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Airbnb 2.0: Is it a sharing economy platform or a lodging corporation?

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Abstract

Research on Airbnb has provided significant evidence that it has an adverse impact on hotel performance. However, the impact of a more recent Airbnb-related phenomenon that remains under-explored is the increasing professionalization of Airbnb and the prevalence of multi-unit hosts who offer more than one listing on the platform and are typically more dynamic in terms of issues like managing inventory and providing more standardized experiences. This professionalization begs the question of whether Airbnb should be considered a sharing economy platform or a lodging corporation (Airbnb 2.0). To answer this question, the present study identifies which types of Airbnb properties (entire homes, private rooms, or shared rooms) and host structures (single- or multi-unit hosts) are the biggest threats to traditional lodging companies in the U.S., and which states are most affected by the presence of Airbnb. The findings have significant implications for researchers and many practitioners associated with the phenomenon.

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... Thus, in this study, we consider Airbnb as a growing niche actor that is challenging the regime with its innovative and disruptive platform (Prayag & Ozanne, 2018), given that in many markets including the Canterbury region, it is still a relatively new player. However, due to the rapid growth of Airbnb worldwide, we acknowledge that it is becoming a lodging corporation (Dogru et al., 2020b), and thus can be considered also as a regime actor. ...
... This suggests that although change happens within regimes, long held practices and developed infrastructure can pose challenges for the regime to adapt quickly (Geels, 2012). In fact, a level of convergence in practices between Airbnb and the formal accommodation industry has emerged in recent years, with Dogru et al. (2020b) calling Airbnb a lodging corporation. ...
... They want to get more in the mainstream spacethey are integrating with SiteMinder nowa channel manager, so if you have a property, they have the property management system … SiteMinder is one of the main ones that feeds out to all the OTAs like Expedia and Booking.com. (P13) This seems to give credence to Dogru et al. (2019) argument that Airbnb has grown considerably in size globally, which makes it almost a mainstream player in the accommodation industry and a lodging corporation (Dogru et al., 2020b). This pinpoints to the niche player becoming part of the regime. ...
Article
Using the Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) and Actor-Network-Theory and After (After ANT), we explore how regime actors from the formal accommodation sector perceive and respond to Airbnb. We evaluate regime actors’ perceptions of Airbnb’s network and its key characteristics. Based on in-depth interviews with 14 stakeholders, we found that Airbnb is perceived as impacting both the landscape and the regime. Perceptions of Airbnb are not uniform across accommodation types. The findings also suggest that through principles of translation, negotiation, and lack of acquiescence, the niche player, Airbnb, is perceived as attempting to create a new ‘collectif’. The regime has responded through strategies including, financial responses, marketing responses, and lobbying for regulations. Implications for theory and practice are offered.
... Thus, in this study, we consider Airbnb as a growing niche actor that is challenging the regime with its innovative and disruptive platform (Prayag & Ozanne, 2018), given that in many markets including the Canterbury region, it is still a relatively new player. However, due to the rapid growth of Airbnb worldwide, we acknowledge that it is becoming a lodging corporation (Dogru et al., 2020b), and thus can be considered also as a regime actor. ...
... This suggests that although change happens within regimes, long held practices and developed infrastructure can pose challenges for the regime to adapt quickly (Geels, 2012). In fact, a level of convergence in practices between Airbnb and the formal accommodation industry has emerged in recent years, with Dogru et al. (2020b) calling Airbnb a lodging corporation. ...
... They want to get more in the mainstream spacethey are integrating with SiteMinder nowa channel manager, so if you have a property, they have the property management system … SiteMinder is one of the main ones that feeds out to all the OTAs like Expedia and Booking.com. (P13) This seems to give credence to Dogru et al. (2019) argument that Airbnb has grown considerably in size globally, which makes it almost a mainstream player in the accommodation industry and a lodging corporation (Dogru et al., 2020b). This pinpoints to the niche player becoming part of the regime. ...
Article
Using the Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) and Actor-Network-Theory and After (After ANT), we explore how regime actors from the formal accommodation sector perceive and respond to Airbnb. We evaluate regime actors’ perceptions of Airbnb’s network and its key characteristics. Based on in-depth interviews with 14 stakeholders, we found that Airbnb is perceived as impacting both the landscape and the regime. Perceptions of Airbnb are not uniform across accommodation types. The findings also suggest that through principles of translation, negotiation, and lack of acquiescence, the niche player, Airbnb, is perceived as attempting to create a new ‘collectif’. The regime has responded through strategies including, financial responses, marketing responses, and lobbying for regulations. Implications for theory and practice are offered.
... De esta forma, se genera una fuente de ingresos adicional para los propietarios que ofertan sus viviendas (Botsman & Rogers, 2010), realizando una oferta diversa de alojamientos a precios más reducidos que los que realiza la oferta hotelera tradicional en aquellas áreas de la ciudad donde no existen plazas hoteleras o un suficiente número de estas, contribuyendo así a distribuir la afluencia turística a otros barrios periféricos de la ciudad y a promover experiencias de turismo alternativas a las tradicionales (Paulauskaite, Powell, Coca-Stefaniak & Morrison et al., 2017;Wang & Nicolau, 2017). Por el contrario, quienes critican estas prácticas argumentan que no son los particulares y las familias con ingresos reducidos quienes componen la oferta de alojamientos de alquiler dentro de la plataforma Airbnb, sino que esta es controlada, fundamentalmente, por los grandes propietarios, por lo que dichas actividades no se ajustan al esquema de la economía colaborativa (Arias Sans & Quaglieri-Domínguez, 2016;Cocola-Gant & Gago, 2019;Yrigoy, 2019;Gil & Sequera, 2020;Dogru, Mody, Suess, Line & Bonn et al, 2020). ...
... Respecto a Airbnb, gran parte de la doctrina se centra en el estudio de los beneficios generales que proporciona la plataforma en comparación con los alojamientos turísticos tradicionales. Así, se destacan los efectos positivos en la creación de empleo (Dogru et al., 2020), en la democratización del turismo al ofrecer a los visitantes opciones de alojamiento más asequibles (Guttentag, 2015), en el suministro de alojamientos turísticos (Kaplan & Nadler, 2015), en la obtención de ingresos complementarios para los anfitriones (Botsman & Rogers, 2010), que incluso pueden contribuir a paliar la pérdida de capacidad adquisitiva para los estratos de población con menos recursos (Sperling, 2015) o en la contribución a asentar valores como la empatía, la tolerancia o el intercambio cultural (Paulauskaite et al., 2017). Y sin dejar de mencionar los efectos que Airbnb puede tener sobre la sostenibilidad, al poner en valor recursos, en este caso viviendas, que pueden encontrarse infrautilizados (Palgan, Zvolska & Mont, 2017;Paulauskaite et al., 2017;Sung, Kim & Lee, 2018;Contu, Conversano, Frigau & Mola, 2019). ...
... Tabla 2. Impactos positivos y negativos de la economía colaborativa vs economía de plataforma ECONOMÍA COLABORATIVA ECONOMÍA DE PLATAFORMA impactos positivos impactos negativos -Creación de empleo (Dogru et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
La economía colaborativa, es un concepto controvertido y polémico construido en torno al avance de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación, las plataformas digitales y el intercambio (generalmente, ocasional y por tiempo limitado) de activos infrautilizados entre proveedores y consumidores. Airbnb, la plataforma digital líder en alquiler turístico, defiende que sus actividades responden a este nuevo modelo económico, especialmente debido al servicio de alquiler de viviendas compartidas. Este artículo, a partir del tratamiento y depuración de diferentes fuentes estadísticas y cartográficas, (1) amplia la evidencia empírica sobre las actividades de Airbnb en una ciudad de tamaño medio como Bilbao, y (2) analiza la caracterización de la oferta de Airbnb en Bilbao y su grado de contribución a la economía colaborativa. El análisis muestra claramente que “compartir el hogar” es relevante, pero la oferta comercial es también muy significativa, aunque geográficamente desigual, en la forma en que la plataforma opera en la ciudad. En cualquier caso, las plataformas digitales constituyen una parte cada vez más relevante de las actividades de alojamiento turístico a nivel mundial, por lo que es necesario profundizar más en el debate sobre la relación entre las plataformas y la economía colaborativa.
... However, other studies have acknowledged that a large proportion of Airbnb listings seem to be provided by commercial operators as they offer entire apartments rented to tourists permanently, further demonstrating that multi-listing hosts are growing (Arias-Sans & Quaglieri-Domínguez, 2016;Cocola-Gant & Gago, 2019;Gil & Sequera, 2020;Kadi et al., 2019;Wachsmuth & Weisler, 2018;Yrigoy, 2019). Scholars have shown that the bulk of the revenue is generated through entire homes supplied by multi-listing hosts, and that these commercial operators have higher daily revenues on the properties they manage, reflecting higher occupancy rates and a process in which the market share of STRs provided by amateur individuals is receding (Deboosere, Kerrigan, Wachsmuth, & El-Geneidy, 2019;Dogru, Mody, Suess, Line, & Bonn, 2020;Xie, Heo, & Mao, 2021). ...
... In either case, further research is needed with regards to the way that individual hosts compete against these professional actors, particularly in relation to the products and services that they manage to provide. It is well known that individual hosts receive less bookings and make less profits than corporate hosts (Deboosere et al., 2019;Dogru et al., 2020;Xie et al., 2021). Additionally, based on our results, it seems that individual hosts will struggle to survive unless they dedicate full time to the activity as the main challenge for them is to replicate the quality services and 24-h availability of corporate hosts. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the rise of short-term rental (STR) management companies and reveals the transition from a sharing economy activity to the consolidation of a professional industry hinging on what we call 'corporate hosts'. By relying on interviews with companies operating in Lisbon and Porto, Portugal, we found: first, that a phenomenon of market concentration occurred in which individual hosts have outsourced the management of their properties to corporate hosts; second, that through the use of digital technology and vertical integration, corporate hosts are able to enhance the profitability of large portfolios of STRs; and, third, that corporate hosts imitate practices from the hotel industry, leading to the formation of a hybrid product in which the lines between hotels and STRs have blurred. We argue that corporate hosts constitute a new layer of intermediation that challenges the way we understand the STR industry and the overall functioning of this market.
... In the early urban research on STRs, scholars mainly applied spatial and quantitative analyses and relied on what has been seen as the most reliable evidence to describe the phenomenon: data scraped from the Airbnb website. This research suggests that, in central urban areas of major tourist destinations, the tendency of the market is toward increased commercialization of entire apartments available all year round and that the majority of Airbnb revenues are generated through entire homes supplied by multi-listing hosts (Deboosere et al. 2019;Dogru, et al. 2020;Kadi et al, 2019;Gil & Sequera, 2020). These authors have further suggested that the number of people actually practicing home-sharing is decreasing and that, instead, it seems that a professional STR market has been consolidated. ...
... While some of these hosts certainly started renting their homes to deal with economic uncertainties after the 2008 financial crisis, to some extent these hosts are privileged individuals in gentrifying neighborhoods. Therefore, although Airbnb stresses that the majority of their properties are provided by single-listing hosts, feeding their sharing economy rhetoric, it is useful to highlight, first, that revenue is concentrated in the hands of professional operators (Deboosere et al. 2019;Dogru, et al. 2020;Smigiel et al. 2020) and that, second, when owners are individuals, these are middleclass people capitalizing on their cultural and economic assets. ...
Article
Full-text available
Papers in this special issue offer a wide range of political economy and sociological perspectives to explain the development and impacts of short-term rentals (STRs) in European cities. Empirically, they provide insights regarding STR providers, socio-spatial impacts, and regulation. Authors reveal the professionalization of the sector vis-à-vis the connection between STRs and the wider financialization of housing. STRs are predominantly supplied by professional property managers as well as by middle-class individuals for which renting on digital platforms is their main professional activity. Furthermore, the increasing professionalization of hosts and the intrinsic competition among them is largely stimulated by the business model of digital platforms which has progressively favoured professional operators. Understanding how STRs are shaped by platform capitalism helps to explain the socio-spatial impacts of this market as well as why current regulations have not mitigated such impacts. In terms of impacts, contributions to this special issue document processes of displacement, gentrification, and how the penetration of visitors/home/epn in neighbourhoods is experienced by residents as a process of loss and dispossession. However, due to the lobbying campaigns of professional operators and industry players, regulation has led to the legitimization of this new market rather than to the limitation of the activity. Therefore, the special issue challenges the use of a 'sharing economy' and 'peer-to-peer platforms' as analytical categories, and, instead, provides evidence of why the STR market should be seen as part of the wider expansion of platform capitalism, consolidating the neoliberal and financialized urban paradigm.
... Apart from those quantitative changes, contemporary tourism is also evolving. People take shorter holidays but travel more often [37], while low-cost carriers [38] and sharing economy platforms [39] allow people to reach different destinations, especially cities, at affordable prices. These changes made large cities among the most important global tourism destinations [3,40]. ...
... Those issues are frequently described in publications dealing with the sharing economy, but they are not limited to the development of this phenomenon. Numerous scientists [23,24,39,41] agree that the very fast development of sharing economy platforms such as Airbnb seriously impacts urban real estate markets. The core of that impact is connected to a significant growth in the demand for apartments and houses from prospective operators of home-sharing services. ...
Article
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With a constantly and rapidly increasing number of publications, modern expertise on overtourism is becoming increasingly complete. However, a subject that has not been sufficiently presented in the literature thus far is the issue of identifying groups of inhabitants of various destinations that are most severely affected by overtourism and the perception of innovative remedial solutions. In numerous previous publications that analyzed the impact of overtourism on the inhabitants of destinations, the inhabitants were most often treated as a homogeneous group. Therefore, the main goal of this article is to describe the phenomenon of overtourism from the perspective of residents of two Polish tourist destinations and propose innovative solutions to the problem of tourist overcrowding, dedicated to areas with different specificities. Empirical research was conducted among the inhabitants of popular destinations in Poland—Kraków and Białka Tatrzańska—where overtourism has been noted in the scientific literature in recent years. The results allow us to outline significant differences in how the impact of overtourism is perceived by the inhabitants of a large city and a peripheral tourist resort. Additionally, the research demonstrated that respondents who live in the central part of a tourist destination much more clearly perceive their exposure to the effects of overtourism than the inhabitants of other parts, and that this phenomenon is more evident in cities than in resorts. According to the diagnosis of the situation, it was proposed to implement open innovations in the nature of preventive solutions.
... Airbnb, Booking.com, and HomeAway lead the paid peer-to-peer accommodation market with seven, five and two million listings, trading in 190, 227, and 160 countries respectively. From 2015 to 2018, Airbnb's revenue increased by 10% (Dogru et al., 2020). The tourist accommodation market share in the United States held by hotels was 94% in 2013. ...
Chapter
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Over a decade ago, Airbnb disrupted the tourism accommodation industry. Initially, licensed commercial tourism accommodation providers, such as hotels, were not overly concerned. But over time, they saw their market share shrink and realised that Airbnb had the potential to directly compete with them. As the concept of peer-to-peer accommodation was embraced by tourists around the globe, many start-up companies attempted to reproduce Airbnb’s success, and established online travel agents added peer-to-peer accommodation to their offerings. This chapter provides an overview of this competitive landscape, discusses how it has been affected by COVID-19, and predicts how it will evolve post-pandemic.
... As the dependent variable, we used a metric for measuring the growth rate of revenue performance of Airbnb listings before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Revenue-per-available-listing (RevPAL) measures the amount of revenue that one Airbnb listing generates for a month (Dogru, Mody, Suess, Line, & Bonn, 2020). Because our focus was on measuring the COVID-19-induced performance change, we calculated the year-over-year growth rate (i.e. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation markets. However, how the interplay between tourists and destination attributes has affected P2P accommodation consumption during the pandemic has not been investigated. To address this gap, this study first explored the spatially varying relationship between destination attributes and COVID-19-disrupted Airbnb performance change across Florida counties. Subsequently, we performed two experimental studies to examine whether trip purpose and the level of perceived threat affect Airbnb use intention. The results of the spatial analysis show that, depending on the type of destination attribute, Airbnb listings experienced different revenue losses across urban and rural areas. Additionally, results of experimental studies show that business tourists with a low perceived threat of COVID-19 are more willing to consume Airbnb listings than leisure tourists. This study contributes to ascertaining the destination and behavioral heterogeneity in pandemic-induced P2P accommodation consumption using spatial analytic and experimental studies.
... Benzer şekilde Rice ve Khanin (2019)'de şehir merkezi, turistik alanlar, alışveriş ve sosyal olanakların turistler için konut tercihinde etkili özellikler olduğunu ifade etmektedir. Ayrıca yapılan farklı çalışmalarda da (Doğru, Mody, Suess, Line ve Bonn, 2020;Kurt ve Ünlüönen, 2017;Zhang, Cui, Cheng, Zhang, ve Li, 2020) turistlerin, her şey dâhil sistemle hizmet veren lüks oteller yerine şehir merkezine yakın, eğlence ve alışveriş gibi boş zaman temelli sosyal faaliyetlere de zaman ayırabilecekleri tesislerde kalmayı tercih ettikleri belirtilmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Boş zamanlarını farklı destinasyonlara seyahat ederek geçirmeyi amaçlayan bireyler, konaklama ihtiyaçları için pansiyon, otel, apart, hostel ve rezidans gibi farklı konaklama tesislerini tercih etmektedir. Airbnb platformu bu bireyler için hem özel hem de işletme bazında konaklama hizmeti sağlayan kullanıcıları e-ticaret odaklı bir iş modeliyle bir araya getirmektedir. Platformun ve tesislerin bütüncül bir şekilde değerlendirilmesi açısından kullanıcıların yorumları önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Airbnb kullanıcılarının tesis, destinasyon ve tesis sahiplerine ilişkin görüşlerini içeren yorumların incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Airbnb platformu üzerinden konaklama tesislerini kiralayan bireylerin hizmet sonrası mekâna ilişkin yaptıkları yorumlar araştırma kapsamında netnografi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Araştırmaya Airbnb kullanımının yoğun olduğu İstanbul, New York ve Paris olmak üzere üç önemli destinasyon dahil edilmiştir. Bu kapsamda kullanıcı yorumları incelenmiş ve veriler temalar halinde değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, Airbnb kullanıcılarının konum, güven, fiyat, hijyen, oda olanakları, çevre ve ev sahipleri şeklinde tespit edilen temalara odaklandığı ortaya çıkmıştır.
... Benzer şekilde Rice ve Khanin (2019)'de şehir merkezi, turistik alanlar, alışveriş ve sosyal olanakların turistler için konut tercihinde etkili özellikler olduğunu ifade etmektedir. Ayrıca yapılan farklı çalışmalarda da (Doğru, Mody, Suess, Line ve Bonn, 2020;Kurt ve Ünlüönen, 2017;Zhang, Cui, Cheng, Zhang, ve Li, 2020) turistlerin, her şey dâhil sistemle hizmet veren lüks oteller yerine şehir merkezine yakın, eğlence ve alışveriş gibi boş zaman temelli sosyal faaliyetlere de zaman ayırabilecekleri tesislerde kalmayı tercih ettikleri belirtilmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Boş zamanlarını farklı destinasyonlara seyahat ederek geçirmeyi amaçlayan bireyler, konaklama ihtiyaçları için pansiyon, otel, apart, hostel ve rezidans gibi farklı konaklama tesislerini tercih etmektedir. Airbnb platformu bu bireyler için hem özel hem de işletme bazında konaklama hizmeti sağlayan kullanıcıları e-ticaret odaklı bir iş modeliyle bir araya getirmektedir. Platformun ve tesislerin bütüncül bir şekilde değerlendirilmesi açısından kullanıcıların yorumları önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Airbnb kullanıcılarının tesis, destinasyon ve tesis sahiplerine ilişkin görüşlerini içeren yorumların incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Airbnb platformu üzerinden konaklama tesislerini kiralayan bireylerin hizmet sonrası mekâna ilişkin yaptıkları yorumlar araştırma kapsamında netnografi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Netnografi yöntemi, geleneksel olarak bilinen etnografi yönteminin bilgisayar aracılı ortamda uygulanan halidir. Araştırmaya Airbnb kullanımının yoğun olduğu İstanbul, New York ve Paris olmak üzere üç önemli destinasyon dahil edilmiştir. Bu kapsamda kullanıcı yorumları incelenmiş ve veriler temalar halinde değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, Airbnb kullanıcılarının kiraladıkları destinasyonlarda konum, güven, fiyat, hijyen, oda olanakları, çevre ve ev sahipleri şeklinde tespit edilen temalara odaklandığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Kullanıcı yorumları olumlu ve olumsuz olarak iki şekilde ayrıca incelenmiş ve olumsuz yorumların çoğunlukla hijyen ve güven olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. A B S T R A C T Individuals who aim to spend their leisure traveling to different destinations prefer different accommodation facilities such as hostels, hotels, apartments and residences for their accommodation needs. The Airbnb platform brings together users who provide both private and business accommodation services for these individuals with an e-commerce-oriented business model. Users' comments are important for the holistic evaluation of the platform and facilities. In this study, it is aimed to examine the comments of Airbnb users regarding the facility, destination and facility owners. The comments made by individuals who rented accommodation facilities on the Airbnb platform regarding the post-service space were analyzed using netnography method. Three important destinations, namely Istanbul, New York and Paris, where Airbnb usage is intense, were included in the study. In this context, user comments were examined, and the data were evaluated as themes. According to the findings, it has been revealed that Airbnb users focus on the themes identified as location, trust, price, hygiene, room facilities, environment and hosts in their rented destinations. User comments were examined in two ways, positive and negative, and it was revealed that negative comments were mostly hygiene and trust.
... The accommodation sharing hosts. The increasing professionalisation of Airbnb users and rise of multi-unit hosts can be noticed extensively (Dogru et al., 2020b). Therefore, it can be anticipated that this trend will continue until private households have been replaced by professional hostsor even large corporations: ...
This Delphi study formulates the most probable future scenario for the accommodation sharing sector within the next five to ten years. It addresses six thematic aspects: relevance, different forms of accommodation sharing, users, hosts, platforms, and finally, industry regulation. We identify the most likely holistic future scenario by conducting a two-stage Delphi study involving 59 expert panelists. It addresses 33 projections for six thematic sections of the accommodation sharing industry: relevance, different forms of accommodation sharing, users, hosts, platforms, and finally, industry regulation. Our results indicate that the number of shared accommodations and users of home- sharing will increase. Moreover, the cost advantage is the predominant driver for users to engage in the accommodation sharing segment, and for the hosts, the generation of an extra income is the primary incentive. Finally, the regulation within this industry is expected to be more effective in the foreseeable future. The results are critical, not only to advance our theoretical understanding and stimulate critical discussions on the long-term development of accommodation sharing but also to assist governments and policymakers who have an interest in developing and regulating this sector and developers seeking business opportunities. While there is ample knowledge about the past and current development of accommodation sharing in tourism, little is understood about its potential future development and implications for consumers, the economy, and society. To date, no scientific research is available that develops scenarios about the future of accommodation sharing.
... On the one hand, there is an emerging body of literature showing relevant differences between single property and multi-property (also known as 'professional') hosts (Adamiak, 2019;Boto-García et al., 2021;Dogru et al., 2020b). The latter group has been found to be more business-oriented (Gil & Sequera, 2020), to be more proficient in dynamic pricing (Gibbs et al., 2018b;Kwok & Xie, 2019), and to earn higher revenues per available room (Deboosere et al., 2019;Oskam et al., 2019). ...
Article
The importance of controlling for intragroup correlation in clustered samples is largely acknowledged in applied econometrics. However, this issue has remained underexplored in tourism research. In many instances, the observation units are naturally grouped, either geographically or due to the sampling scheme, and therefore the iid assumption of the error term in linear regression is broken. This paper presents two case studies to show how default standard errors overstate the estimator precision when the error terms are independent across clusters but correlated within clusters. First, hedonic pricing functions for the Airbnb rental market are revisited using data for almost 225,000 listings in 14 countries. Second, destination choice modelling is reconsidered exploiting monthly household microdata for Spain involving 115,937 tourism trips between 2015 and 2019. Practical implications for research practice are derived.
... Other studies have focused on hosts, like the professionalization and monopolization of Airbnb by multi-unit hosts (Dogru, Mody, Suess, Line, & Bonn, 2020;Gil & Sequera, 2020) and 'self-entrepreneurship' effects (Kenney & Zysman, 2016). From this point of view, the disruptive effects on the labour market in terms of transformation and fragmentation of work (Kenney & Zysman, 2019;Sigala, 2018) and on the marginality of the non-professional hosts (Bosma, 2021;Semi & Tonetta, 2020) were also explored. ...
Article
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The present paper investigates the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on Airbnb's market and focuses on the crisis's effects on areas affected by digital intermediation. The study's goal is to analyse Airbnb geographies by focusing on short-term rental supply and demand at the intra-urban scale. Using historical data and by adopting a quantitative and spatial data-oriented approach, the work highlights the shifting geographies of digital intermediation. Results show that while the areas that have increased their supply are limited, a large, clustered and contiguous portion of the cities seems to have reversed the exponential growth trend of recent years. Finally, the study offers a reflection on the future of short-term rentals in the post-pandemic city. The case study refers to four Italian cities: Florence, Milan, Rome, and Naples.
... Since its inception, Airbnb has served over 200 million guests (Airbnb, (n.d.)) thereby establishing its place as a serious player in the accommodations game. The increase in room supply brought about by the advent of Airbnb has been a cause of great concern to operators of traditional hotels (Haywood, Mayock, Freitag, Owoo, & Fiorilla, 2017), as customers increasingly come to view Airbnb properties as alternatives to established hotels (Dogru, Mody, Suess, Line, & Bonn, 2019;Guttentag & Smith, 2017;Ting, 2017). ...
Article
Although Airbnb's impact on hotels has been quantified for major hotel markets in the United States, these effects have not been quantified in international hotel markets. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Airbnb listings on key hotel performance metrics in an international context. In particular, we examine the effects of Airbnb listings on hotel revenue per available room (RevPAR), average daily rate (ADR), and occupancy rate (OCC) in major international hotel markets, namely London, Paris, Sydney and Tokyo. The results show that Airbnb listings in these major cities have been increasing more than 100% year over year and that the effect of Airbnb on hotel RevPAR and OCC is negative and statistically significant. In particular, a 1% increase in Airbnb listings decreases hotel RevPAR by between 0.016% and 0.031% in these hotel markets. The implications of these findings for destinations and hoteliers are discussed.
... There remains ample potential for expansion of the framework and exploration of the effects of moderating factors as identified in tourism research, testing of which would provide a more robust understanding of how a sense of feeling at home or a home-like setting affects users with varying demographics and situational conditions. Moreover, as peerto-peer accommodations have drawn increasing attention in the tourism and hospitality literature, most studies have focused on the unique features of peer-to-peer accommodations (e.g., Hajibaba & Dolnicar, 2017;Karlson & Dolnicar, 2016) or their impacts on the hotel industry (e.g., Dogru et al., 2020a;Dogru et al., 2020b;Dogru et al., 2020c;Tussyadiah & Pesonen, 2016;Zervas et al., 2017). However, it remains scarce regarding how customers perceive the experience provided by peer-topeer accommodations (Brochado et al., 2017;Poon & Huang, 2017). ...
Article
Although there is the saying “there’s no place like home”, research on a traveler’s sense of feeling at home in an accommodation and its influence on their well-being is underrepresented. Particularly, given the increase of peer-to-peer accommodations and healthcare travel segment, this gap is notable. Analyzing data including 420 respondents who stayed at an Airbnb and 320 who stayed at hotel accommodations, structural equation modeling tested the effect of an “accommodations homescape” on a healthcare traveler’s sense of feeling at home and well-being. The findings have strategic implications that emphasize the need to engineer home-like environments for particular traveler segments.
... In fact, the number of hosts who lease two or more properties in the U.S totals nine million, and 44% of those homes are professionally managed. Some scholars refer to this professional Airbnb as Airbnb 2.0 [2]. As an individual service provider, a host attracts prospective customers by advertising the This paper is based on a master's dissertation by the first author (Tie Xiao Rui, 2019) and was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2019S1A3A2098438). characteristics of himself/herself and his/her properties, and tries to achieve competitive advantages [3,4]. ...
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In a peer-to-peer transaction of the sharing economy, an Airbnb host is a worker as well as a service provider. From this perspective, this study explores how Airbnb hosts’ perception of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and organizational justice impact their customer orientation directly and indirectly via job satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). The results highlight the importance of a host’s perception of Airbnb’s CSR and organizational justice. The results provide various implications for online accommodation businesses and guidance for future research.
... The other subject is, comparatively, less populated as scholarly reflections on this subject are just beginning to circulate: Cocola-Gant and Gago (2019, but see also Cocola-Gant, 2016, Serrano et al. 2020) produce compelling empirical evidence that surveyed Airbnb hosts are not local dwellers sharing their homes but are individual or corporate investors buying properties in order to specifically let those on STR platforms. Dogru et al. (2020) and Gil and Sequera (2020) get to similar conclusions by measuring the concentration of listings. Desiree Fields (2019) follows the same path, focusing on the role of platforms as bearers of financial logic in the housing sector, hence enabling concentration and penetration by non-local capitals. ...
Article
Despite discourses on how digital platforms have democratized access to the market there is increasing evidence on their role in boosting concentration, as recommender algorithms and digital reputation tools usually favour a small clique of top users, this may include short term rental platforms. There is also mounting evidence regarding the production of negative externalities connected to the proliferation of Airbnb (and similar services). Our contribution investigates the political economy of concentration in Airbnb leveraging the lens of urban studies while problematizing digital platforms as key contemporary infrastructures. Using a dataset of 6,5 million reviews from Inside Airbnb we estimate a) yearly revenue and listing concentration b) the proportion of listings which are more likely to feed negative externalities in the housing sector eg. those listing full houses and those having high availability in twelve European cities. Starting from a simple measure of a phenomenon that has hardly been quantized in recent literature, we dissect the role of STR platforms in urban political economy.
... The impact of the shift towards short-term lets over residential rentals has been experienced globally (Dogru et al., 2020;Gil & Sequera, 2020;Gutiérrez et al., 2017;Oskam, 2020). While there has been significant focus on the disruption to tourism industries, there has been increasing focus on the dynamics of housing markets and these platforms. ...
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Since the Global Financial Crash, there have been significant changes to the private rented sectors across the UK. The PRS has become increasingly important to providing housing to millions of homes and has gained increasing political and regulatory focus. At the same time, there has been a substantial increase in the number of short-term holiday lets enabled by online platforms such as Airbnb. There are concerns that this housing stock is being lost from residential housing and exacerbates issues of housing equality. This paper undertakes a case study of Airbnb growth in London to examine changes in listings and provides insight into Airbnb hosts. The extant literature and analysis in this paper support the argument of the loss of privately rented properties, with housing stock being reallocated as tourist accommodation, potentially displacing local communities. Finally, the paper analyses the struggles this poses for policymakers, communities and housing providers.
... At its beginning, Airbnb mainly featured hosts renting out single properties. However, over the last few years, there has been an increase in hosts offering multiple units on the platform, indicating an increasing professionalization of Airbnb hosts (Dogru, Mody, Suess, Line, & Bonn, 2020). However, current research on the expected ability of multi-listing (also called commercial) hosts to outperform individual (also called single or mom-and-pop) hosts yields contradictory results. ...
Article
Dynamic pricing is a strategic revenue management tool used by various businesses to optimize profits, and sharing economy lodging has become an interesting context for its use. However, hosts managing multiple listings and nonprofessional hosts have structural and managerial differences. This paper explores the relevance of the degree of professionalization of Airbnb hosts and its relationships with pricing strategies and listing performance. The longitudinal (2016–2019) study analyzes two icons of Italy, Rome and Milan and includes more than 1.2 million observations. The findings show that both the listing performance and the average intensity of price variability tend to increase with the degree of professionalization (number of listings). At the same time, the impact of price variability on performance remains solid regardless of the number of listings. Thus, the study suggests that time-varying pricing is an important and relatively accessible strategy for both professional and nonprofessional hosts.
... After private citizens, global investors become extremely interested in this field. As a result, accommodation platforms such as Airbnb, Booking, Vrbo/HomeAway and others are nowadays for the most part dominated by professional actors, including: property management companies (firms or associations that manage private property of a third party collecting a percentage on the revenue), real estate firms, construction enterprises and even financial companies (Dogru et al. 2020;Gil and Sequera 2020). Although a part of the market is still composed by nonprofessional individuals, the increasing engagement of professional actors is the manifestation of how the real estate fever has flowed into a highly profitable (short-term) rental extractivism (Kemp 2020; Wijburg, Aalbers, and Heeg 2018). ...
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In this section, we reflect, both empirically and speculatively, on the perspectives for STRs and related digital platforms in the (post-)pandemic city, on the grounds of early signals of change in relation to spatial justice and institutional arrangements. The discussion is opened by Tulumello and Cocola-Gant, who, by investigating the case of Lisbon, Portugal, reflect on the flexible nature of platforms vis-à-vis the (neoliberal) cloud of de- and re-regulation in housing and rental markets, discussing how this intersection allows STRs to adapt and succeed, also during the pandemic. Similarly, Iacovone explores the professionalisation of platform-mediated STRs and their adaptability to increasingly more flexible and malleable requests from the market – dimensions that allow them to successfully outcompete smaller actors. Finally, Pettas and Dagkouli–Kyriakoglou, by focusing on the case of Athens, Greece, discuss the ways STRs could be transformed into housing infrastructure for remote workers in connection to the restructuring of the post-pandemic labour market.
... They divide the platform model of the sharing economy into two strings: (1) platform capitalism and (2) platform cooperativism. The first one stands for the professionalization of sharing economy ventures in the light of profit maximization and commercialization (Dogru et al., 2020;Escobedo et al., 2021). The second one represents fair, genuine sharing and usually is democratically governed and cooperatively owned Escobedo et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The sharing economy is attracting increasing research attention. However, scholarly knowledge lacks understanding about the individuals who are the key players in this emerging phenomenon. This study uses an explorative approach to investigate the individual‐level characteristics of sharing economy users and providers. We analyze a sample of 1170 respondents and reveal that socio‐demographics (gender, age, and education), personality traits (Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness), and attitudes (interdependent self, materialism, sharing economy support, and perceived public value contributions) are significantly associated with people's activities in the sharing economy. Our results shed new lights into the academic debate about individual drivers of the sharing economy.
Article
The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences between residents and visitors in their attitudes and behaviours towards sustainable tourism. The study examines the validity of the 21-item version of SUS-TAS, measuring invariance between residents’ and visitors’ attitudes in Madrid, a mature tourist destination with high use of accommodation-sharing platforms, in order to have a new testable tool for future sustainable planning. For multi-group invariance assessment, the Spanish version of the SUS-TAS for residents and the version for visitors are validated separately following a first-order, seven-factor model. The multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed full configural invariance, partial metric invariance and partial scalar invariance across residents and visitors. Findings suggest that the main variations between residents and visitors were related to the “community-centered economy” and “maximizing community participation” constructs. To conclude, SUS-TAS can be used to measure residents’ and visitors’ attitudes towards sustainable tourism in a context with high use of accommodation-sharing platforms. Implications for future research and limitations are discussed.
Article
This study aimed to combine and systematise the reasons why guests opt to use (or reject) peer-to-peer hospitality services according to recent literature, thus providing practical solutions to strengthen this industry. In this regard, this study performed a comprehensive literature review of 24 studies in the field of tourism and hospitality by (i) applying their findings (N reasons = 115) to a broad model of predicted consumption (behavioural perspective model), (ii) recognising the incidence of utilitarian and informational outcomes in the industry, (iii) identifying a pattern of reinforcement attached to it, and (iv) implementing the marketing mix structure to develop growth strategies. The results show that guests opt for these services primarily for utilitarian reasons, such as feeling welcomed by their host and comfortable in the neighbourhood (interaction), and that the level of security introduced by these services (safety) either attracts or turns away consumers. Furthermore, the high utilitarian/low informational pattern of reinforcements attached to these services reveals opportunities to develop the industry, which may be covered by extending accommodation that prompts individuals’ need for self-promotion and uniqueness (place strategy). This study contributes to past peer-to-peer hospitality research focussed on guests’ perspectives by linking their findings and providing a broad-theme overview. It also extends the behavioural perspective model literature to hospitality analysis, providing managers with a further consumer predictive tool.
Article
This study examines and compares the extent to which Airbnb and hotel supply affect key hotel performance measures in the United States. The results show that although both Airbnb and hotel supply adversely affect hotel revenues (i.e., RevPAR), the magnitude of the impact of hotel supply on RevPAR is much larger than that of Airbnb. Airbnb adversely affects hotel room prices (i.e., ADR), however; it does not affect occupancy rates (i.e., OCC). Yet, increasing hotel supply negatively affects OCC but not ADR. The results from the state-level analyses further showed that the negative effects of Airbnb and hotel supply on RevPAR, ADR and OCC persist only in states with high hotel supply. Analyzing the joint effects of Airbnb and hotel supply on hotel performance in a manner that is both geographically-comprehensive and spatially-meaningful, this study provides a more complete and nuanced understanding on the economic dynamics of the accommodation industry.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between two dimensions of servicescape (i.e. substantive and communicative servicescape), health care travelers’ emotions, perceived value and word-of-mouth intentions. It also assesses the moderating effects of accommodation type (i.e. hotel and Airbnb) and interior design styles (i.e. traditional and modern) on the relationship between the two servicescape dimensions and travelers’ emotions. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample from a survey of 692 health care travelers who stayed at either a peer-to-peer accommodation (i.e. Airbnb) or a hotel, a multi-step structural equation model analysis tested the relationships among variables. It examined the moderating effects of accommodation type and interior design style. Findings The relationships between servicescape, emotions, perceived value and word-of-mouth were significant. Also, the two moderators affected how servicescape influenced the emotions of health care travelers. For Airbnb guests, communicative servicescape had a more substantial effect on enhancing their positive emotions than hotel guests. For health care travelers who stayed at an accommodation with a traditional interior design style, in addition to enhancing positive emotions of health care travelers, substantive servicescape significantly reduced their negative emotions. Practical implications The findings suggest the need for the lodging industry to examine how health care travelers perceive and experience their accommodations with unique interior design characteristics. Also, stakeholders in the lodging industry should leverage the aspects of substantive servicescape in terms of relevant interior design styles, which, in turn, influence health care travelers’ positive word-of-mouth intentions. Given the increase in medical mobility and demand for accommodations by those traveling to receive health care services, understanding the lodging environment and how it affects travelers in this segment is essential. Originality/value This research develops a comprehensive servicescape model with a focus on the communicative dimension. Moreover, this study significantly contributes to the hospitality literature regarding how the core experience and various interior design styles influence a rapidly growing segment of health care travelers. Health care travelers’ emotions are essential to consider given the propensity to experience stress related to travel situational health factors.
Article
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With Airbnb becoming an important issue in both tourism and public policy, scholarly research on Airbnb has increased over the past several years. The role of Airbnb varies according to the features and expectations of the host territory. It can either be considered as a complement to an underdeveloped supply of tourist accommodation or as a potential competitor to traditional accommodation that has to be regulated. Although most of the research has been carried out in big cities, Airbnb activity is also present in smaller towns, resorts, rural and mountain areas. This article aims to analyse the Airbnb spatial distribution in a mountain destination (Andorra). Specifically, it is aimed at exploring whether there is a spatial correlation regarding the location of traditional accommodation. Clustering techniques are used to determine natural groups of urban settlements on the basis of the number of Airbnb listings and different types of traditional accommodation. The results pinpoint where Airbnb is concentrating its accommodation offer, as well as where both Airbnb listings and traditional accommodation are clustered. Our research sheds light on the distribution patterns of Airbnb in mountain areas and deepens knowledge on the influences of public policy strategies aimed at regulating the Airbnb phenomena.
Article
The Covid-19 pandemic has spread like wildfire across the globe. The hospitality industry, including the accommodation sharing sector, has been one of the hardest hit. Renting an Airbnb property, sharing a room via Couchsurfing and exchanging homes via LoveHomeSwap became almost impossible under the new restrictions. This paper analyses the effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the accommodation sharing sector and conceptually uncovers the underlying reasons for its disruption. We submit that the main strengths of the accommodation sharing sector, which originally drove its rise, became its weaknesses during the pandemic. An asset-light business model, the intermediation of physical transactions via online platforms, a reliance on individually owned and underused properties, and the popularization of access over ownership propelled the initial expansion of this sector. However, these all backfired during the pandemic. The paper outlines potential avenues for the post-pandemic recovery of accommodation sharing and presents future directions for research.
Article
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This article contributes to the ongoing debate on the increasing professionalization and commercialization of Airbnb through multi-unit hosts who offer more than one listing. The process of professionalization brings the question of whether Airbnb is still considered as a sharing economy platform or it has already lost sharing economy ethos. To answer this question, this study focuses on Europe’s top 10 Airbnb destinations (respectively London, Paris, Rome, Copenhagen, Berlin, Lisbon, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Milan and Madrid). The descriptive analysis reveals that although Airbnb positions itself under the positive value of sharing economy, there are indications that it has become increasingly Professional through commercial listings. In contrast to the original concept of sharing, the visibilities of multi-unit hosts, specialized in short-term rental business, have increased on the platform, and this situation indicates the tendency of Airbnb’s operating model from consumer-to-consumer to business-to-consumer. This change from peer producer to professional suppliers may open the door of the platform to be defined as a lodging corporation rather than a sharing economy company. This comparative study also shows that the commercialization level of Airbnb in the cities is quite different. This may be due to different regulations for the short-term rentals.
Article
The rise of the sharing economy has allowed consumers to choose from hundreds of thousands of diverse accommodations. In this article, we explore the impact of price partitioning on demand. Our findings reveal that partitioning the price into different elements can have a positive impact on demand. We argue that when the price is partitioned into different fees, it draws attention to the rationale behind the fees – such as additional cleaning. While the presence of the fees acts as a signal, we draw upon prospect theory to argue that the amount of the fee is viewed as a loss and thus has a negative impact on demand. We test our arguments using data on Airbnb's across the whole United States and find that price partitioning positively impacts demand, but the costs themselves have a negative impact on demand.
Article
Extant research provides ample evidence that Airbnb has an adverse impact on hotel revenues and that a majority of Airbnb hosts offer multiple listings on the platform. Arguably, multi-unit host listings are the primary driving force for the associated decreases in hotel revenues. To test this proposition, this study examines the extent to which single- and multi-unit host Airbnb host listings have differing effects on hotel revenues. The results show that the adverse impact of Airbnb supply on hotel revenues was mainly driven by decreases in hotel prices rather than decreases in hotel demand. Contrary to expectations, single-unit host listings exerted greater downward pricing pressure on hotels than multi-unit host listings. These effects were consistently observed across hotel segments, with economy-scale hotels experiencing substitution effects in addition to pricing pressure. The findings have significant implications for researchers and stakeholders impacted by the sharing economy in the lodging industry.
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Professional hosts who operate more than one listing or in a full-time manner on peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation sharing platforms are growing. This study investigates (1) the effect of customer evaluation on property performance through online traveler reviews, (2) the difference of property performance between host types, and (3) how the effect of customer evaluation on property performance varies by host types. A large-scale, longitudinal dataset of the entire State of California is used for econometric analyses. A property managed by a multi-listing host makes 27.8% more revenue per available night (RevPAN) than a property managed by a single-listing host in a month. In contrast, a property managed by a full-time host makes 23.8% less RevPAN than its counterpart managed by a part-time host. While customer evaluation positively affects listing performance, its effect is divergent between professional hosts, weaker for a multi-listing host but magnified for a full-time host.
Article
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Several researches highlighted the outstanding importance of security and trust in tourism. Natural disasters, pandemics, political turmoil, all have their influence on trust and security in tourism. As the experiences of the last decades show, pandemics have significant and immediate negative effects on travel decisions. The COVID-19 pandemic and the related travel restrictions influenced both global and national tourism flows in 2020, e.g., through the occupancy rates of hotels and P2P accommodations. However only a handful of studies dealt with the spatial aspects of these effects. This paper aims to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the Airbnb market in Budapest using data from AirDNA, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the decline in Airbnb offers and bookings. The significance of the study comes from the widely debated social and rental market effects of Airbnb. As our results show, similarly to the previous years, Airbnb occupancy had a certain seasonality in 2020. Both the number of guests and the overall revenue decreased compared to 2019. Consequently, many hosts decided to leave the platform, thus the number of available Airbnb listings decreased significantly. The long-term effects of this decrease are uncertain – and the same applies for future effects of P2P accommodations on the rental market of Budapest.
Purpose This study aims to conduct a critical review of the research on the sharing economy to identify its key intellectual foundations and their evolution and offers thematic and methodological recommendations for future research to advance the domain. Design/methodology/approach A tri-method approach using bibliometric (co-citation) analysis, thematic content analysis and a quantitative systematic literature review was conducted on sharing economy research in hospitality and tourism journals, up to and including May 2020. Findings The findings from the three methods were coherent and provide a clear picture of the fact that while research on the sharing economy in hospitality and tourism has achieved significant depth, the breadth of the understanding of this area remains somewhat limited. Each of the three periods of research on the sharing economy identified in the study were marked by a focus on specific thematic areas, with largely Western-situated researchers demonstrating limited theoretical engagement and using a limited range of methods and perspectives (disciplinary, stakeholders and sectors) to examine these themes. Research limitations/implications Recommendations for future thematic research opportunities are provided using a multi-level perspective. The present review does not include research that incorporates the impacts of COVID-19, which has significantly disrupted the hospitality and tourism industry and is the focus of current research in the field. However, the review represents the largest and most comprehensive assessment of the state of research on the sharing economy prior to COVID-19, and, as such, can serve as a valuable baseline for future reviews of sharing economy research during and after the pandemic. Originality/value In contrast with previous literature reviews, the present review is comprehensive in its scope, methodology and temporal coverage of sharing economy research. It also examines the evolution of research on the topic, enabling a more nuanced identification of gaps and future thematic and methodological research opportunities.
Article
This paper studies the existence of two different supply operators in the peer-to-peer accommodation rental market for the city of Madrid. We specifically analyse spatial dependencies in price formation and whether the so-called professional hosts (i.e. those who have several Airbnb listings) set prices differently from single-property hosts. To this end, hedonic price models are estimated with and without spatial price dependence. Listings' structural characteristics and accessibility measures to transportation hubs and sightseeing spots are considered in the regressions. Our results provide clear evidence that price mimicking is higher among non-professional hosts whereas professional hosts set prices more independently.
Article
Purpose Considering the importance of the content created by the host for Airbnb consumers while making purchasing decisions, this study aims to analyze how the Airbnb hosts promote their properties by revealing the predominant attributes considered by hosts when advertising them. Design/methodology/approach The unstructured textual content of online Airbnb accommodations advertisements (property descriptions) is analyzed through a longitudinal text mining approach. This study defines a pipeline based on a topic modeling approach that allows not only to identity the most prevalent text attributes but also its distribution through time. Findings This research identifies and characterizes the attributes most advertised over time, on about 30,000 accommodations posted monthly over two years, between 2018 and 2020. Five main topics were identified in the data reflecting only pull motivations. Noteworthy is the slight changes in properties’ descriptions topics along the two years, suggesting that “service” is increasingly being perceived by hosts as an important attribute of Airbnb guest experience. Originality/value Through a text analysis, this study provides an insight into peer-to-peer accommodation on the key attributes that hosts consider in the description of their properties to leverage the attractiveness of Airbnb. In the light of existing research, which has predominantly focused on the trustworthiness and attractiveness of the Airbnb advertisement, this research differentiates by analyzing the main attributes in text over time. Given the Airbnb’s changes since its inception, a longitudinal view is relevant to clarify how hosts advertise their properties and how it evolves in the light of these changes.
Article
Advances in peer-to-peer sharing, made popular by platforms like Airbnb, have altered previous conceptualizations of the lodging hospitality product. This study performs semantic and tonal analyses on a large-scale dataset collected from Airbnb. Our results support a concept of lodging hospitality that comprises core products and services, supplemental customer care, and a third factor we term ‘host sharing.’ Furthermore, the study offers insight into the topics and rhetorical tactics currently defining lodging hospitality marketing on the Airbnb platform. These findings can be used to provide guidance for Airbnb hosts to provide suitable information in their listings.
Article
Sharing economy research has risen exponentially during the last 4 years. Although several theoretical revisions on this topic have been developed, a conceptual analysis based on bibliometric techniques and science mapping tools is lacking. Within this framework, this article has two aims: (i) to carry on a performance analysis to identify the outstanding themes and (ii) to visually present the scientific structure by topics of research in sharing-collaborative economy as well as its evolution to identify future directions. The resources in the Web of Science Citation Index were used. Intelligent techniques and, more specifically, the SciMAT tool (based on co-word analysis and h-index analysis) were applied using a sample of 940 indexed papers from 2010 to 2020 (with 10.652 global citations). Our results show that the new post-pandemic era requires the sharing economy industry to investigate alternative ways: to improve trust, to innovate, to search for authenticity and experiences, to attend tourist motivations based on sustainability, and to use big data and manage overtourism.
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Existing research on Airbnb supply and Airbnb hosts can be arranged into three main areas: host segmentation, hosts’ platform choice as well as hosting quality and quantity
Chapter
Due to rapid growth rates and associated economic and social impacts, Airbnb has attracted increasing attention and controversy by various industry, government and community stakeholders in many cities and countries around the world.
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The rise of sharing economy players has revolutionised the accommodation sector. Airbnb is the largest provider of short-term rentals and is claimed to be threatening hotels. Many cities have already implemented short-term rental regulations. This master's thesis addresses a significant knowledge gap and quantifies the impact of short-term rental regulation on the hotel performance metrics revenue per available room (RevPAR), average daily rate (ADR) and occupancy rate (OCC) in five European cities by running a panel data regression model with fixed effects. The findings show that Airbnb supply has a significant negative effect on all performance indicators. The results also indicate that stricter regulation increases OCC but decreases ADR. This implies that Airbnb and hotels function at least partially as substitutes. Moreover, the substitution trend is more observable for lower-end hotels. The impact of Airbnb and its regulation on the hotel industry is not only statistically but also economically significant and leads to important theoretical and practical implications. III
Article
Pandemia COVID-19 wpłynęła na branżę turystyczną na całym świecie, w tym na platformę wynajmu krótkoterminowego Airbnb. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie rezultatów przeglądu literatury na temat pandemii COVID-19 i Airbnb w miastach. Analizą objęto wyselekcjonowane artykuły z baz danych ScienceDirect, Scopus oraz Web of Science. Uzyskane wyniki pozwoliły wyróżnić widoczne trzy główne grupy tematów, skupiające uwagę badaczy. Należą do nich: ilustracja wpływu pandemii na platformę Airbnb, przyszłość serwisu, kierunki dalszych badań. Uwzględniając powyższe oraz przedpandemiczną dyskusję nad Airbnb w miastach, zaproponowano również inne potencjalne problemy badawcze w kontekście analizowanego zjawiska.
Article
This article examines the relationship of city listing concentration and host listing share with prices in the peer-to-peer accommodation market. To this end, a multilevel analysis is applied to data from 216,960 Airbnb listings in 45 cities. The results reveal that while city-level concentration does not significantly affect prices, the listing share of each supplier does have a significant effect. This highlights that host listing shares can explain the ability of agents to influence the price of their accommodations even in relatively competitive markets such as peer-to-peer accommodation. Our findings have theoretical implications relating to the idiosyncratic aspects that affect business pricing, as well as practical implications in the private sphere for the rest of the hospitality and tourism industry, and for public policy in terms of regulations.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine peer-to-peer sharing platform business models, their sources of competitive advantage, and the roles, motivations and behaviors of key actors in their ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a conceptual approach that is rooted in the service, tourism and hospitality, and strategy literature. Findings First, this paper defines key types of platform business models in the sharing economy anddescribes their characteristics. In particular, the authors propose the differentiation between sharing platforms of capacity-constrained vs capacity-unconstrained assets and advance five core properties of the former. Second, the authors contrast platform business models with their pipeline business model counterparts to understand the fundamental differences between them. One important conclusion is that platforms cater to vastly more heterogeneous assets and consumer needs and, therefore, require liquidity and analytics for high-quality matching. Third, the authors examine the competitive position of platforms and conclude that their widely taken “winner takes it all” assumption is not valid. Primary network effects are less important once a critical level of liquidity has been reached and may even turn negative if increased listings raise friction in the form of search costs. Once a critical level of liquidity has been reached, a platform’s competitive position depends on stakeholder trust and service provider and user loyalty. Fourth, the authors integrate and synthesize the literature on key platform stakeholders of platform businesses (i.e. users, service providers, and regulators) and their roles and motivations. Finally, directions for further research are advanced. Practical implications This paper helps platform owners, service providers and users understand better the implications of sharing platform business models and how to position themselves in such ecosystems. Originality/value This paper integrates the extant literature on sharing platforms, takes a novel approach in delineating their key properties and dimensions, and provides insights into the evolving and dynamic forms of sharing platforms including converging business models.
Article
This review article (1) creates a knowledge map reflecting key areas of academic insight into the phenomenon of paid online peer-to-peer accommodation, (2) synthesizes these insights, and (3) points to regions on the knowledge map which require our attention in the future. This article also launches the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on peer-to-peer accommodation networks, which contains past and hot off the press work on the topic and will continue to grow as new articles on the topic appear in Annals
Article
The popularity of Airbnb has significantly impacted the hotel industry. One of Airbnb’s fundamental value propositions is the concept of authenticity, but the hospitality and tourism literature is scant with regards to what comprises an authentic consumption experience in the lodging industry, and how such authenticity generates brand loyalty. This study identifies two distinct pathways through which an authentic consumption experience influences brand loyalty for the leisure traveler: a brand pathway and an experience pathway. We find that hotels and Airbnb leverage these pathways differently in generating brand loyalty. These findings have implications for hotels and Airbnb in terms of guest loyalty.
Article
Airbnb's entry into the lodging landscape has dramatically increased the available supply of rooms for accommodating prospective visitors at a destination. In a competitive market, an increase in supply while keeping demand relatively constant would decrease prices and revenues. While Airbnb is expected to negatively impact the hotel industry, the effects of Airbnb on the performance of the hotel industry have not been extensively quantified. Also, existing studies on Airbnb's economic impacts are limited in their inferential, temporal, and/or geographical scope. In view of this gap in the literature, the present study examines the effects of Airbnb supply on key hotel performance metrics: room revenues (RevPAR), average daily rates (ADR), and occupancy rates (OCC) in ten major U.S. hotel markets for the period between July 2008 and June 2017. The results demonstrate that an increasing Airbnb supply negatively impacts all three performance metrics within the hotel industry. Moreover, while previous research has demonstrated a negative impact on lower-end hotels, our findings provide evidence of Airbnb's growing impact on the mainstream market across hotel class segments, signaling a high level of consistency with the tenets of the theory of disruptive innovation. The magnitude of these effects is not only statistically but also economically significant. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
The “sharing economy” concept has been embraced by governments, entrepreneurs and commentators as delivering new forms of opportunity for local and national economies. Accommodation-sharing platform Airbnb is often considered a sharing economy exemplar, and has promoted itself as helping middle-class residents to gain and retain a foothold in expensive housing markets. This narrative is particularly salient in “global cities”, where poor housing affordability and high tourist demand inevitably coexist. However, critics claim many Airbnb listings are actually permanent short-term rentals. Thus, instead of enabling new efficiencies in the use of housing assets and providing financial security for existing residents, Airbnb may be a variation on an old theme: removing properties from the market for long-term rental or purchase. This paper has three aims: it critically interrogates the sharing economy concept in relation to Airbnb; it reviews the regulatory responses to Airbnb in five global cities; and it examines Airbnb listing data in each city. Ultimately, the paper argues that while some Airbnb listings do fit the sharing economy narrative, others are part of the traditional economy of short term letting. Policy makers need to recognise the different impacts of these uses in their responses to Airbnb and the sharing economy.
Article
Urban vacation rentals, a phenomenon that has grown explosively very recently, bring benefits to cities but also impose quality of life and housing market impacts on neighborhoods. As a consequence, cities are beginning to grapple with creating regulatory regimes for managing this new land use and its encroachments on residential areas. This article uses webscraped data from Airbnb, the industry leader, to analyze the geographical patterns and concentrations of these impacts in five US cities: Austin, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, and Washington, DC. It uses the findings to put forth four general principles for cities seeking to manage impacts imposed by Airbnb and its competitors. These are that webscraping is an imperfect but relatively cheap and effective means of gathering locally specific data; that “spiky” usage patterns dictate a microgeographic approach to regulation; that meaningful regulation necessitates dedicated enforcement, likely paid for with permit fees; and that it is desirable to distinguish between “mom-and-pop” hosts and those operating at a commercial scale.
Article
Peer-to-peer markets, collectively known as the sharing economy, have emerged as alternative suppliers of goods and services traditionally provided by long-established industries. The authors explore the economic impact of the sharing economy on incumbent firms by studying the case of Airbnb, a prominent platform for short-term accommodations. They analyze Airbnb's entry into the state of Texas and quantify its impact on the Texas hotel industry over the subsequent decade. In Austin, where Airbnb supply is highest, the causal impact on hotel revenue is in the 8%-10% range; moreover, the impact is nonuniform, with lower-priced hotels and hotels that do not cater to business travelers being the most affected. The impact manifests itself primarily through less aggressive hotel room pricing, benefiting all consumers, not just participants in the sharing economy. The price response is especially pronounced during periods of peak demand, such as during the South by Southwest festival, and is due to a differentiating feature of peer-to-peer platforms-enabling instantaneous supply to scale to meet demand.
Article
We study the economic tradeoffs that drive organizations to position themselves closer to or further away from a multi-sided platform (MSP) business model, relative to three traditional alternatives: vertically integrated firms, resellers or input suppliers. These tradeoffs lead to a comprehensive discussion of the defining features of MSPs. The formal model we develop focuses on the MSP versus vertical integration choice, which we interpret in the context of professional services. A key tradeoff emerges between the need to coordinate decisions that generate spillovers across professionals (best achieved by a vertical integrated firm) and the need to both motivate unobservable effort by professionals and ensure professionals adapt their decisions to their private information (best achieved by a MSP). We show how this baseline tradeoff is impacted by the nature of contracts available to the vertically integrated firm and the MSP, and by the possibility of professionals holding pessimistic expectations when deciding whether or not to join the vertically integrated firm or MSP.
Inside the Rise and Fall of a Multimillion-Dollar Airbnb Scheme. The New York Times
  • L Ferré-Sadurní
Ferré-Sadurní, L. (2019). Inside the Rise and Fall of a Multimillion-Dollar Airbnb Scheme. The New York Times.
The sharing economy checks in: an analysis of airbnb in the United States
  • J Lane
  • M Woodworth
Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The sharing economy checks in: an analysis of airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Researc h/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx.
The sharing economy: A pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish form of neoliberal capitalism?
  • C J Martin
Martin, C. J. (2016). The sharing economy: A pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish form of neoliberal capitalism? Ecological Economics, 121, 149-159. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.11.027.
From air mattresses to unregulated business: An analysis of the other side of Airbnb
  • J O'neill
  • Y Ouyang
O'Neill, J., & Ouyang, Y. (2016). From air mattresses to unregulated business: An analysis of the other side of Airbnb.
How Can Airbnb Guests Live Like Locals if Hosts Are
  • D Schaal
Schaal, D. (2019). How Can Airbnb Guests Live Like Locals if Hosts Are, Well, Corporations? Skift.
The professionalization of Airbnb hosts
  • T Slee
Slee, T. (2014). The professionalization of Airbnb hosts. SKift.
How can Airbnb guests live like locals if hosts are, well, corporations? Skift
  • D Schaal
Schaal, D. (2019). How can Airbnb guests live like locals if hosts are, well, corporations? Skift.