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Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of Turnover Rate within Business Organization


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The report presents the turnover problems in a call center positioned in Bulgaria. This research identify the main reasons of high turnover within business case study and to identify key actions that could be done to decrease the turnover rate. The recommendations drawn from the research of a particular company may serve the project managers of other call center companies. But leaders need to consider the specificity of their organizations and make a similar study of key factors, benchmarking the results of the study presented here, and only then plan action steps for change.
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Center for Open Access in Science
Open Journal for Research in Economics, 2019, 2(2), 73-84.
ISSN (Online) 2620-102X
© Authors. Terms and conditions of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) apply.
Correspondence: Assist. prof. Mariya Aleksandrova Ivanova, Department of Administration and
Management, New Bulgarian University, Sofia 1618, j.k. Ovcha kupel, Montevideo 21, BULGARIA. E-mail:
Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of
Turnover Rate within Business Organization
Mariya Aleksandrova Ivanova
New Bulgarian University, Sofia, BULGARIA
Department of Administration and Management
Received 26 August 2019 ▪ Revised 15 November 2019 ▪ Accepted 18 November 2019
The report presents the turnover problems in a call center positioned in Bulgaria. This research
identify the main reasons of high turnover within business case study and to identify key actions
that could be done to decrease the turnover rate. The recommendations drawn from the research
of a particular company may serve the project managers of other call center companies. But
leaders need to consider the specificity of their organizations and make a similar study of key
factors, benchmarking the results of the study presented here, and only then plan action steps for
Keywords: turnover problem, level of stress, poor management, lack of career growth and
development, lack of recognition.
1. Introduction
Turnover problem has been one of the main topics of scientific researches in the
human resources and organizational behavior field for more than 40 years.
This article presents the results of a case study. This research was done within a call
center positioned in Bulgaria by a well-known international organization TELUS International
Europe. The research was carried out through the collaboration of a team of researchers at New
Bulgarian University and a student who is an employee holding a key position in the selection and
training department.
The Case Study: TELUS International Europe is a multilingual contact center, BPO
(business process outsourcing) and ITO (information technology outsourcing) provider that was
founded in Sofia in 2004. Currently the company has around 3,500 team members in Bulgaria,
Romania and England. In 2014 the company became part of TELUS International global BPO
company with over 28,000 team members around the world with headquarters in Canada.
TELUS International offers outsourcing services in following spheres: contact centers,
back-office administration, finance and accounting, supply chain management, IT, analytics and
business intelligence, business process improvement and others.
M. A. Ivanova Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of Turnover Rate within
The organizational structure of TELUS is project-based, meaning that for each project
a separate team is chosen, headed by project manager and supervisors. Projects can be in different
areas, usually employees from different projects do not communicate with each other on a regular
basis. This is the reason of why job satisfaction of employees and turnover rate can differ
significantly between different projects.
Object of research is Project X that has more than 100 employees, it deals with
inbound calls and e-mails from customers in 10 different languages. Therefore, the whole team is
divided into 4 smaller teams that serve different markets: Russian market, German market, CEE
Market (including Poland, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria) and Mediterranean Market
(including Greece, Israel and Turkey).
Subject of study. One of the main problems that each call center has to combat is the
problem of high turnover. In our project the turnover rate exceeds 30%, which is much more than
expected by the management of the company. Interestingly, turnover rate differs significantly
even within the same project, but between different markets. For example, 11 out of 21 current
members of Russian market team are employees that have worked less than 1 month in the project
(they are all newcomers), and at the same time during the first 5 months of 2018 year 6 employees
left the team. It shows that only for 5 months of this year the turnover rate within Russian market
team exceeds 35%.
The main goal of this research is to identify the main reasons of high turnover within
our project X and to identify key actions that could be done to decrease the turnover rate.
In order to achieve this research goal the following tasks should be performed:
- To identify the essence and the main reasons of turnover by reviewing the
literature on this topic;
- To identify the main expectations of newcomers within the project X;
- To identify the main reasons of turnover within project X;
- To identify factors that have the biggest impact on turnover rate within project
X, and whether expectations of newcomers are fulfilled or not;
- To propose actions for reducing turnover rate within project X.
2. Research background and theoretical framework
In 1977 turnover was defined by Price as “the ratio of the number of the organizational
members who have left during the period being considered divided by the average number of
people in that organization during period”. In 1995 Woods looked at turnover from a different
perspective and described it as “replacement cycle” – a time, when position is vacant after
dismissal of previous employee and when new employee has to be found and hired. In 2000
Abassi defined turnover in a much broader perspective as movement of employees not only in
and out of an organization, but as movement of employees around the labor market: between
firms, jobs, between states of employment and unemployment.
Turnover is usually perceived automatically as a bad and undesirable process.
However, turnover can also have positive impact on the organization, depending on whether high
performers or low performers are leaving. This is the reason why the typology of turnover has
been elaborated (Allen, 2008):
- Voluntary (initiated by the employee) and involuntary (initiated by the
- Functional (is not harmful for the organization) and dysfunctional (is
harmful for the organization);
Open Journal for Research in Economics, 2019, 2(2), 73-84.
- Unavoidable (is caused by factors over which organization does not have
control) and avoidable (is caused by factors over which organization has
Iqbal (2010) in his article also defined two types of involuntary turnover: discharge
turnover (dismissal of individual employee due to discipline or job performance problem) and
downsizing turnover (part of organizational restructuring and/or cost-reduction program).
In general, all studies on turnover can be divided into 3 main groups: defining main
reasons of employee turnover, defining effects of employee turnover on organization and
elaboration of main strategies to minimize the turnover rate.
Usually, each employee’s decision to leave is determined by some shock (positive or
negative) and falls within one of the following 4 paths:
- Dissatisfaction the most traditional reason of turnover, when employee
perceives that he/she is giving more to the organization than he/she is
receiving from the organization, or when employee understands that his/her
capabilities are wider than / or do not correspond with the requirements of
the position;
- Better alternative the situation when employee may be even satisfied
with his/her current position, but receives better proposal (for example, in
terms of remuneration or career advancement);
- Following a plan the situation when employee leaves the organization
according to a certain pre-defined plan (for example, when employee leaves
the company due to pregnancy);
- Not following a plan turnover as a result of some impulsive reaction of
employee (for example, being passed over for a promotion).
Most of the researches dedicated to the problem of voluntary turnover are highly
practical and study turnover in a certain organization or in a certain sector. This can easily be
explained by the fact that voluntary decision to quit is always individual and can differ from
person to person, even within the same organization. Therefore, the more precise is the sample
for the research, the more practical will be the conclusions, and the more beneficial it will be for
the organization.
As an example, research of Robert D. Gardner (2010) in his study on the factors that
influence turnover of K-12 (meaning primary and secondary education) music teachers in the
United States came to the conclusion that there are some factors of turnover that are specific for
that category of teachers:
- Music teachers receive less support than other teachers for work with
children with special needs;
- There is lack of a music supervisor support (that could handle large part
of the administrative work), meaning lack of administrative support (this
factor is especially crucial for male teachers);
- Music teachers that work part-time and have to visit separate buildings
during the day are more likely to quit than those who work full-time and
spend the whole working day in one building etc.
This is an example of a research of turnover problem in one single profession.
However, currently there are more than 40,000 different professions all over the world and the
reasons of turnover can differ significantly among them.
M. A. Ivanova Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of Turnover Rate within
Our study is aimed to investigate the turnover problem in the project X of TELUS call
center. Therefore, the specific literature on turnover problems in call centers can be useful for our
So far, many scientists have examined the problem of turnover in various call centers
in different parts of the world. Although most of the call centers are considered to have a lot in
common for example, the presence of the so-called “emotional burnout”, when agents have to
face negative emotions of clients on a daily basis, or the need to “hide emotions”, when in each
conversation agents have to maintain pleasant tone of their voice, even when they have negative
emotions they can also significantly differ.
A lot depends on the type of service that is provided by the call center whether it is
just receiving orders for delivery of pizza, or it is request to repair IT systems. Also, some call
centers may specialize in outbound calls, while others work only with inbound calls. Obviously,
the level of emotional burnout should be greater in outbound call centers because of high
percentage of rejections from the part of the customers.
Therefore, the results of scientific researches on identifying the main reasons of
turnover in a call center can differ significantly. Part of the researches make accent on the
performance indicators that influence the turnover rate, while another part come to the
conclusion that performance is not that important as level of job autonomy, job satisfaction and
supervisor’s support.
For example, one of the recent studies conducted by Italian researchers M. Zito, F.
Emanuel, M. Molino, C. G. Cortese, C. Ghislieri, and L. Colombo (2018) in the call center of Italian
Telecommunication Company, proved that emotional dissonance has a positive relation with
turnover intentions, while job satisfaction, supervisor’s support and job autonomy have a negative
relation with turnover intentions. Researchers also proved that job satisfaction can be a mediator
in negative relation between job resources (supervisor’s support and job autonomy) and turnover
intentions, as well as a mediator in positive relation between emotional dissonance and turnover
At the same time, another study, conducted by Chilean researchers M. A. Valle and G.
A. Ruz (2015) in one of the Chilean call centers specialized in outbound calls for selling insurance
services, proved that performance indicators (mostly the number of sales and amount of sales)
during the first 2 months of work influence the turnover intentions of agents in the following
months. They also proved that dynamics of performance indicators is even more important, as
those employees who have positive dynamics in performance tend to stay in the company, and
those who have negative dynamics tend to leave the company.
Another research, conducted by Malcolm C. McCulloch and Daniel B. Turban (2007),
studied the problem of person-organization fit (P-O fit) in general and its impact on turnover
intentions. They distinguished complementary fit (when candidate possesses skills and
knowledge that organization is missing) and supplementary fit (when individual values and values
of organization coincide). The results of the study show that P-O fit has positive relation with
turnover intentions and it can be used to predict the turnover rate. Interestingly, researchers did
not find support for their hypothesis that P-O fit is positively related with job performance of
agents, and it cannot be used for prediction of job performance.
The last two researches described above demonstrate the existence of specificities in
every single call center, and while in one call center there may be strong relation between job
performance and turnover, in another call center this relation may not exist at all.
Open Journal for Research in Economics, 2019, 2(2), 73-84.
Following the range of other articles on this topic, we would make the following list of
possible reasons of turnover:
- Job stress;
- Lack of commitment to the organization;
- Job dissatisfaction;
- Economic reasons (low salary);
- Lack of job autonomy;
- Lack of role clarity;
- Ambiguity of performance evaluation methods;
- Organizational instability;
- Absence of openness in sharing information;
- Toxic workplace environment;
- Lack of recognition;
- Inconvenient working schedule;
- Corporate culture and management style;
- Lack of opportunities for future development.
As job satisfaction/dissatisfaction itself is a quite complex phenomenon, many
scientists examine the main factors that influence job satisfaction. For example, Stewart and
Brown (2011) defines 6 dimensions of job satisfaction: satisfaction with empowerment, with job
fulfillment, with pay, with work group, with security and with work facilitation.
Henry Ongori (2007) in his article also pays attention to the effects of turnover on the
organization: costs for searching, hiring and induction of a substitute employee; overtime
payment for existing employees; reduction of profitability of a company; worsening of customer
service and customer satisfaction level etc. I would add to that list the effect on overall corporate
culture and image of employer for potential external candidates, as well as for existing employees.
In fact, turnover can have a significant negative effect on organizational effectiveness,
so it is very important to identify the main factors of turnover and to elaborate plan that will
mitigate impact of those factors. This problem is very practical and in our research it is important
to identify factors of turnover that exist exactly in our project X in TELUS.
3. Empirical research
This current conducted empirical study does not claim to be fully comprehensive. It
is limited within a relatively small group of subjects with relatively homogeneous age limits. But
its results make it possible to draw conclusions about a little research topic in Bulgaria and
provoke discussions with other researchers in this field.
4. Methodology and approach of research
As it has been mentioned before, this study is aimed to achieve following research
- To identify expectations of newcomers within the project X;
- To identify main reasons of turnover within the project X;
- To identify factors that have the biggest influence on turnover within
project X, and whether expectations of newcomers are fulfilled or not;
- To propose actions that could reduce the turnover rate.
M. A. Ivanova Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of Turnover Rate within
In order to achieve the first goal 11 newcomers (that have joined the company during
the last 1 month) were asked 2 open questions:
- Why did you decide working in this project?
- In your opinion, what is the main difficulty that you will have to face at
your new position?
After that the responses were analyzed to figure out what are the expectations of
Similarly, the best way to understand why people are leaving is to ask them directly.
Therefore, to achieve the second research goal we could use either the method of exit interviews
with those employees that are going to leave the company within following 3 months (i.e. they
have already signed resignation letter and are within notification period) or the method of
interviews with those employees that have left the company during the last 6 months (i.e. they
still remember well the reasons of leaving the company).
Due to constraints of the first method (we are not allowed to conduct exit interviews
with employees and do not have access to the database of exit interviews), we used the second
method interviews with employees who have left the project during the last 6 months.
These are employees that occupied different positions within the project: 2 employees
from Back-office (that conduct manual calculations, issuance and reissuance of documents); 1
employee from Mentors (that provide support for other agents on the platform, answering all kind
of questions related to performing project tasks) and 7 employees from Front-office (that receive
phone calls and answer e-mails).
Questions in those interviews were mostly open with the main one “What are three
main reasons (ranked by importance) that made you to leave the project?”. All answers were
grouped into categories (low salary, lack of recognition etc.), which gave us the possibility to
calculate the most frequently mentioned categories. Also, the first answer in individual ranking
received 3 points, the second 2 points, the third 1 point. In this way it was possible to examine
a little bit deeper the importance of each category. The results of those interviews are shown in
the following chapter of this research “Results”.
However, in order to understand fully the problem of turnover it is important not only
to ask those who left about why they left, but also to ask those who stayed about why they stayed.
This approach is making accent on the “other side of the coin”, identifying good aspects of the
organization of work process, and factors that motivate employees to stay. However, by ranking
those factors it is possible to identify factors that contribute the least to the intentions of
employees to stay, and, therefore, can be considered as factors of turnover in the future.
For this purpose also the method of stay interviews could be used, but in order to
provide anonymity we have chosen the method of survey.
Currently there are 110 employees, working in our project X. We have designed a
questionnaire and have asked 20 employees (18% from the total amount) to fill it in. In order to
provide reliability of results questionnaire was given to different categories of employees: 1
mentor, 2 Back-office specialists, 1 quality specialist and 16 Front-office agents.
There were 13 closed questions:
1. I have exciting, challenging and meaningful work.
2. I have supportive management / good boss.
3. I feel recognized, valued and respected for my job performance.
4. I have enough opportunities for career growth, learning and development
within the project.
Open Journal for Research in Economics, 2019, 2(2), 73-84.
5. I have a flexible work schedule.
6. I receive appropriate amount of salary for the work I perform.
7. Job location is convenient for me.
8. I feel that my position is secure and I will not be dismissed in the future.
9. I am proud of organization I am working for.
10. My manager possesses needed skills and knowledge to perform his job
11. I can deal with stress at work well.
12. I have enough independence in performing my job.
13. I rarely think about quitting my job.
And with the scale offering 5 possible answers: “Strongly disagree” (1 point),
“Disagree” (2 points), “Neither” (3 points), “Agree” (4 points), “Strongly agree” (5 points). Then
the average score was calculated for each answer, describing the level to which certain
characteristics of the job are present in our project. It was also decided to analyze the differences
between males (8 respondents) and females (12 respondents), as well as between employees,
working in project less than 1 year (10 respondents), from 1 year to 2 years (6 respondents) and
more than 2 years (4 respondents). For each of the above-mentioned categories of personnel
average score was calculated as well.
The final step was to compare the results of interviews with those who already left the
company and the results of the survey among existing employees.
All the participants of the survey were informed that the research was conducted with
learning purpose only and all answers were kept anonymous.
5. Findings and research results
After asking newcomers about their expectations we have elaborated the list of factors
that attract candidates to work in our project:
- Interesting job;
- Good salary;
- Good benefits;
- Flexible work schedule.
Among possible difficulties that may be faced at new position newcomers mentioned
primarily the need to learn a lot of procedures and to handle complex tasks, as well as
multitasking. However, only 4 of them mentioned that the main difficulty is job-related stress and
need to hide emotions.
The results of interviews with employees who have already left the company during
the last 6 months, demonstrated that the absolute “leader” among factors is Poor management
(see Table 1). It actually proves the typical saying that “employees join the company, but leave the
The second important factor is Low salary it can be explained by the fact that almost
all of the interviewees found a greater-paid job after they left our project. This means that
currently the BPO market can offer greater level of payment and this is a problem to which special
attention should be paid by the management of the project.
Other factors were mentioned more or less with the same frequency. However, the
third important factor is Job-related stress, which can partially be explained by the fact that work
in call centers is characterized by emotional dissonance and need of hiding emotions. However,
as many of employees just changed one call center to another, it can mean that in our project this
M. A. Ivanova Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of Turnover Rate within
issue (emotional dissonance) is not considered a big problem and management does not act in a
proper way to reduce its impact.
Table 1. Factors of leaving the company by employees who left during the last 6 months
Reasons of leaving the company
Total score
Low salary
Poor bonus system
Poor management
Lack of opporunities for future development
Job-related stress
Lack of job autonomy
Lack of recognition
Inconvenient job location
The results of the survey conducted among existing employees (see Table 2) show that
the most dissatisfying factors are poor management, lack of recognition and lack of career growth
and development. At the same time, there are 2 factors that are considered as big advantages
flexible work schedule and job security. All other factors have neutral value.
Table 2. Factors of staying in the project
Factors of staying
within the project
Exciting work
Career growth and
Flexible work schedule
Decent salary
Secure position
Pride for organization
Highly skilled manager
Dealing with stress well
Job autonomy
Intentions to stay
*red critical factors; white neutral factors; green positive factors.
For males’ poor management is among critical factors, while for females it is among
neutral factors. For those who work less than 1 year in the project, there are much more positive
factors than for others, including exciting work, decent salary, highly skilled manager and overall
Intentions to stay. So, at this point we can state that many of expectations of newcomers are
fulfilled, especially with regards to interesting job, good salary and flexible work schedule.
Those who work from 1 to 2 years are dissatisfied with their salary, and are thinking
about quitting the company. Those who work more than 2 years, also demonstrate dissatisfaction
with job content, corporate culture, and level of skills of manager.
Open Journal for Research in Economics, 2019, 2(2), 73-84.
Among other factors it is important to mention that job-related stress is more spread
among employees who work less than 1 year in a project. Job autonomy and job security have
almost the same value for all categories of employees.
6. Discussion
As it has been already mentioned in the previous chapter, the results of research show
that expectations of newcomers are usually fulfilled they get good salary, good benefits and they
perceive their new job as exciting and interesting. However, employees with greater tenure
demonstrate lower level of engagement, as those factors (salary, benefits and job content) have
short-term effect and cannot maintain high level of engagement of employees for a long period of
Comparing the results of interviews with employees who have recently left the project
and the results of the survey among existing employees, we can notice that poor management is
the most important reason of turnover. Poor management means lack of managerial support, lack
of regular feedback, taking wrong decisions and poor team management. Consequently, level of
engagement of employees is decreasing and they leave the project. Interestingly, employees who
work in the project for less than 1 year evaluate level of management relatively well, but those who
work more than 1 year, mention poor management as very dissatisfying factor.
Overall in the project around 40% employees have experience of more than 1 year in
the project, meaning that they can leave the project in the nearest future because of poor
Interestingly, other factors of turnover differed between those who already left the
company and those who still work within the project.
For those who left, low salary was the second factor of turnover, but the average score
from the survey showed that for existing employees this is a neutral factor. Nevertheless, it is
possible to notice that employees with greater tenure (more than 1 year) also mention low salary
as a negative factor. It can be explained by the fact that salary of employees with greater tenure is
usually not greater than salary of newcomers. Therefore, old” employees feel it is unfair that
having more experience they receive the same salary, and many of them decide to leave, especially
if they find jobs with greater salary on the job market.
The other problem with regards to remuneration is that “old” employees usually
perform more diversified tasks than newcomers: they answer calls from corporate clients,
respond on e-mails, answer calls from premium customers etc. However, this difference in the
amount of work performed is not reflected in the salary they receive.
The third important negative factor mentioned by existing employees is lack of
opportunities for career growth and development. Again, employees with greater tenure complain
more often about that. As the majority of respondents were representatives of Front-office, they
may feel that it is very difficult to be promoted to a higher position within the project, although
having experience of more than 1 year they feel that they deserve a promotion.
However, those who left the company did not mention lack of career prospects as one
of the main reasons of turnover. This underlines the fact that this factor is not as crucial for
changing job as poor management and low salary. Many of employees, who left, started working
in another company at position of the same level as their previous position within the project.
Job-related stress and difficulty in dealing with it is not among negative factors for
each of the categories of existing employees, but it is the third factor of turnover within employees
who already left the project. Job-related stress is especially common among newcomers and can
M. A. Ivanova Main Factors of Turnover and Minimization of Turnover Rate within
be the reason of turnover within the first 6 months. As for our research we took a wider range for
classification (0-1 year), we were not able to observe importance of this factor among newcomers,
and this problem should be studied additionally.
Lack of recognition was not often mentioned by employees who left the project, but at
the same time it was often mentioned by existing employees. It can be explained by the fact that
existing bonus system does not encourage employees to do the work of high quality, it only
encourages employees to have as many transactions (calls and e-mails) as possible. In this
situation “old” employees, obviously, perform work of a much higher quality than newcomers, but
they do not receive a much higher bonus for that.
However, lack of recognition itself does not force employees to leave the project,
because they understand that in a new company they will have to start creating their image from
the very beginning, and it can take a long time before they will receive recognition at their new
Two positive factors that already now help to retain employees within the project are
the following: flexible working schedule and job security. Moreover, nobody from those who left
the project complained about flexibility and job security as well. Those factors can attract mostly
2 categories of employees: students, who need to combine their studies with earning the living,
and employees who need stable income (for example, parents who have small children, those who
need to pay loans etc.).
It is important to mention that although other factors such as poor job content, low
skill level of manager and poor corporate culture are not frequently met among employees in
general, at the same time they are quite often met among employees with greater tenure. This can
be explained by the limits of the job content at a certain point employee just stop learning
something new, repeat similar tasks during the day, and at the same time they feel that they can
do much more than they do now, and they leave the company. This is the reason of why there are
so few employees with tenure within the project of more than 2 years.
7. Recommendations
As the research showed, there is a lot to do by the management in order to reduce the
turnover rate, and there are many factors to which they have to pay attention to:
(1) Newcomers that join the company are not always acquainted with the
level of stress that they will have to face. They are excited by the job content,
good salary and good benefits, but many of them become demotivated during
the first months of their job, because they are not prepared for job-related
stress. In order to secure smoother adaptation of newcomers to the excessive
workload during the first month every newcomer should have a mentor who
could sit next to them and explain all nuances and details. In this way
newcomers will be able to adapt much quicker. Management could also
introduce separate bonus for mentors who do their job very well. Apart from
that, recruitment process should be improved as well in order to prevent
hiring employees who cannot deal with stressful situations and high
(2) Poor management most of employees who occupy currently the
managerial position started their career within the project from the lowest
position. This career growth is good as it demonstrates the possibility of the
company to grow up their own managers. However, existing managers have
good professional skills (i.e. they know all the processes and can assist agents
Open Journal for Research in Economics, 2019, 2(2), 73-84.
in their work) but they miss managerial skills. Possible solution to that to
provide soft skills training for them, to provide mentoring and coaching from
the part of those managers that have greater tenure within the company.
(3) Low salary level and poor bonus system those 2 factors go together,
because they form the remuneration of every employee. Unfortunately, today
there is no significant difference in the level of pay between Front-office
agents, Back-office agents, Mentors, and the accent of bonus system is done
on quantity, not quality. The solution to this could be creation of salary grid
for different categories of employees, as well as new bonus system with better
balance between quality and quantity.
(4) Lack of career growth and development unfortunately, in a call center
there are not many possibilities for career growth. However, every employee
can continue their personal development along with their job. They can be
encouraged to read books, scientific articles, attend seminars on their
interest. And here the role of supervisor is important who has to conduct
regular career development meetings with employee, giving advices and new
directions of development for employees.
(5) Lack of recognition management should create the system of “small”
rewards. For example, to reward unexpectedly employees who handled well
a very difficult case, or who paid attention to discrepancies between
knowledge portals that they use for their work. It could be some small goody,
or just simple “Thank you” from the boss, but it should be incorporated into
day-to-day work, and to become part of corporate culture.
As it can be seen, all the above-mentioned actions are quite real and can be introduced
into practice. Of course, financial aspects should be taken into consideration as well, because many
of those actions can be quite costly, and the project budget is quite limited. However, step by step,
with the implementation of proper strategy, it is possible to reduce significantly turnover rate
within our project, and to improve the results of the project as a whole. Project Manager, together
with supervisors have to take responsibility for elaboration of such strategy, and HR Business
Partner has to assist them in order to provide them with necessary tools for HR management.
8. Conclusion
The recommendations drawn from the research of a particular company may serve
the project managers of other call center companies. But leaders need to consider the specificity
of their organizations and make a similar study of key factors, benchmarking the results of the
study presented here, and only then plan action steps for change.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public
commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
The author declares no competing interests.
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Publisher: Wiley, ISBN-13: 978-0471717515, ISBN-10: 0471717517
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using Random Forest and Naïve Bayes algorithms, Journal Applied Artificial Intelligence An
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Zito, M., Emanuel, F., Molino, M., Cortese, C. G., Ghislieri, C., & Colombo, L. (2018). Turnover intentions
in a call center: The role of emotional dissonance, job resources, and job satisfaction, PLoS
One. 2018 Feb 5;13(2):e0192126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192126. eCollection 2018, last
seen in
... The interpretation and perception of organizational culture are identified as factors related to organizational turnover intentions (Ivanova 2019). Additionally, according to Islam et al. (2012), POC has a negative and significant association with TI, thus acting as a reducer. ...
... Pinto (2019) found that if POC is negative, it can lead to a higher absenteeism rate and increased TI. According to Ivanova (2019), several factors influence TI, including mismatch at the organizational culture level. This relationship can be interpreted based on the theory of resource conservation (Hobfoll 1989), according to which employees seek to create, protect, and maintain labor resources whose possession will lead them to positive outcomes, and, naturally, an employee with a high POC does not want to lose that resource, decreasing their TI. ...
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This study aims to analyze the relationship between perceived organizational culture (POC) and turnover intentions (TI) and if this relationship is mediated by perceived organizational support (POS) and job insecurity (JI). For this purpose, the following hypotheses were formulated: (1) POC (support, goals, innovation, and rules) has a negative and significant relationship with TI; (2) POC (support, goals, innovation, and rules) has a positive and significant relationship with POS (affective and cognitive); (3) POS (affective and cognitive) has a negative and significant relationship with TI; (4) POS (affective and cognitive) has a negative and significant relationship with JI; (5) JI has a positive and significant relationship with TI; and (6) POS (affective and cognitive) and JI both represent a serial indirect effect in the relationship between POC (support, goals, innovation and rules) and the TI. This study’s sample includes 661 participants working in organizations based in Portugal. The results indicate that only the perception of supportive and goal culture has a negative and significant association with TI; POC has a positive and significant association with POS; POS has a negative and significant association with JI and TI; JI has a positive and significant association with TI; affective POS and JI have a serial mediation effect in the relationship between supportive and goal POC and TI; cognitive POS and JI have a serial mediation effect in the relationship between goal POC and TI.
... Terdapat beberapa faktor yang memengaruhi karyawan untuk melakukan pengunduran diri dari tempatnya bekerja, yaitu faktor demografis terdiri dari jenis kelamin, umur, pendidikan terakhir, lama bekerja, kepribadian dan lainnya (Griffeth dkk., 2000;Law, 2005;Sela & Ben-Gal, 2019;Shahzad dkk., 2011), faktor lingkungan kerja seperti kepuasan dan tekanan yang dialami (Joo, 2010;Ivanova, 2019;Sela & Ben-Gal, 2019;Shahzad dkk., 2011), serta faktor eksternal yang meliputi keamanan jaminan keamanan yang ditawarkan oleh perusahaan lain serta lingkungan kerja perusahaan lain yang lebih menarik (Griffeth dkk., 2000;Mobley, 2011). Hal ini juga terjadi di PT X dengan persaingan yang semakin ketat dan gerai yang sudah meluas di seluruh Indonesia, perusahaan membutuhkan karyawan yang berkualitas, Terdapat tiga area karyawan pada perusahaan ini yaitu, karyawan area toko, karyawan warehouse dan karyawan officer. ...
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Perkembangan industri memberikan dampak persaingan usaha yang semakin ketat. Fenomena ini menuntut setiap perusahaan untuk memiliki pengelolaan yang baik di segala aspek termasuk memiliki sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Namun proses peningkatan kualitas sumber daya manusia ini tidak lepas dari permasalahan, salah satunya adalah masalah turnover. Hal ini terjadi di PT X, setelah melihat literatur dan kondisi lapangan ada banyak faktor yang memengaruhi karyawan untuk melakukan turnover salah satunya, yaitu faktor kepribadian dan faktor tuntutan kerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh karakteristik hardiness dan job demands pada karyawan PT X. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode survei dan didapatkan 251 partisipan. Penulis menggunakan alat ukur Turnover Intention Scale (, Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS-15) (, Job Demands-Resources Questionnaire (. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hardiness dan job demands berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap intensi turnover.
... 2) Faktor kondisi kerja, seperti tekanan kerja, kepuasan kerja, dan lain-lain (Mobley, 1986;Lum, et al., 1998;Robbins, et al., 1998;Bilal, et al., 2010;Shahzad, et al., 2011;Sela & Ben-Gal, 2018). 3) Faktor organisasi, seperti gaya manajerial, keamanan kerja, sistem pengembangan karir, lingkungan kerja, dan lain-lain (Joo, 2010;Shahzad, et al., 2011;Sela & Ben-Gal, 2018;Ivanova, 2019). 4) Faktor lingkungan eksternal seperti situasi kerja di perusahaan lain, keamanan kerja yang ditawarkan oleh perusahaan lain (Mobley, 1986;Griffeth, et al., 2000). ...
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Many behaviors that indicate turnover intentions in the company become a serious problem such as laziness to work, high absences, many employees do not renew their contracts, employee dissatisfaction with the company policies, high-level work stress, etc. This study aimed to examine the influence of quality of work life, hardiness, and perceived of alternative job opportunities on turnover intentions. This study method used is a quantitative method with the type of associative research. Data collection with questionnaire scale and sample of 167 employees. Data analysis uses multiple linear regression using SPSS version 26 for Windows software. This study found that quality of work life, hardiness, and perceived of alternative job opportunities together influenced turnover intentions by 57.8%. This study also provides an overview for companies to consider the aspects that may affect turnover intentions. The company needs to consider the market situations before implementing the new policies, doing employee surveys to know their perceptions, and improve the company systems to create a good work environment.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of talent management on turnover intention with employee engagement as mediating variable. This research was carried out in the for Type-C Private Hospital in Denpasar City-Bali Province-Indonesia namely Prima Medika Hospital, Bhakti Rahayu Hospital, Dharma Yadnya Hospital, and Harapan Bunda Hospital. The sample was 93 nurses determined by Slovin Formula which was distributed proportionally in the four hospitals. Data were collected through interview and questionnaire. Technique analysis used was Structural Equation Modeling with variance based (Partial Least Square). The results show that talent management has a negative and significant effect on turnover intention, talent management has a positive and significant effect on employee engagement, employee engagement has a negative and significant effect on turnover intention and employee engagement emerges as mediating variable in the effect of talent management relationship on turnover intention. The result imply that improvement of talent management and employee engagement need to be considered in endeavor to reduce turn over intention of nurses.
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Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
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''Employee turnover" as a term is widely used in business circles. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic, most of the researchers focus on the causes of employee turnover but little has been done on the examining the sources of employee turnover, effects and advising various strategies which can be used by managers in various organisations to ensure that there is employee continuity in their organisations to enhance organizational competitiveness. This paper examines the sources of employee turnover, effects and forwards some strategies on how to minimize employee turnover in organisations.
It is well known that call centers suffer from high levels of employee turnover; however, call centers are services that have excellent operational records of telemarketing activities performed by each employee. With this information, we propose to use the Random Forest and the naïve Bayes algorithms to build classifiers and predict turnover of the sales agents. The results of 2407 sales agents operational performance records showed that, although the naïve Bayes is much simpler than Random Forest, both classifiers performed similarly, achieving interesting accuracy rates in turnover prediction. Moreover, evidence was found that incorporating performance differences over time increases significantly the accuracy of the predictive models up to 85%, with the naïve Bayes being quite competitive with the Random Forest classifier when the amount of information is increased. The results obtained in this study could be useful for management decision-making to monitor and identify potential turnover due to poor performance, and therefore, to take a preventive action.
Turnover is defined as an employee leaving an organization for any number of reasons. However, different types of turnover have different implications for organizations. Therefore, the article begins with the brief overview of a turnover typology, as illustrated below: In 2006, Dr. David Allen served as subject matter expert for this article, which was commissioned by the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM). Dr. Allen summarized the available research on employee turnover and retention, which was then reviewed by his peers and published for use by leaders and human resources professionals. This article examines both the tangible and intangible organizational costs associated with voluntary turnover. After delineating the importance of addressing all types of turnover, Dr. Allen presents two complimentary models that seek to explain the causes / key drivers of voluntary turnover. Finally, a four-step plan for creating a retention strategy is presented along with specific broad-based and targeted recommendations for each step.
The purpose of this study was to construct a profile of K–12 music teachers in the United States and develop a model to predict their retention, turnover, and attrition. Responses to the Schools and Staffing Survey from 47,857 K–12 public and private school teachers, including 1,903 music teachers, were analyzed using comparative statistics, factor analysis, logistic regression, and structural equation modeling. Results indicated that music teachers were far more likely than other types of teachers to hold itinerant or part-time positions, and were less likely to receive support for working with special needs students. Music teachers changed teaching positions because of dissatisfaction with workplace conditions and for better teaching assignments. Music teachers left the teaching profession for better salary or benefits, and were generally more satisfied in their new field. Music teachers’ perceived level of administrative support had the most prominent influence on both music teacher satisfaction and retention.
Using a concurrent validation strategy, we examine the incremental value of a measure of actual person–organization fit (P–O fit) as a selection tool beyond cognitive ability for predicting continued length of service and performance for call center agents, a job with historically high turnover. P–O fit was operationalized as the correlation between managers' descriptions of the work culture with participants' work preferences. P–O fit added significant incremental variance in predicting employee retention, but was not related to performance. We discuss the implications of the results and suggest that firms should consider using measures of P–O fit in their selection battery, in particular when turnover is a significant problem.
Human resource management: Linking strategy to practice
  • G L Stewart
  • K G Brown
Stewart G. L., & Brown, K. G. (2011). Human resource management: Linking strategy to practice, Publisher: Wiley, ISBN-13: 978-0471717515, ISBN-10: 0471717517