week
of observation showing the maximum number as 0.40 larvae/
plant. The infestation in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 7th week were
obtained as 0.0, 0.07, 0.13 and 0.20 which showed the highest
significant difference with the check whereas in 4th-week lar-
val population exhibited higher significant difference and in
5th and 9th observation showed that the variation was signif-
icant as compared with zero treatment. The occurrence of the
larval population in 6th week and 8th was not significant
(Figs. 2and 3).
The insecticide Diazinon 5G was also found useful in pop-
ulation suppression of the maize stem borer (C. partellus). The
lowest number of the borer was recorded in the beginning
(0.07 larvae/plant) followed by 0.13, 0.20, 0.27, 0.33 and
0.47 larvae/plant during the following 5 weeks, in ascending
order as compared with the check plots. In this treatment week
1st and 2nd week showed highest significant variation, 3rd
week and 7th week showed the higher significant difference
and 4th week showed significant difference with the check but
the population in 5th, 6th, 8th and the 9th week was found
statistically similar to that recorded in the check (Figs. 2and 3).
In the case of Disulfoton 5G, the results indicated that this
treatment was least effective of the others; however, it was
significantly better than zero treatment. The week-wise
Table 1 List of the treatments applied against C. partellus
Treatments S Dose/ha D/p MA
Fipronil 0.3G T
20 kg/ha 30 g leaf whorl
Furadon 3G T
20 kg/ha 30 g leaf whorl
Diazinon 5G T
20 kg/ha 30 g leaf whorl
Disulfoton 5G T
20 kg/ha 30 g leaf whorl
Padan T
20 kg/ha 30 g leaf whorl
Check T
MA Methods of application, S Symbols, D/p Dose/plot
Int J Trop Insect Sci
population was noticed as increased during the first 6 weeks,
where the number of larvae/plants was averaged as 0.20, 0.27,
0.27, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.53, respectively. The population was
observed as declined from the 7th through the 9th week of
observation, which was enumerated as 0.33, 0.20 and 0.20
larvae/plant in the respective week of observation. This treat-
ment showed a higher significant difference in the 3rd week,
significant variation in 1st, 2nd, 4th and 7th week but no
significant difference in 5th, 6th, 8th and 9th week of data
record when compared with zero treatment of the several
weeks (Figs. 2and 3).
The granules Padan gave the best control showing the least
infestation of the pest. Moreover, the occurrence of the pest
was not noticed during the first 2 weeks of the data record. It
was first recorded in the third week with them as the low
population as 0.06 larvae/plant followed, in ascending order,
by 0.13, 0.27 and 0.33 during the following 3 weeks, respec-
tively. No pest was found after the 8th week of observation. In
this treatment, 1st, 2nd, 3rd
and 7th week showed the highest
significant alteration with the check and 4th week showed
higher significant variation. 5th, 6th, 8th
and 9th week
showed a significant difference with the check. Based on sea-
sonal data overall average population of C. partellus (Fig. 2)
was obtained as 0.24, 0.17, 0.21, 0.30, 0.11 treated with.
Fipronil 0.3G, Furadon 3G, Diazinon 5G, Disulfoton 5G,
and Padan, respectively as compared to that of check plots
showing 0.60 larvae/plant. It was also determined by statisti-
cal analysis of the data that the effects of the tested granules
remained significant as compared to zero treatment.
Additionally, pest population gradually increased up to the
7th week of observation and then decreased during the follow-
ing period till termination of the experiment. Similarly, the
highest numbers of larvae were found in the 5th and 6th week
of observations in every treatment. Therefore, it can be in-
ferred from these results that pest (C. partellus)remainedat
its peak during the second fortnight of August (Figs. 2and 3).
Presence of dead hearts
Dead hearts indicated the incidence of the maize stem borer.
The attacked plants remain dwarf even they look green and
fleshy (Fig. 4). It appeared from the data (Table 4)thatinfes-
tation started about 6 weeks post sowing time, which was
considered the first week of observation. The effect of infes-
tation was exhibited in the third week of the data record.
Therefore, the stunted growth of the plants could have been
first noticed in the third week of observations in each case.
Moreover, dwarftness and reduced growth of the plants were
not found during the last 3 weeks of observations, which
might have been due to crop maturity, of course, surfaces of
the leaves and hardness of the stems that caused hurdle in
feeding capability of the tiny larvae. Hence, the data in
Table 2 Generic and trade names of the pesticides
Trade name Generic name
Carbofuran Furadan, Curaterr 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-ylmethylcarbamate
Diazinon Basudin Spectracide O,O-diethylO-2-isopropyl-6-methyl = pyrimidin-4-yl phosphorothioate
Fipronil Blitz,Icon Termidor
Disulfoton Di-Syston O,O-diethyl S-[2-(ethylthio)ethyl]phosphorodithioate (CAS)
Padan Padan S,S-(2-(dimethylamino)-1,3-propanediylcarbamothioate hydrochloride
Table 3 An infestation of
C. partellus in maize crop treated
with some granular insecticides
W.O Fip ro n il T
Furadon T
Diazinon T
Disulfoton T
Padan T
Check T
1st week 0.13 b± 0.12 0.0 c± 0.0 0.07 c±0.12 0.20a± 0.0 0.0 c± 0.0 0.47 ± 0.12
2nd week 0.2 c± 0.0 0.07 c±0.12 0.13c±0.12 0.27a± 0.12 0.0 c± 0.0 0.67 ± 0.12
3rd week 0.27 b± 0.12 0.13 c±0.12 0.20b± 0.0 0.27 b± 0.12 0.06 c± 0.12 0.67 ± 0.12
4th week 0.27 a± 0.12 0.20 b± 0.20 0.27 a± 0.12 0.33 a± 0.12 0.13 b± 0.12 0.73 ± 0.12
5th week 0.33 ± 0.12 0.27 a± 0.12 0.33 ± 0.12 0.40 ± 0.12 0.27 a± 0.12 0.67 ± 0.12
6th week 0.40 ± 0.20 0.40 ± 0.0 0.47 ± 0.12 0.53 ± 0.12 0.33 a± 0.12 0.73 ± 0.12
7th week 0.27 b± 0.12 0.20 c± 0.0 0.23 b± 0.05 0.33 a± 0.12 0.13 c± 0.12 0.60 ± 0.0
8th week 0.20 ± 0.0 0.20 ± 0.0 0.13 ± 0.12 0.20 ± 0.20 0.07 a± 0.12 0.47 ± 0.12
9th week 0.13 ± 0.12 0.07 a± 0.12 0.13 ± 0.12 0.20 ± 0.0 0.0 a±0.0 0.40±0.20
average 0.24 0.17 0.21 0.30 0.11 0.60
a(*) significant,b(**) higher significant, c(***) highest significant, W.O means weeks of observations
Int J Trop Insect Sci
Tab le 4indicated that the observational period was restricted
from the 3rd through the 6th week of commencement of the
infestation data on the maize stem borer.
The number of dead hearts, recorded in the plots, which
were treated with Fipronil 0.3G, was 0.33, 1.33, 2.00 and
0.67/plot during the 3rd to 6th week of observations, respec-
tively. In 4th and 6th week, this treatment showed a significant
difference with the check but dead hearts in other weeks
showed no significance. In Furadon treated plots, the dead
hearts were found during the 4th through the 6th week, which
were counted as 0.33, 0.1, and 0.33 plants/plot, respectively.
This treatment indicated a significant difference in week 3rd
and 5th while in 4th week and 6th week described higher
significant variation. Dead hearts in Diazinon 5G treated plots
were enumerated as 0.67, 0.0, 0.7, and 1.0/plot at the obser-
vation period of 3rd through the 6th week, respectively.
Dead heart plants in week 4 described significant variation
with the check while in the other weeks; the differences were
shown as insignificant. Several dead hearts in the plots treated
with Disulfoton 5G were respectively counted as 2, 2.3 and
1.7/plot during 4th, 5th and 6th week of observations. The
data of week 4 indicated that the dead heart plants were sig-
nificantlyless than those found in check plots while the data of
other weeks were statistically similar to that of control plots.
Fig. 1 C. partellus larvae inside
the stem and outside. a,blarvae
bored the stem, cthe stem was
broken in two halves to see naked
larva, disolated larva
Week 1st Week 2nd Week 3rd Week 4th
Number of Chilo partellus
Fig. 2 Infestation of C. partellus in maize crop treated with some granular insecticides for 14 weeks
Int J Trop Insect Sci
Based on the presence of dead hearts, the granules of Padan
proved the most effective, allowing only a small number of
dwarf plants. The dwarf plants (dead hearts) were found only
in the 5th and 6th week, which were counted as 0.67 and 0.33/
plot, respectively. This treatment showed a significant change
in 3rd week and 5th while in 4th week and 6th week revealed
higher significant and other weeks showed insignificant
Overall average of the number of dead hearts was comput-
ed as 0.47, 0.18, 0.37, 0.66 and 0.11 in the tested granular
treatments Fipronil, Furadon, Diazinon, Disulfoton, and
Padan, respectively as compared to that of untreated plots
giving 1.11 dead heart plants. Both the week wise and overall
(seasonal) results expressed that the tested chemicals
(granules) were highly effective against the pest
(C. partellus) and showed statistical differences from that of
zero treatment (check plots) in maize crop (Fig. 5).
Plants and leaves damages caused by Chilo partellus
The damage of plant parts was considered as a criterion for
infestation of the maize stem borer. Therefore, where the lar-
vae were not seen on the plants, the infestation was deter-
mined by symptoms of larval presence. The prominent
Week 5th Week 6th Week 7th Week 8t h Week 9th
1.0 Fipronil
Number of Chilo partellus
Fig. 3 An infestation of C. partellus in maize crop treated with some granular insecticides for 59weeks
Fig. 4 a,b,andcare dead hearts/
stunted plants damaged by
C. partellus
Int J Trop Insect Sci
symptom of infestation was crop damage or the presence of
fresh feaces of the larvae. The number of freshly damaged
plants was carefully noted and indicated in the data record
concerning infestation caused by C. partellus (Fig. 6).
It can be inferred from the observations in Table 5that the
maize plants sustained injuries in the main stems or leaves of
the plant. The minimum number (0.67 plants/treatment) of
damaged plants treated with Fipronil 0.3G was recorded dur-
ing the last week of observations followed, in ascending order,
by 1.0 plant/plot during 6th and 8th week. The maximum
number (3.0 plants/plot) of damaged plants was found in the
3rd week followed by 2.3 and 2.0 plants during the 4th and
3rd week, respectively. The plant damage recorded in week
3rd, 4th and 6th indicated significant differences with those
recorded in zero treatment while no significance was noticed
in other weeks of observations.
The Furadon 3G granules proved better, giving 0.33 dam-
aged plants as a minimum number in the first and 8th weeks of
observation, while, no damage was observed in the last week
of the data record. 1st week in this treatment showed the
highest significant change with the check while 3rd, 4th, 5th
and 9th week described the higher significance and 2nd week,
and 6th indicated significant alterations with the check. The
maximum number was 1.7 plants obtained during the 4th and
5th week, followed by 1.3 in the 3rd week of observation
(Figs. 7and 8).
Effect of the Diazinon 5G granules was nearly similar in
efficacy to that of Furadon 3G. minimum damaged plants
were observed in the last 2 weeks showing 0.67 plants in
1st week and 4th showed higher significant variations with
these found in the untreated plots. The observations 3rd,
5th and 9th week indicated significant difference while
2nd, 6th, 7th and 8th week indicated insignificant fluctua-
tion with the check. In contrast, maximum numbers of
damaged plants were observed in the 4th and 5th week
giving the account of 2.00 and 2.30 plants, respectively
(Figs. 7and 8).
Regarding the effect of Disulfoton 5G, the data revealed
that Disulfoton showed the least performance of all the
Table 4 Occurrence of dead
hearts/stunted plants damaged by
C. partellus,intreatedandun-
treated plots
W.O Fip ro nil T
Furadon T
Diazinon T
Disulfoton T
Padan T
Check T
1st week 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
2ndweek 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0
3rd week 0.33 ± 0.58 0.0 a± 0.0 0.67 ± 0.58 0.0 ± 1.0 0.0 a± 0.0 1.7 ± 0.58
4th week 1.3 a± 0.58 0.33 b± 0.58 0.0 a± 1.0 2.0 a± 0.0 0.0 b± 0.0 2.7 ± 0.58
5th week 2.0 ± 0.0 1.0 a± 1.0 1.7 ± 0.58 2.3 ± 0.58 0.67 a± .58 3.3 ± 0.58
6th week 0.67 a± 0.58 0.33 b± 0.58 1.0 ± 0.0 1.7 ± 0.58 0.33 b±0.58 2.3±0.58
7thweek 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0
8thweek 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0
9thweek 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0 0±0
average 0.47 0.18 0.37 0.66 0.11 1.11
a(*) significant, b(**) higher significant, c(***) highest significant. W.O means weeks of observation
Week 3rd Week 4th Week 5th Week 6th
Number of dead heart
Fig. 5 The occurrence of dead hearts/stunted plants by C. partellus for 36 weeks
Int J Trop Insect Sci
tested granules. The significant difference did not occur with
the application of this treatment when compared with the
check throughout the duration of the data record. The min-
imum number of damaged plants (0.67/treatment) were
found in the last (9th) week of observations followed by
1.0 and 1.30 plants/treatment in the 8th and 7th week of
observations, in ascending order. The maximum numbers
of damaged plants were 2.7 recorded in the 4th week of
observation followed by 2.3 in the 1st, 2nd
3rd and 5th
week of observation in descending order (Fig. 7and Fig. 8).
The granule Padan proved the highest in efficacy
allowing only 1.0 plants, per plot as maximum damage
caused by C. partellus during the 3rd, 4th and 5th week of
observations. No damage was noticed in the first and last
weeks of the data record. The minimum number of damaged
plants was 0.33 found in the 2nd and 8th weeks. Plant dam-
age obtained in week 1st, 4th and 5th revealed the highest
significant difference whereas 3rd and 9th week indicated
higher significant variations while the data in other weeks
showed significant difference with that found in the check
plot. The data in Table 5below indicated that the untreated
Fig. 6 Plants and leaves damages
caused by C. partellus. aand b
leaves damages with pinholes in a
cross-section of leaves. While c
and dare stem damages with
holes and faecal materials
Table 5 Plant and leaf damage
caused by C. partellus in treated
and untreated plots
W.O Fip ro n il T
Furadon T
Diazinon T
Disulfoton T
Padan T
Check T
1st week 1.7 ± 1.2 0.33 c± .58 1.0 b± 0.0 2.3 ± 0.58 0.0 c± 0.0 3.3 ± 0.58
2nd week 1.7 ± 1.5 1.0 a± 1.0 1.3 ± 1.2 2.3 ± 0.58 0.33 a± 0.58 3.7 ± 0.58
3rd week 2.0 a± 0.0 1.3 b± 1.2 1.7 a± 0.58 2.3 ± 0.58 1.0 b± 0.0 2.3 ± 0.58
4th week 2.3 a±0.58 1.7b±0.58 2.0b± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.58 1.0 c± 1.0 4.7 ± 0.58
5th week 3.0 ± 1.0 1.7 b±0.58 2.3a± 0.58 3.3 ± 0.58 1.0 c± 1.0 4.7 ± 0.58
6th week 1.0 a± 1.0 1.0 a± 0.0 1.3 ± 0.58 1.7 ± 0.58 0.67 a± 1.2 3.0 ± 0.0
7th week 1.7 ± 0.58 0.67 a± 1.2 1.3 ± 0.58 1.3 ± 0.58 0.67 a± 0.58 2.7 ± 0.58
8th week 1.0 ± 0.0 0.33 a± 0.58 0.67 ± 0.58 1.0 ± 1.0 0.33 a± 0.58 2.3 ± 0.58
9th week 0.67 ± 0.58 0.0 b± 0.0 0.33 a± 0.58 0.67 ± 0.58 0.0 b± 0.0 1.7 ± 0.58
average 1.6 0.89 1.32 1.95 0.55 3.15
a(*) significant, b(**) higher significant, c(***) highest significant. W.O means weeks of observation
Int J Trop Insect Sci
plots exhibited the highest population of damaged plants.
Maximum count of damaged plants was 4.70 found in 4th
and 5th weeks of observations followed by 3.70 and 3.30 in
the 2nd and 1st weeks, respectively. The minimum number
of the damaged plants was 1.70 found in the last (9th) week
of observation followed by 2.30 in the 3rd and 8th weeks
(Figs. 7and 8).
Effect of granular insecticides applied against Chilo
partellus on grain yield
The data in the table showed that the yield of maize grain in
the treated plots was more than that found in check plots. A
number of ears obtained from the plots treated with Padan
were recorded as 7.70 per five plants as compared to 5.30 in
untreated plots indicating a significant difference between the
two while other treatments showed insignificance over the
check. As summarized in the Table 6, maximum numbers of
ears (7.7/5 plants) were obtained from the plots treated with
Padan followed by Furadon (7.0/5 plants). Fipronil and
Diazinon treated plots produced an equal number of ears
(6.3/5 plants). The minimum number (5.3) was recorded in
the untreated plots, which were close to those obtained from
the Disulfoton treated (5.7/five plants). None of the tested
chemicals was found significantly varied from untreated plots
with respect to the production of corn ears.
In contrast, it was observed that the amount of actual corn
production, i.e., weight before or after of the years, shelling
was more than that of the untreated crop at all levels of signif-
icance. Similarly, the differences within the treatments were
not significant except that of Disulfoton, which was a higher
level of significance as compared to the rest of the treatments
which showed the most significant level with that of the
check. In this case, all the treatments indicated insignificant
variation as compared with that of the check. The highest
production was 2140 g/shelled ears produced in the Padan
treated plots followed by 2043 g in the Furadon treated
plots. Minimum weight of the grain was 1435 g obtain-
ed from 5.3 corn ears of the untreated plots. The mois-
ture continents of all the treatments (Table 6) were de-
termined in the range of 15 to 16% showing an insig-
nificant difference. Therefore, the amount of moisture
contents did not play any role in increase or decrease
of grain yield within the treatments (Figs. 9and 10).
Week 1st Week 2nd Week 3rd Week 4th
Number of damage plants
Fig. 7 Stem and leaves damages caused by C. partellus in treated and untreated plots for 14weeks
Week 5th Week 6th Week 7th Week 8th Week 9th
Number of damage plants
Fig. 8 Stem and leaves damages caused by C. partellus in treated and untreated plots for 59weeks
Int J Trop Insect Sci
The trial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of
different granular insecticides on maize stem borer with ul-
timate impact on crop production. The tested granules were
Fipronil, Furadon, Diazinon, Disulfoton, and Padan. Results
of the experiment showed that the damage caused by maize
stem borer was significantly lower in all the insecticide treat-
ments as compared to check. Crop yield of the treated plots
was also higher than that of check plots. Although there was
observed fluctuation in population density, yet the tested
chemicals (granular treatments) were found effective to con-
trol the stem borer as compared to no treatment.
Of these, the granular formulation Padan was the
most effective in controlling C. partellus larvae, reduc-
ing plant damage, and lowering a number of dead
hearts. Hence, the ultimate effect was noticed on grain
yields, which was found significantly increased in the
plots treated with this granule (Padan). These results
are mainly in agreement with those obtained by
Mashwani et al. (2011), and Raghuvanshi and Rana
(2012). The partial differences might have been due to
the difference in the type of granules applied, climatic
conditions, method and time of application etc.
treatments was high in the present studies. Similar
opinions were given by Okweche et al. (2013)who
determined that application of Padan and Furadan to
the maize crop increased maize production, leaf area
index, contents of dry matter and plant vigor.
Furadon ranked second highest in efficacy against the
target pest, C. partellus. Our findings are in accordance
with many researchers. Sidar et al. (2017)obtaineda
reduction in dead hearts and plant damage caused by
C. partellus. Rahim and Masud (1992) tested fourteen
insecticides applied as dust, granules or spray where
Furadon gave the best results of the tested chemicals
with respect to enhanced yield of the crop, while the
similar result has got by Adamu et al. (2015). Kakar
et al. (2003) and Saleem et al. (2014) obtained excellent
response when Furadon was applied in furrows against
C. partellus in maize crop.
Present studies indicated that application of Diazinon
and Disulfoton was less effective than Furadon in
controlling the larval population of the maize stem
borer. These results are in conformity with those
reported by Neupane et al. (2016) who found that
Diazinon was comparatively less effective than Furadon.
Overall results of the present studies reveal that the gran-
ule Diazinon ranked third, and Fipronil ranked fourth in
efficacy. These findings are broadly compared with those
obtained by Sohail et al. (2003) ineffectiveness.
Table 6 Effect of granular
insecticides applied against
C. partellus on grain yield
Fipronil 0.3G 6.3 ± 0.58 1813 c± 108 1809 c± 109 3.7 ± 1.5 16 ± 0.70
Furadon 3G 7.0 ± 1.0 2045 c±50 2043c± 48 1.3 ± 1.2 15 ± 0.83
Diazinon 5G 6.3 ± 0.58 1848 c±83 1845c± 85 3.0 ± 1.7 15 ± 0.78
Disulfoton 5G 5.7 ± 0.58 1745 b±57 1743b± 56 2.0 ± 1.7 16 ± 0.72
Padan 7.7a± 1.2 2143 c±41 2140c± 41 3.0 ± 1.0 15 ± 1.2
Check 5.3 ± 0.58 1440 ± 96 1435 ± 96 4.3 ± 0.58 15 ± 0.95
a(*) significant, b(**) higher significant, c(***) highest significant
NFP No of ears per five plants, weight of ears before shelling, TWGCS Total weight of grain and cobs after
shelling, DWBAS difference between weight before and MC after shelling, MC Moisture continent %
No of ears diff b/w wt bf & af shl
Fig. 9 The graph shows numbers of ears per plant and grains missing. No of ear; no of ears, diff b/w wt bf & afshl; difference between weight before and
after shelling
Int J Trop Insect Sci
Observations were started at the appearance of the C. partellus
in the respective trial and continued on weekly intervals until
the maturity of the crop. The insects population prevailed at
low density, even below the economic threshold level (ETL).
It remained suppressed due to unusual and torrential rain in the
area. Regarding the chemical control trial on maize stem bor-
er, effects of five granular insecticides evaluated and compar-
ison was made to determine if there were any significant
Present experimentation proved that all the tested granular
formulation efficiency controlled the target pest limited the
formation of dead heart plant and reduced the damage caused
by C. partellus. The effects were prominent as compared to
zero treatment. However, the insecticide Padan proved the
best followed by Furadon. Both the treatments caused an in-
crease in grain yield as compared to the other treatments or the
check. These findings will be a guideline for future re-
searchers to evaluate the efficacy of these chemicals further.
Acknowledgments This study was funded and supported by the Director
of Agriculture, Research station, Baffa, Mansehra, Pakistan. Similarly,
equal respect and credits are going to Dr. Sana Ullah of Zoology
Department, Hazara University, Mansehra. Who helped us in statistical
analyses of the data. Mr. Waqar and Habib helped in data sampling at the
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of
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... Application of soil granular and spray formulation of Acephate, Fipronil, Dursban (Chlorpyrifos), Convoy (Quinalphos), Carbofuran, Fipronil, Carbosulfan (Hurali et al., 2020;Islam et al., 2013) [47,48] , Fenvalrate, Thiamethoxam, Spinosad, Chlorantraniliprole and Carbofuran (Baladhiya et al., 2018) [13] were effective against adult and larva of yellow and pink stem borers population (Rahman et al., 2020;Zhao et al., 2019) [74,102] . Spray formulation of Carbofuran, Fipronil, Diazinon, Disulfoton Padan, TXH09 (Khan et al., 2020) [53] , Deltamethrin, Spinosad, Lambdacyhalothrim, Emamectin-benzoate, Indoxacarb, Chlorpyrifos-~ 304 ~ ethyl were very cost effective agent for managing adult and larval incidence caused by herbivores dark headed and stripped Stem Borer (Achiri et al., 2020; Zhao et al., 2019) [1,102] (Table 3). ...
... In Ethiopia, late-sown maize infestations by the second generation of Busseola fusca were observed to be larger (22-100 percent) than early-sown maize infestations by the first generation (0-22 percent) [48]. The genetic feature that allows a plant to avoid, lessen, tolerate, or recover from an injury caused by pests is known as host resistance to insects. ...
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These studies were carried out Entomological Research Area, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during 2004-2005 on four verities of Maize (Neelam, Akbar, Sultan and Sadaf). The results show that the population of leaf hoper was found highest at temperature of 36.5 o C and relative humidity at 68%. The lowest population was observed at the temperature of 31.5 o C and relative humidity at 75%. The population of jassid was found highest at the temperature of 36 o C with relative humidity at 68% and lowest population was found at 35 o C relative humidity at 70%. The infestation of Chilo partelous was found highest at the temperature of 32.5 o C relative humidity at 68% and lowest infestation of chilo partellous found at the temperature of 32.5 o C relative humidity at 50%. The overall results of current research work showed that the relative humidity and temperature significantly effect on the population of insect pests of maize.
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Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. There is accumulating evidence that insecticides adversely affect non-target wildlife species, including birds, causing mortality, reproductive impairment, and indirect effects through loss of prey base, and the type and magnitude of such effects differs by chemical class, or mode of action. In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife. Current USEPA risk assessments for pesticides generally rely on endpoints from laboratory based toxicity studies focused on groups of individuals and do not directly assess population-level endpoints. In this paper, we present a mechanistic model, which allows risk assessors to estimate the effects of insecticide exposure on the survival and seasonal productivity of birds known to forage in agricultural fields during their breeding season. This model relies on individual-based toxicity data and translates effects into endpoints meaningful at the population level (i.e., magnitude of mortality and reproductive impairment). The model was created from two existing USEPA avian risk assessment models, the Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM v.3.0) and the Markov Chain Nest Productivity model (MCnest). The integrated TIM/MCnest model was used to assess the relative risk of 12 insecticides applied via aerial spray to control corn pests on a suite of 31 avian species known to forage in cornfields in agroecosystems of the Midwest, USA. We found extensive differences in risk to birds among insecticides, with chlorpyrifos and malathion (organophosphates) generally posing the greatest risk, and bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) posing the least risk. Comparative sensitivity analysis across the 31 species showed that ecological trait parameters related to the timing of breeding and reproductive output per nest attempt offered the greatest explanatory power for predicting the magnitude of risk. An important advantage of TIM/MCnest is that it allows risk assessors to rationally combine both acute (lethal) and chronic (reproductive) effects into a single unified measure of risk.
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The stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) is one of the most destructive pests of maize crop. Research experimentations were carried out on maize to control stem borer using conventional pesticides under field condition during summer season of two consecutive years from 2015 to 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan. All used pesticides had significant effect (P≤0.05) on percent damage and crop yield over control. In 2015, the lower percent damage (5.3%) with higher crop yield (4.52 t ha-1) and lowest insect score (1.00) was observed in plot sprayed with spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water followed by plot treated with chloropyriphos 50% EC+cypermethrin 5%EC @1.5ml L-1 of water with percent damage of 6.60%, crop yield (4.23 t ha-1) and insect score of 1.60. Almost similar trend of insect incidence along with damage percentage and yield data were observed in 2016. The higher percent damage control (79.06%) was observed at the plot sprayed after spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water with higher crop yield (4.58 t ha-1) and lowest insect score (1.00) followed by the plot treated with imidacloprid 17.8% @ 0.5 ml L-1 of water with percent damage control of 73.10 %, crop yield (3.38 t/ha) and insect sore 1.50. The highest percent damage (20.63%) was observed in the control plot with lower yield (0.95 t ha-1) and highest insect score (6.00). Over the years, spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water was effective bio-pesticide to control maize stem borer damage and also increase the yield.
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Field evaluation of pesticide tolerant strain of Cotesia flavipes Cameron, a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) was carried out and the economics of such evaluation was worked out. Releases of the pesticide tolerant parasitoid strain, prior to application of pesticide or after application resulted in significantly higher net returns and yield, as compared to the releases of susceptible parasitoid strain and untreated control. Four releases of the tolerant parasitoid at 2000/ha at 500 per release registered maximum number of parasitized cocoons (52.6 per larva), higher yields (4019 kg/ha) and net profits (Rs. 7807 kg/ha), followed by two releases of the tolerant strain with two sprays of insecticide (40.8, 3809 kg/ha and Rs. 6847/ha, respectively). The insecticidal treatment gave higher net profits and yields than all other treatments. However, the additional costs, ecological hazards and pesticide residues (likely to occur) do not outweigh the benefits of biological control.
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A field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soils of eastern farm, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Tamil Nadu, India to study the effect of silicon on yield and uptake of rice (var. BPT 5204) during Kharif season of 2010-11 by taking the treatment combinations based on graded levels of Fly Ash (FA), Silicate Solubilizing Bacteria (SSB) and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) at fixed fertilizer schedule. The experimental soil (0-15 cm) had pH 7.22; organic C 1.4 %; available Si 66.0 mg kg-1 ; available N 266.0 kgha-1 ; available P 14.42 kgha-1 and available K 107.50 kgha-1. The results of graded levels of FA show that all the growth and yield attributes were significantly influenced by silicon uptake. The mean silicon uptake at panicle initiation, straw and grain at harvest varied from 53.8-98.7, 105.5-197.2 and 21.4-62.3 kgha-1 respectively, in rice. Number of filled grains per panicle and grain yield displayed conspicuous relationships with content of Si in grains. The highest mean grain yield of 3622 kg ha-1 was recorded by the addition of SSB+FYM followed by FYM (3530 kg ha-1), SSB (3310 kg ha-1) and control (3240 kg ha-1). The combined application of 25 t ha-1 FA with SSB+FYM was recorded the highest grain yield of 3710 kg ha-1 which was 16.3 per cent more over yield of control. The results further show that 25 t ha-1 FA and SSB+FYM have been proved to be superior treatments for best management of silicon in coastal loamy sand soils under irrigated rice ecosystem.
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Maize, a genetically diverse crop, is the domesticated descendent of its wild ancestor, teosinte. Recently, we have shown that certain maize landraces possess a valuable indirect defense trait not present in commercial hybrids. Plants of these landraces release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract both egg [Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)] and larval [Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)] parasitoids in response to stemborer egg deposition. In this study, we tested whether this trait also exists in the germplasm of wild Zea species. Headspace samples were collected from plants exposed to egg deposition by Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths and unexposed control plants. Four-arm olfactometer bioassays with parasitic wasps, T. bournieri and C. sesamiae, indicated that both egg and larval parasitoids preferred HIPVs from plants with eggs in four of the five teosinte species sampled. Headspace samples from oviposited plants released higher amounts of EAG-active compounds such as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. In oviposition choice bioassays, plants without eggs were significantly preferred for subsequent oviposition by moths compared to plants with prior oviposition. These results suggest that this induced indirect defence trait is not limited to landraces but occurs in wild Zea species and appears to be an ancestral trait. Hence, these species possess a valuable trait that could be introgressed into domesticated maize lines to provide indirect defense mechanisms against stemborers.
It is an edited book with chapters written by multi-disciplinary specialists in their specific subject areas. It covers development of IPM components and packaging them for individual vegetable crops specifically targeted to tropical countries. Scientific background for IPM components or tactics will be included. There will be case studies of IPM packages developed and implemented in different countries. The concept of IPM has been in existence for the past six decades; however, a practical holistic program has not been developed and implemented for vegetable crops, in the developing countries. Currently the IPM adoption rate in the tropics is minimal and there is a need for implementation of IPM technologies that are environmentally safe, economical, and socially acceptable. We believe that adoption and implementation of IPM provided in this book will lead to significant reduction in crop losses and mitigate adverse impacts of pesticide use in the tropics. This book is an outcome 20 years of research, development and implementation of the IPM CRSP, a project supported by USAID and administered by Virginia Tech in several developing countries along the tropical belt in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.