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Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role of employee health


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Purpose – Purpose of current study is to explore, impact of workplace environment i.e Physical Environmental Factors and Behavioral Environmental Factors on employee productivity (EP) through mediating role of employee health (EH). Research methodology – This study adopted questionnaire survey method and data was collected from 250 employees working in software houses in Pakistan. Data has been analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. Reliability and correlation analysis was performed by using SPSS while; path analysis was performed using AMOS. Findings – Results revealed that one unit variance in PEF incorporates 35% change in EH, 33% change in EH is caused by one unit increase in BEF and one unit increase in EH leads to 80% increase in EP. Physical and Behavioural Environmental Factors are positively affecting EH and EH is positivity affecting EP. Results of the study revealed that: employee health is mediating the relationship between workplace environment factors and employee performance. Research limitations – We used working Environment factors to determine employee health; future studies can consider compensation practices, insurance plans and health benefits by the organisation, a large sample or increased number of mediating variables can be used. The current study has adopted cross-sectional design while future studies can consider longitudinal design. Practical implications – Organisations must maintain a better environment in order to enhance employee productivity as, employee performance and workplace environment have direct and positive relationship, employees productivity and physical as well as behavioural environment are linked through employee health.
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Business, Management and Education
ISSN 2029-7491 / eISSN 2029-6169
2019 Volume 17 Issue 2: 173–193
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Iqra HAFEEZ1, 2 *, Zhu YINGJUN1 , Saba HAFEEZ1, Raq MANSOOR1 ,
Khaliq Ur REHMAN3
1School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan China
2COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan
3School of Management, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan China
Received 24 May 2019; accepted 05 August 2019
Abstract. Purpose – Purpose of current study is to explore, impact of workplace environment i.e
Physical Environmental Factors and Behavioral Environmental Factors on employee productivity
(EP) through mediating role of employee health (EH).
Research methodology– is study adopted questionnaire survey method and data was collected
from 250 employees working in soware houses in Pakistan. Data has been analysed using SPSS
and AMOS soware. Reliability and correlation analysis was performed by using SPSS while; path
analysis was performed using AMOS.
Findings – Results revealed that one unit variance in PEF incorporates 35% change in EH, 33%
change in EH is caused by one unit increase in BEF and one unit increase in EH leads to 80%
increase in EP. Physical and Behavioural Environmental Factors are positively aecting EH and
EH is positivity aecting EP. Results of the study revealed that: employee health is mediating the
relationship between workplace environment factors and employee performance.
Research limitations– We used working Environment factors to determine employee health; future
studies can consider compensation practices, insurance plans and health benets by the organisa-
tion, a large sample or increased number of mediating variables can be used. e current study has
adopted cross-sectional design while future studies can consider longitudinal design.
Practical implications– Organisations must maintain a better environment in order to enhance em-
ployee productivity as, employee performance and workplace environment have direct and positive
relationship, employees productivity and physical as well as behavioural environment are linked
through employee health.
Originality/Value– However, most of the previous studies in this eld only highlighted positive
dynamic indicators of these indicators and neglected the quantitative changes, the current study is
an attempt to obtain a quantitative measure of responses in the given context.
Keywords: Physical Environment Factors (PEF), Behavioural Environment Factors (BEF), Em-
ployee Health (EH), Employee Performance (EP), and IT Industry.
JEL Classication: I12, J81, K32, M10.
174 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
In a typical working environment, signicant components are physical and behavioural
constituents. Elements which are associated with employee’s aptitudes to attach physically
with the oce environment are called as physical environment. While the oce occupier
etiquettes with each other are interconnected through the behavioural environmental com-
ponents. Oce environment positively aects the behaviour of individual employees. us,
the excellence of working environment act as an essential function in determining the level
of employee and worker motivation, productivity, and performance (Sharma, Dhar, & Tyagi,
2016). How well employees are aliated to an organisation, aects how employees behave
within an organization settings including: their motivation level, innovative behavior, abseen-
teesm, interaction with other employees and job retention. Employee productivity is the most
signicant interest nowadays, and it is aected by the working environment in many ways
(Mwendwa, McAulie, Uduma, Masanja, & Mollel, 2017). It can play a positive or negative
role depending on prevailing physical conditions in the working environment. In developing
countries, most of the workplace environment in industries is insecure and harmful. Healthy
and safe working environment can take a very central role in increasing productivity; un-
fortunately, most of the employers consider it as an extra cost and do not spend much on
maintaining comfortable working environment (obaben & Woodward, 1996). Furniture
design, ventilation, noise, light, supervisor support, workspace, communication, re safety
measures aect employee productivity (Eberendu, Akpan, Ubani, & Ahaiwe, 2018).
Soware houses are the companies, where main workings are related to computer or mo-
bile applications designing and development. Soware development requires highly skilled
employees with technical expertise in understanding the requirements. e World leading
soware organisations include Microso, HP, Apple, and Oracle Corporation, which devel-
ops soware and distribute worldwide. ere are also a lot of international and local soware
organisations as well. As a rising group soware houses engineers, developers perform the
crucial role in the new technological industry, so they need to have a working place with
open decision-making environments where they have a prosperous role in decisions (Kaur
& Sood, 2015). On behalf of the business dictionary, work environment and all its surround-
ing which inuence the employees in the working position, and it primarily means working
condition, which has two main components: physical environment and behavioural environ-
ment. A well-structured and grand organisation looks aer and maintains the needs of their
employees. Vigorous workers in grand organisations achieve peak performance and maintain
the organisation value (Kiyatkin & Baum, 2012).
Employees are working in insecure and unhealthy environment pretentious occupational
disease due to the negative inuences of the environment on their performance, which aects
the overall productivity of the organization (Chandrasekar, 2011). Employees are facing grave
environmental troubles in their related workplace, especially in the soware industry, which
causes complexity in supplying essential amenities to ameliorate their level of performance.
In a recent study, we have evaluated the performance of soware houses employees of Paki-
stan in the existence of such workplace physical and behavioural environmental factors. e
consequence of chosen factors has been tested on their physical health condition that eventu-
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 175
ally inuence their performance. us the primary goal of the research is to investigate the
components of working and behavioural environment which have inuences on employee
performance and to understand impact of both working environment and behavioural fac-
tors, on employee health in IT industry. is research has also evaluated the employee health
impact on workers performance. However, in most previous works on this topic, only the
fact of the positive dynamics of these indicators is noted, but not their quantitative changes.
e novelty of the article under consideration is an attempt to obtain a quantitative measure
of responses.
In major cities of Pakistan, especially Islamabad and Rawalpindi, there are many familiar
soware houses. Mostly the environment of these soware houses play an imperative role in
determining employee performance. is study has followed the working condition dened
as the work-place environment and has set terms, and conditions characteristics of the em-
ployees which are associated to employees (Samaranayake & Gamage, 2012). In 2002 soware
industry under the ministry of broadcasting and information emerged. Available statistic up
to 2007 illustrates that there were total 11,000 professionals of IT and 1,105 registered number
of soware houses. In 2006, the country was taken economic benet up-to US $1050 million
from IT services while the local IT industry reached revenue up to US$ 1,150M and the returns
from Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) was US $1,200M (Raheem et al., 2014). As per entire
valuables statistical gures (Kaur & Sood, 2015), the entire Information Technology (IT) and
Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) diligence per year, producing revenue of about
US$ 2 Billion. In 1996 the rst time aer introducing the internet, the soware market grown
up at very rapid pace and became one of the improvement factors in Pakistan IT industry.
Besides, for the establishment of IT industry, organisation of Pakistan Soware Export Board
(PSEB) established in 1995 and Pakistan Soware Houses Association was started in 1992
(Hasan, Moin, & Pasha, 2019). While in March 1997, the SandIT (Soware and Information)
was declared as a separate industry which has played an important role in advancement of
the of IT industry in Pakistan. In 2017 the undocumented IT export of Pakistan was about
up to little over $ 2.8 billion.
Main objectivesof the proposed study are: to explore what are the componenets of Physi-
cal Components of working environment and what are it’s Behavioural components; to study
the eect of physical and behavioural environment factors on employee health; to nd the
relationship between consequences of working environment and employee performance; to
examine the moderating role of employee health on the relationship of workplace environ-
ment and employee performance; and to develop scale for measuring consequences of in-
terrelationship between employee working environment and their employee performance.
1. Literature review
Workplace Environment: Workplace environment is an important component of work life for
employees as employees spend signicant part of their time at work, and it aects them in
one way or the other. It is concluded that the employees who are satised from their work
environment can lead towards more positive work outcomes (Kamarulzaman, Saleh, Hashim,
Hashim, & Abdul-Ghani, 2011). Previous researchers found that, several environmental
176 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
factors such as noise, colour, temperature, workplace design and use of indoor plants inu-
ence employee performance and well-being. ey also have suggested that future researches
can be carried on the relationship using working environment and employee productivity.
ey also suggested that comparative studies can be conducted between the oce environ-
ment of government and private oces. ey found that working environment is essential,
as in a comfortable environment employee can focus on their job correctly, and it leads to a
better employee performance, which leads to improved organisational productivity (Kama-
rulzaman et al., 2011). An environment that focuses people and has stirred them to be in its
workforce, provide them the prospect to perform eciently, is called attractive environment
or supportive environment and it helps to produce recruitment and keep on in occupation
(Awan & Tahir, 2015). Attractive work atmosphere and supportive environment give increase
to the circumstances in which employees put together their preeminent use of skills, com-
petences, and knowledge to execute eciently. Organisations sould invest more in providing
quality services to the customers (Mbembati, Mwangu, Muhondwa, & Leshabari, 2008).
Modern workplaces of IT and soware houses physical environment is surrounded by
computers, printer, machines, and dierent types of machines. Due to constant interaction
with technology, an employee’s brain is lled with sensor information. In an organisation, it is
made sure that there has a conduciveness of physical environment according to organisation
requirements for facilitating informality, privacy, crosses disciplinarily, familiarity, and com-
munication: these factors motivate employees to achieve higher level of organizational com-
mitment, that ultimalely leads the organization towards improved performance (Iqbal, 2008).
Employee Performance: employees within an organization can be motivated in dierent
ways in order to get maximum output and productivity, these rewards can be intrinsic or
extrinsic. Internal rewards are usually for accomplishing challenging assignments, and inter-
nal rewards are given for accomplishing challenging assignments, and external rewards cover
honorable recognition or sophisticated compensation (Chandrasekar, 2011).
Motivating employees for goal setting is another essential tool (Goerg, 2015). is form of
employee motivation eventually improves their performance and enhances the productivity
level of the organisations. ere are two primary purposes of goal setting, one is to improve
the individual’s behaviour, and second is to motivate them at a high level further that they
perform well with eectiveness. e specic goal is more eective than generalised goals.
Furthermore, high performance is achieved through challenging goals as compared to an
easy goal. With acceptance,practical goals, existences encourage and open communication
(Joshi & Sarda, 2011). Another essential component of the behavioural factor is attitude and
organisational justice. Prior researches have demonstrated the three most crucial eminent
dimension of the organisation. First, one called interaction justice is dened as justice be-
tween the employees and communication way of the employee to each other in work time,
politeness, respect, and dignity have dened the dierent degree of treatment with each other.
Second called procedural justice concerning the fairness making in the decision taken. e
last one is distribution justice, regarding perceived fairness in rewards and costs sharing
among the team members in connections of equity and equality (Chotikamankong, 2019;
Vimalanathan & Babu, 2013).
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 177
Workplace Environment and Productivity: Based on previous researches, it can be de-
termined that in the organisation, the working environment is signicant and has a high
impact on employees with dierent aspects. If organisation environment doesnot attract the
employees and they have a negative perception of dierent workplace environment elements
like absenteeism, performance, stress-related illness, and productivity, then eventually their
obligation has reduced to a low level which in turn aects the organisation productivity
and augmentations (Cottini & Ghinetti, 2012). However, if the organisation environment is
friendly, safe, and trusted, it impacts employees positively and their performance, creativ-
ity, productivity, commitment, and nancial health drive high, which also inuences the
organisation augmentations. Hence, Bhatti (2018); Mattson, Melder, and Horowitz (2016),
illustrated that the environment of the workplace had enhanced consequences by motivating
Physical and Behavioural Environment Factors: e oce environment has been dened
in two main categories, i.e. Physical and Behavioural Environment. Work of various research-
ers and their consequences are given in the subsequent paragraphs. Gunaseelan and Olluk-
karan (2012) worked on manufacturing sector and found that components of working envi-
ronment aects employee performance. ey took employee performance as the dependent
variable and other factors like an interpersonal relationship, monetary benets, employee
welfare, safety, security and training and development, formalisation and standardisation,
participative management, objective and rationality, supervision, and scope of advancement
as independent variables. ey used a random method of sampling for selecting of target
respondent. From 100 employees, primary data was collected using 5 points Likert scale
questionnaires, and percentage analysis was applied. e analysis concluded that employees
are less attracted to place more eorts for enhancing productivity without the appropriate
prospect of promotion in the organisation. Further, the results revealed that other factors like
a safe working environment, monetary packages, and the impact of rewards, training facility,
recognitions, and job security have positively inuenced employee’s performance.
Naharuddin and Sadegi (2013) found in their research that the workplace environment
signicantly impacts the performance of the employees. ey used survey-based data col-
lection method from 139 employees and revealed that supervisor behaviour is not enough
for the improvement of employe, a well-organised workplace physical environment and ad-
ditional benets including dierent kinds of job aids signicantly inuence employee per-
formance. Naharuddin and Sadegi (2013) studied the interrelationship between job per-
formance, job aids and physical working environment and supervisor support. ey used
the stratied random sampling technique and picked dierent employees from numerous
departments and levels of the organisation including: Head Quarters, Tooling Plant and
Stamping Plant. Data from 139 participants among, 200 was collected and regression analy-
sis was performed for testing three aforementioned measured variables. e analysis results
of Beta, negative relationship was found between the supervisor support and the employee
performance, which showed that there was not much signicant eect of supervisor on em-
ployees. Leblebici (2012) conducted their research on a foreign bank in turkey and ana-
lyzed the working environment conditions in relation to employee productivity, they car-
ried out their research using secondary data. Workplace environment consists of physical
178 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
and behavioral environmental factors. ey considered Physical components consisting of:
natural light, cleanliness, ventilation, heating/cooling facilities, comfortable working envi-
ronment, informal meeting area, oce layout, working desk/ area and general and personal
storage space. Behavioural components included: creative physical environment, distraction,
social interaction and oce layout in terms of ease of working. ey found that healthy
behavioural workplace condition yields positive consequences on employees even if physical
environmental conditions are unfavourable, another nding of the study was: behavioural
components of working environment aect employee performance more signicantly than
physical components.
Haynes (2008a) argued that organization productivity can be improved 5% to 10% by
upgrading physical design of workplace, this increased organizational performance is actualy
a result of enhanced employee performance. A number of researches have been conducted
on the investigation of eects of physical environment on employee participation towords
work, employee performance and loyality towards organization. Samaranayake and Gamage
(2012) found that positive correlation exists between job satisfaction and personal judgement
of eectiveness with reference to perceived relevance to work
Employee Health: Kelloway, Weigand, McKee, and Das (2013) have a focus on working
related health issues to soware developer professionals of India and USA and resulted that
factors like rest break time, working hours, and exercise is the main issues that inuence the
health of employees. ey further revealed that the most crucial health problems faced by
employees in both India and the USA are eye strain, headache, general fatigue, and back pain.
Shahzad, Iqbal, and Gulzar (2013) in a survey-based research study, analysed how organ-
isational culture aects employees work performance. ey conducted their study on dier-
ent soware houses in Pakistan. ey carried out their research by collecting primary data
on organizational culture by using ve aspects of organizational culture including: innovation
and risk taking, customer services, reward systems, communication systems and employee
participation. ey analysed the data by performing correlation and regression analysis. SPSS
soware was used for data analysis, sample size was 110. Results of the study revealed that
there is positive relationship between organizational culture and employee performance and
there exists positive relation between job performance and working environment. Study also
revealed that, employee commitment and participations leads towards enhanced organiza-
tional performance (Shahzad, Iqbal, & Gulzar, 2013).
A summary of the literature review has been given in Table1:
Ecological Systems eory: Ecological systems theory also known as person-in-environ-
ment theory states that:an individual in a specic environment hasa vibrant relationship with
their social, physical and natural environment (Barnett & Gareis, 2006) and this theory also
suggests that work and life are interconnected, one part has its eect on the other part in
terms of processes, time, context and time characteristics (Grzywacz & Bass, 2003).
Social Exchange eory: Motivational process in organisations is carried out with the
help of dierent social exchanges (Cook, Cheshire, & Gerbasi, 2006) Social Exchange eory
(Emerson, 1976) support from managers builds employee trust and as a result employees will
be motivated which helps in developing positive attitude towards work and employee com-
mitment level is enhanced as a result of which performance is enhanced. First-line managers
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 179
Table1. Aanalysis of existing literature
Author Year Target Methodology Conclusion
(Gunaseelan & Ol-
lukkaran, 2012)
Investigated work-
ing environment
factors which in-
uence employee
Sample size (100)
random sampling
5 points Likert scale
Data collected through
Adequate promotion op-
portunity inuence perfor-
mance of employees
Factors, i.e. job security,
facility of training, mone-
tary packages, rewards and
safe condition of working
also inuence employee per-
(Naharuddin &
Sadegi, 2013)
Examined the
impact of fac-
tors of workplace
environment on
performance of
Sample 139
Data collected through
Data Analysis using
No signicant impact of su-
pervisor support was found
on employees performance
physical environment
factors and job aid have
signicant inuence on per-
(Imran, Fatima,
Zaheer, Yousaf, &
Batool, 2012)
working environ-
ment, trans-forma-
tional leadership
Sample 215,
Data collected using
Data Analysis SPSS
e conclusion resulted
that work environment and
transformational leadership
have signicantly positive
impact on employee perfor-
(Mokaya, Musau,
Wagoki, & Karan-
ja, 2013)
Focuses on Kenya
hotel industry and
have checked the
inuence of work-
ing conditions on
job satisfaction
Explanatory Resaech
Stratied sample
(n= 84)
Survey Method
Data Analysis using
For improving employees
working skill, there must
have development provision
and opportunities for train-
ing from management to
(McGuire &
McLaren, 2009)
Physical environ-
ment have impact
on employee com-
Sample size (65)
Data collection tool
Data Analysis– SPSS
e study determined that
for increasing the employee’s
commitment, with other
physical environment work-
ing factors employees well-
being needs to be measured
(Shahzad et al.,
Cultural Inuence
on Employee Per-
Sample Size (110)
Data collection through
Data Analysis using
organisation culture has sig-
nificantly affects employee
(Leblebici, 2012)
Explored the work-
place condition’s
impact on employ-
ee performance
Questionnire was used
for data collection
Sample size (50)
The study result revealed
that unhappy employees due
to the environment of work,
have not better remarkable
satisfactory results.
180 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
usually manage human resources; they manage human recourses with the ultimate objective
of attaining organisational performance. Social exchange is a process between organisation
and employees in which organisation values employee contribution and provide them with
the necessary care and makes sure that their well-being level is achieved (Eisenberger, Fasolo,
& Davis-LaMastro, 1990).
2. Research methodology
While exploring the element of job satisfaction, working environment again becomes a cru-
cial factor. ere are many elements of the workplace, including person-job t, supervisor
support, incentive plan, workload, training and development, which are considered as con-
tributing factors (Raziq & Maulabakhsh, 2015). A mixed-method study was initially done by
a descriptive cross-sectional with survey pursued through a qualitative approach, and it was
found that there are many factors including work pressure, working teams absence, social
support, erudition of employee, safety, recognition were concluded as signicant factors and
work environment resulted as the main causative factor towards job satisfaction between
the health employees (Aziz, Kumar, Rathore, & Lal, 2015; Fadlallh, 2015). Chandrasekar
(2011) have studied the working environment by considering various types of public sector
organisations. In their research, they have a focus on employee level of performance in an
interactive work environment of the organisation. ey divided the organisation types into
three dierent categories, engineering category, administration category, and shop oor cat-
egory. Data were collected from 285 understudy employees by stratied random sampling
method. Analysis results that they recognised seven factors which aect employees attitude
towards works at the workplace. According to their results, the rst factor is emotional fac-
tors which have a high impact on the attitude of employees towards working environment,
the others were an interpersonal relationship, job assignment, control over the environment,
extensive work, shi, and the less eective one is above time duty. ey further found that
second category which aects employee performance is workplace physical aspect, like, oce
space, furniture’s, materials and storages, and the last one, the working place interior space.
e overall conclusion of their research resulted that to drive the employee’s performance
at peak, managers and supervisor should consider all aspects of the critical factors at work.
Based on the literature hypothesis 1 of the study will be:
Hypotheses of the Study: e current study contains and tested the following hypothesis,
which has derived from the previous literature and is also justied in the literature review.
H1: Physical factors of the workplace environment are positively associated with Employee
To improve the performance of the employees for getting better commitment and re-
sults, assurance of the adequate facilities must be provided to employees. It results that at
the workplace due to the harmful physical environment and inadequate equipment leaves
terrible eects on employee’s commitment and staying with the organisation for a long time
due to aecting job satisfaction of employees and fairness perception in the organisation
for employee’s compensation. e conviction that works settings design, innovations and
creativity have stronger inuences on businesses and organisations improvement. Hedge
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 181
(1982) concluded that an open work environment creates more signicant team interaction
by providing a high level of exibility due to the easiness of communication and access to
interpersonal work sharing as compared to closed and reserved oces. e glowing working
environments have helped in the collaboration among the sta member and higher pro-
ductivity of the organisation, as well as with increased positive attitude towards job and job
satisfaction (Dozie Ilozor, Love, & Treloar, 2002). Employee performance is also improved
by taking participation in organisational decision-making processes. Dierent training and
development programs also help the employee for creating new innovative ideas through
which they are involved in the new methods of experimentation. According to (Gunaseelan
& Ollukkaran, 2012) employee’s performance is improved by paying them according to their
expertise and experience. Hypothesis 2 is given as:
H2: Behavioural factors of workplace environment are positively associated with Employee
Das (2012) explored and discussed the prominent health related issues commonly faced
by soware developers during their professional eld. Recent studies described the factors
badly aecting the developers health, common factors are tea breaks, gym classes for exercise
etc. Because the study was related to sub-continent so more than 60 developers from dier-
ent sub-continent countries were selected and the observations show that the most common
issues in developer’s health are eye strain, fatigue and backbone pain. Similarly recent studies
show that blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes are having not much concern at this point
of time. From the recent studies it is very clear that number of overlapping of symptoms in
health related issues (Gorin, Badr, Krebs, & Das, 2012). Based on the literature on employee
health and productivity Hypothesis 3 of the study is driven as under:
H3: Employee’s Health positively inuences Employee Performance.
Shahzad (2014) studied the impact of organisational culture on the work performance
of soware houses in Pakistan. e author has focused on ve various aspects of the reward
system, innovation, employee contribution and communication system, customer services,
and risk in organisational culture. ey found that the performance of employees have a
positive relationship with organisational culture and especially with the organisational envi-
ronment. ey further revealed that employee participation and commitment play a vital role
in enhancing organisational performance. Samaranayake and Gamage (2012) have worked
on the perception of employees associated with electronic monitoring of employees in the
working environment and their inuences on job satisfaction of soware houses employees
in Sri Lanka. ey concluded a positive correlation of individual judgment of eectiveness
with perceived signicance to work and job satisfaction. Hypothesis 4 and 5 are given below:
H4: Employee Health mediates the relationship between Physical Environmental Factors and
Employee Performance.
H5: Employee Health mediates the relationship between Behavioural Environmental Factors
and Employee Performance.
Current research is survey-based and has used primary data; formal, informal form of
interview and questionnaire are used for the collection of data. For research, both environ-
mental factors, physical and behavioural are considered with employee’s health condition,
and employees work performance. e sample size of data is 250, and by using SPPS25
182 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
and AMOS soware, the correlation and regression method and path analysis are used for
Research Model: is research work has focused on the relationship between the work-
ing environment and employee performance. e Study based on the relationship among
the working environment and the performance of employee. We took two main factors of
working environment; the 1st factor that we considered is physical location in which (oce
lights, surroundings of oce building, sitting arrangements of employee in oce) and the 2nd
factor behavioral (tea time environment, over time bonuses etc) In this study we calculated
the eect of these factors on the developers life by gathering data from dierent soware
houses of Pakistan.
e framework of the research is depicted in Figure 1 given above.
Research Design: self administered structured questionnaires have been used to collect
quantitative data. e unit of analysis was employees in soware houses in Rawalpindi and
Islamabad. It is a cross-sectional study. A sample of 250 employees from soware houses was
selected following a systematic random sampling technique.
Data Collection: A questionnaire-based survey has been adapted for collection of data.
e questionnaire was in English and translated to Urdu and then again translated back to
English with dierent three independent professional translators to ensure consistency (Hui
& Triandis, 1985). e survey has been conducted through a self-administrative method
from dierent soware houses in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Personally administered ques-
tionnaire technique was used to achieve maximum response. For analysis, SPSS soware
was used while for verication of the model path analysis (SEM) method in AMOS has
been used.
3. Results
Reliability Analysis: Before conducting actual data analysis, reliability analysis was performed
by collecting data from y respondents. Results of the reliability analysis were signicant
(Table2). According to Hair, Ringle, and Sarstedt (2011) instrument is considered as reliable
if it achieves the value of 0.70. All values fall in acceptance range and hence the study fulls
Lunch &
Figure 1. Proposed research model
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 183
reliability criteria. A pilot study is very crucial as it identies a potential problem in the data
before doing actual analysing and getting nal results.
For scale reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha has been used. Cronbach’s Alpha is termed as a
coecient of internal consistency, and it is used to measure scale reliability. It is not consid-
ered a statistical test however, its results are used as a measure for scale reliability or internal
consistency. If the value of Cronbach’s Alpha is less than 0.6, it is considered less reliable. If
the vale is between 0.6–0.8, it s considered as moderately reliable and if it is between 0.8–1.
In the current study, the sample size is 237. All four variables were used in reliability analy-
sis. Physical Environmental Factors (PEF) consists of 16 items, and its Cronbach’s (alpha)
value is 0.972. Behavioural Factors (BF) contains six items, and Cronbach’s (alpha) is 0.937.
Employee Health (EH) having seven items and Cronbachs (alpha) value is 0.958. Employee
Performance having seven items and Cronbachs (alpha) value is 0.904. It is conrmed that
the Instrument is highly reliable with all the variables having reliability values over 0.8.
Table2. Reliability statistics
Variabl e Items Cronbach’s Alpha
(Pilot study) Cronbach’s Alpha
(Actual study)
Physical Environmental Factors 16 0.701
Behavioural Factors 6 0.732
Employee’s Health 7 0.755
Employees Performance 6 0.719
Correlation: In the current study, Pearson’s correlation has been applied as data was in-
terval scale data. Pearson’s correlation is dened as the covariance of two variables divided
by the product of their standard deviations. Correlation values are given in Table3. Value of
coecient of Pearsons correlation between Behavioural factors (BF) and Physical Environ-
mental Factors (PEF) is 0.130, and this value is signicant at p= 0.05. Between Employee
Health (EH) and Behavioural Factors (BF), it is 0.382, and it is signicant at p= 0.000. Pear-
son’s correlation value for Employee Performance (EP) and Behavioural Factors (BF) is 0.331,
and the results are signicant at p= 0.000. Correlation value between Physical Environment
Factors (PEF) and Employee Health (EH) is 0.404 and is signicant at p= 0.000. Correlation
between Physical Environmental Factors (PEF) and Employee Performance (EP) is 0.342, and
it is signicant at p= 0.000 level of signicance and correlation between Employee Health
(EH), and Employee Performance (EP) is 0.815, and it is signicant at p= 0.000.
Table3. Correlations
Factors Physical
Factors Employees’ Health
Physical Environmental Factors 0.130* 1
Employees’ Health 0.382** 0.404** 1
Employees’ Performance 0.331** 0.342** 0.815**
*. Correlation is signicant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) **. Correlation is signicant at the 0.01 level
184 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
Path Analysis: As discussed earlier SPSS has been used for fundamental analysis and model
has been tested using AMOS-22 and path analysis (SEM) has been applied. Path analysis is a
technique used for multivariate analysis for testing the relationship among variables. It is also
considered as a part of regression analysis and a part of structural equation modelling. Figure 2
explains the relationship of variables via Path Analysis. In the current model value of chi-square
is 10.721 and DF is 6 while probability is 0.097. Value of Chi-square is crucial in the model, and
the small value indicates that the proposed model/ theory arecorrect. e acceptable ratio of t
between chi-square and the degree of freedom is 3:1. In the current model, the minimum value
of Chi-square is 4.511 with probability= 0.211 and with degrees of freedom= 3.
Model Fit Summary. Summary of model t is given in Table4.
Table4. Model Fit summary
Default model 11 4.511 3 0.211 1.504
Saturated model 14 0.000 0
Independence model 8 337.155 6 0.000 56.192
Values of Degree of Freedom 3 and p= 0.211 exhibit that results current model proved the
goodness of t. e current study is a Structural Equation Modeling technique with multivari-
ate data analysis, in this kind of studies if the value of p is insignicant, it is considered as a
good t, unlike other multivariate techniques. e acceptable range for the value of CMIN/DF
is 1 to 3. Results show that the value of CMIN/DF is 1.504, and it lies in an acceptable range
and signies the goodness of t and CMIN corresponds to chi-square value, which is 4.511.
Table5. Baseline comparisons
Default model 0.987 0.973 0.995 0.991 0.995
Saturated model 1.000 1.000 1.000
Independence model 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Figure 2. Path analysis of proposed model
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 185
For checking the goodness of t, we applied Normed Fit Index (NFI), RFI, Incremental
Fit Index (IFI) Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI). It can be
observed from Table5 that the value of Normed t index (NFI) 0.987 which is greater than
the recommended value of 0.9, RFI value is 0.973, and its recommended value is 0.9 (Bentler
& Bonett, 1980). Incremental Fit Index (IFI) value is 0.995. According to Bentler and Bonett
(1980) cut o criteria for IFI index is 0.95. Tucker Lewis Fit (TLI) Index results show its
value is 0.991 according to criteria its value should be closer to 1 for a better-tted model
(Tucker & Lewis, 1973). All the above results are falling in an acceptable range, and it can
be concluded that the goodness of t shows that the proposed model is a good t. PNFI and
PCFI are Proximity Adjusted Measures there is 0.493 and 0.498, and its recommended value
is 0.5, actual and recommended values are very close again. Details are given in Table6.
Table6. Parsimony-adjusted measures
Default model 0.500 0.493 0.498 0.046 0.000 0.127 0.432
Saturated model 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Independence model 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.484 0.440 0.528 0.000
Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) is another widely used measure of
absolute t. For the goodness of t, its value lies between 0.03 and 0.08. In the current study
RMSEA value is 0.046, given in Table6 which indicates that the model is a good t.
Table7. Regression weights
Estimate Standardized
Estimate S.E C.R P
EH <— PEF 0.347 0.367 0.053 6.504 ***
EH <— BF 0.328 0.341 0.054 6.046 ***
EP <— EH 0.796 0.810 0.038 21.230 ***
Table7 shows that value of the coecient of regression for Physical Environmental Fac-
tors (PEF) and Employee Health (EH) is 0.347 at p= 0.00, and it is considered as signicant
while Standardized estimate is 0.367. e values show that there is a positive and signi-
cant relationship between Physical Environmental Factors (PEF) and Employee Health (EH)
Hence, H1 is accepted. Regression coecient value between Behavioural Factors (BF) and
Employee Health (EH) is 0.328, p= 0.000, and it is signicant. e standardised estimate is
0.341. It means that a positive and signicant relationship exists between Physical Environ-
mental Factors (PEF) and Employee Health (EH) and H2 is accepted. Regression coecient
between Employee Health (EH) and Employee Productivity (EP) is 0.796 at p= 0.00 while the
standardised estimate is 0.810 which is also signicant and indicates that there is a positive
and signicant relationship between Employee Health (EH) and Employee Productivity (EP)
and H3 is also accepted. e goodness of t of has exhibited that Employee Health (EH) play
mediating role between Physical Environmental Factors (PEF) and Employees Performance
186 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
(EP) and also between Behavioural factors (BF) and Employee Performance (EP) hence, H4
and H5 are accepted. Path Analysis ndings show that all ve hypotheses of the study are
Table8. Intercepts: (Default model)
Estimate S.E C.R P
EH 1.515 0.274 5.526 ***
EP 0.485 0.150 6.046 0.001
Intercept or constant value for EH is 1.515, and for EP, it is 0.485 (Table8). According
to Hair et al. (2011), covariance value should be zero between two independent variables. In
table number 9 we can see the value of covariance between PEF and BF is 0.000.
Table9. Total, direct and indirect eects
BF Standardized BF PEF Standardized PEF EH Standardized EH
EH 0.328 0.341 0.347 0.367 0
EP 0.261 0.276 0.276 0.297 0.796
EH 0.328 0.341 0.347 0.367 0 0
EP 0.261 0 0 0 0.796 0.81
EH 0 0 0 0 0 0
EP 0.261 0.276 0.276 0297 0 0.81
Path analysis results indicated that one unit change in Physical Environmental Factors (PE)
generates 35% change in Employee Health. ere is a signicant positive relationship between
PEF and EH, so H1 is accepted. Path diagram also explains that Behavioural Factors (BF)
has a positive inuence on Employee Health (EH) and one unit change in BF creates 33%
change in EH. ere is a positive and signicant relationship between BF and EH, and H2 is
accepted. 80% change in Employee Productivity (EP) is caused by a unit change in Employee
Health (EH), and we can conclude that employee health is a strong predictor of employee
productivity and there a strong and positive relationship between them, H3 is also accepted.
Results have also revealed that there is a mediating role of Employee Health (EH) between
PEF and EP as well as between BF and EP.
Productivity is measured in term of absenteeism (Sullivan, Baird, & Donn, 2013) address-
ing health issues faced by employees helps in determining absentees of employees and health
issues of employees directly or indirectly aects absentees rates in employees (Ronald, 2003).
Unhealthy working environment and discomfort at the workplace creates health issues in
employees, which lead to increased absentees and hence, productivity is decreased (Daniels-
son & Bodin, 2008). is conrms the study of Peterson and Beard (2004), Ellison Schriefer
(2005) who stated that optimum balance is achieved by physical environment by helping
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 187
workers in moving from one mode to another. Also, productivity is determined by pro-
moting social and behavioural environmental factors. e results are supported by Haynes
(2008b), Peterson and Beard (2004), Haynes (2007). Van der Voordt (2004a, 2004b) stated
that Physical Environment helps in creating dierent work settings which help employees in
performing their individual as well as group tasks.
In today’s competitive and challenging environment, the physical health of the workforce
is vital, and current study has explored the relationship of various environmental and behav-
ioural factors with employee health, which in turns leads organisations towards productivity.
Supportive work environment motivates employees (Earle, 2003). Little emphasis has been
given to employee health, about productivity, especially on mediating role of for employee
health between environmental factors and productivity and ndings have shown that the re-
lationship proposed in the model (Figure 1) has been proved. Healthy working environment
and managerial support (Bell, 2008; Ramlall, 2003) open communication between employees
and supervisors (Earle, 2003) leads to improved performance and helps in retaining employ-
ees. Participation of employees in critical decisions, competitive compensation practices,
pleasant relations between managers and employees (Gberevbie, 2010) career development
and employee empowerment leads to enhanced employee performance (Kundu & Gahlawat,
2016). Results of the study are also consistent with social exchange theory. Social exchange
is a process between organisation and employees in which organisation values employee
contribution and provide them with the necessary care and makes sure that their well-being
level is achieved (Eisenberger et al., 1990).
e current study provides guidelines for practitioners and business managers for nding
ways for improving the working environment and helping employees in maintaining good
health. HR Practitioners need to put more eorts in providing support to employees and
improving managerial behaviour to accomplish employees as well as organisational perfor-
mance goals (Agarwala, 2003). Study results conrms that PEF, BF and EH are determinants
of EP also EH play mediating role between PEF and EP as well as BF and EH. Results of SEM
proved the signicance of the model and conrmed all the ve hypotheses of the study. We
can conclude that the model tted enough and it is imperative for an organisation to consider
PEF, BF and EH for improving performance.
Working environment is one of the most important components which inuence employee
performance within an organizational settings. In today’s competitive business environment,
monetory benita alone are not enough for employees in order achieve higher performance
levels. However, a combination of monetary and non- monetary rewards is more eective
in achieving higher levels of employee performance, which leads towards achievement of
organizational goals. Employees working in soware houses needs attractive, peaceful and
cooperative working environment in order to achieve higher performance level. A happy,
industrious employee is vital for IT industry and adequated lightning, noise free and clean of-
ce, comfortable seating are the factors of physical envirinment, considered in current study.
Study revealed that, all these factors are vital in aecting employee health. Tea and lunch breaks,
188 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
involuntary overtome and friendly working environment were taken as components of behavior-
al environmental factors. It has been found these factors help in improving employee health and
a healthy mind and healthy body leads towards enhanced employee performance. Organisations
must maintain a better physical environment in order to enhance employee productivity as
employee performance has a direct relationship with workplace environment and employees
productivity and physical as well as behavioural environmental are linked through employee
health. Improving physical and behavioural factors will improve employee health and healthy
employees can be more productive; they can perform their tasks more eectively and e-
ciently and hence improve employee performance.
Limitations and future work
Apart from practical and theoretical implications, the current study has many limitations as
well and has opened new avenues for further exploration. We used environmental factors to
determine employee health; future studies can consider compensation practices, insurance
plans and health benets by the organisation in determining employee health and productiv-
ity. Studies can also be performed using a large sample or increasing mediator variables. Dif-
ferent data collection methods can be used in future studies along with a self administrative
questionnaire. e current study has been performed in cross-section design while future
studies can consider longitudinal studies and a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods
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chometrika, 38(1), 1-10.
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Van Der Voordt,T.J. (2004b). Productivity and employee satisfaction in exible workplaces. Journal of
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Survey questionnaire
Dear Sir/Madam, I am a student of PhD management, and this research is a partial require-
ment of my PhD. Purpose of this research is to investigate about Working Environment and
Productivity, through mediating role of Employee Health. Your participation will be highly
appreciated and your response will be kept condential. If you have any questions regarding
this research in general or the survey in particular, Please feel free to contact me through
192 I. Hafeez et al. Impact of workplace environment on employee performance: mediating role...
General information
Gender: Male Female
Age group you fall into? Under 20 □  21– 30 years □  31– 40 years
41–50 years 50–60 years 60 and Above
What is your highest education?
Matriculation Intermediate Bachelor   Masters   MPhil
Work Area?
Programmer Analyst Graphic Designer System Designer Data Base Administrate
Work Experience?
<1 year 1–2 years 2–3 years 3–4 years 5 years and more
What is your brief job description?
*Please Tick (√) on any of the response categories mentioned against the following state-
ments showing your degree of agreement or disagreement.
1. Strongly Disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neither Agree nor Disagree
4. Agree
5. Strongly Agree
Sr. Variables 1 2 3 4 5
1My furniture is exible to adjust, rearrange or reorganize my workspace.
2My furniture is comfortable enough so that I can work without getting
tired during long hours.
3I have adequate and comfortable in my oce.
4My work environment is quiet.
5I am able to have quiet and understand time alone.
6My workspace has many noise distractions.
7My workplace is dusty and not cleared properly.
8Sweeper also cleans the oce during oce hours without disturbing any
work of employee.
9My workspace is provided with ecient lighting.
10 Do you control over the lighting on your desk (i.e adjustable desk light on
11 Ample amount of Natural light comes into my oce.
12 Number of windows in my work area complete my fresh air and light need.
13 My oce branch is open enough to see my colleagues working.
14 My work area is suciently equipped for my typical needs (normal,
storage, movements, etc).
Business, Management and Education, 2019, 17(2): 173–193 193
Sr. Variables 1 2 3 4 5
15 I am satised with the amount of space for storage and displaying
important materials.
16 My workspace serves multi-purpose functions for informal and instant
17 My job tends to directly aect my health.
18 I work under a great deal of tensions.
19 I have felt dgety or nervous as a result of my job.
20 If had a dierent job, my health would probably improve.
21 Problems associated with my job have kept me awake at night.
22 I have felt nervous before attending meetings in the company.
23 I oen take my job home with me in the sense that I think it when doing
other things.
24. Have you experience any sickness during your employment? Yes/No
25. What type of sickness/ health problem you suer during the employment.
a. Headache
b. Back pain
c. Nerve problem
d. Eye side problem
e. Blood pressure
f. Carpal tunnel syndrome
g. Other
h. None of above
26. Would you choose the same profession if a chance is given again? Yes/No
27. Do you think you can enjoy healthy life with this profession? Yes/No
28. Do you live with family during the week? Yes/No
29. How many hours do you spend with your family daily? Yes/No
< hour 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours
4 hours
*Reserve coding questions.
Once again thank you very much for your valuable time!
... Previous studies stated that the work environment affects the performance of human resources. It comprises various factors that serve as the key roles of employee performance (Hafee et al., 2019). One example is the physical work environment elements that must be appropriate to avoid employees' stress when performing their jobs (McCoy & Evans, 2005;Vischer, 2007). ...
... A work environment comprises various factors as the key determinant of employee performance (Hafee et al., 2019), including physical and non-physical (behavioral) environments. Oppermann (2002) defines the working environment as a composite of three major sub-environments: technical, human, and organizational environments. ...
... The study result revealed a positive effect of the physical work environment on lecturer performance. The results confirm previous studies that claimed a positive and significant effect of the physical work environment on human resource performance (Hafee et al., 2019;Lankeshwara, 2016;Mathews & Khann, 2016;Naharuddin & Sadegi, 2013;Patil & Kulkarni, 2017;Rorong, 2016). However, it contrasts with a study by Samson (2015), claiming that the physical environment did not significantly affect human resource performance. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic challenges the education system to continue executing learning activities optimally. This study aimed to analyse the effect of the physical work environment and knowledge-sharing behaviour on implementing the Tri Dharma of Higher Education for lecturers working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. To collect data, the study formulated questionnaires distributed to 100 lecturers in Higher Education across West Kalimantan Province. The data were analysed using PLS-SEM with the SMARTPLS program. The result showed a positive and significant effect of the physical work environment on lecturer performance in implementing the Tri Dharma of Higher Education. In addition, a positive and significant effect of knowledge-sharing behaviour was also reported on lecturer performance in implementing the Tri Dharma of Higher Education.
... This work environment will also shape the working conditions. Physically, there is a relationship between workplace environmental factors and employee performance (Hafeez, et al 2019), and the availability of tools for work is also closely related to nurse performance (Thulth & Sayej, 2015). ...
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Employee performance has always been a major challenge in the management of organizations such as hospitals. Measuring the performance of hospital employees, especially nurses, is a very interesting topic considering that nurses are the largest workforce, which is around 50-60% of all health workers in the hospital. Research on job satisfaction in nurses related to performance is still important to do, to encourage overall hospital performance. Purpose: aim this research is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and nurse performance. Method: This study used a correlational descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. The population of this research is practicing nurses with total sampling technique. Data was collected using the Index Work Satisfaction (IWS) questionnaire and the Six Dimensional Scale of Nursing Performance. Statistical analysis using the Chi Square test. Results: 60.6% of nurses are satisfied with their work, while 53.5% of nurses still have poor performance. This study has revealed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and the performance of nurses in the surgical treatment room (p-value 0.002; α: 0.005) with OR showing 6.188 meaning that nurses who are dissatisfied with their work have the opportunity to perform less well 6.2 times, when compared with nurses who are satisfied in their jobs. These results can be used by hospital nursing managers that in order to improve nurse performance they must consider the job satisfaction of their nurses.
... Comfort at workplaces and in learning environments is dependent on the indoor quality of such environment, which is rated on the basis of certain parameters such as, indoor air quality, lighting, acoustics, and thermal condition (Luo et al., 2023). Previous studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between the output of workers and the lighting condition within a work or learning environment (Hafeez et al., 2019;Sun et al., 2019, Konstantzos et al., 2020. Also it is asserted that good lighting conditions, allows for the speedy completion of tasks thereby enhancing productivity (Cajochen, et al., 2019). ...
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Workplace safety is dependent on numerous factors within the work environment and light intensity (illuminance) is vital in ensuring this, as inadequate lighting is not unrelated to varying deleterious health effects. This study was undertaken to measure the level of illuminance in laboratories and offices of a selected Faculty in the University, in order to ascertain if the lighting conditions in the work environment are in compliance with illumination standards (500 lux), set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and to identify the potential hazards that may arise from exposure to lighting conditions that are not in compliance with set standards. A digital lux meter was used to measure light intensity in the different locations. The results obtained revealed that the mean illuminance levels of most of the measured offices and laboratories were below 500 lux. The maximum illuminance level recorded in the assessed offices was 478.6 lux in the Department of Statistics and a minimum of 288.1 lux in the Department of Computer Science. Maximum Illuminance level from the assessed laboratories was 408 lux from the Department of Geology and a minimum of 164 lux. The health effects associated with such poor illuminance levels includes: eyestrain, blurred vision, eye pain, eye fatigue and in general eye discomfort. Poor illuminance may also be linked to the prevalence of headaches. This will subsequently result in poor students and teachers performance, and reduce productivity. In order to improve the lighting situation of the faculty, a suitable day lighting plan should be incorporated into the architecture of buildings in general and workspaces in particular.
... One reason for the lack of WWPPA programs on university campuses is that designing these programs is complex (e.g., timing, target population, intervention settings, etc.), especially if it requires restructuring the physical environment or if university workers are spread across several physical locations [11]. The current wave of literature suggests structural changes in the work environment (e.g., standing desks, active workstations) [12] and the use of active breaks (e.g., 10-20 min break within the workday to do some resistance, strength, stretching etc. structured or semi-structured PA) or full structured-PA sessions of 45-60 min (e.g., biking or yoga) are beneficial to promote healthier habits in workers [3]. ...
Background: Active breaks programs at the workplace are a promising initiative for increasing workers' physical activity (PA) levels, health, work-ability (WA), and social relationship. Objective: To determine the impact of an Active Breaks workplace program based on Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) aligned with Behavior Change Techniques (BCT) on PA levels, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), WA, and social relationships among university workers. Methods: #UCLMuévete is a quasi-experimental, 12-week intervention designed according to the TREND and TIDieR-PHP checklist. Sixtynine university workers were recruited and placed into 17 teams of 3 to 5 people. Participants were instructed to take a 20-min active break every working day (walking, cycling, and functional training). The following variables were measured before and after the 12-week intervention: (1) Amount of PA with accelerometers, (2) CRF through the 6 Min-Walking Test (m), (3) Body composition (fat mass (gr), muscle mass (gr), and bone mineral content (g/cm3) through densitometry, (4) stress with the BodyGuard2 device (5) WA through Work Ability Index (WAI), and (6) social relationships through an ad-hoc questionnaire. Part-time workers, pregnant women, and workers with physical disability were excluded. Results: Significant improvements were observed in the amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (Difference (Dif)., women +8.05 and men +12.31 minutes; p < 0.05; ES = 0.224; 0.379), CRF (Dif., women +52.98 and men +25.53 meters; p < 0.05; ES = 0.578; 0,209), and (Dif., women +2.16 and men +2.39; p < 0.05; ES =;0.150; 0.177). No significant changes were observed in body composition and stress. Conclusion: 20 min/day of aerobic and strength active breaks, based on SCT aligned to BCTs, improves university workers' amount of PA, CRF, WAI, and social relationships.
... With 8.8% of participant satisfaction, the question "Indoor natural decorative plants and water spaces are available in the in-between spaces within the faculty to offer aesthetic and physiological impacts to the interior spaces" had the lowest level of satisfaction in this dimension, indicating that contact with nature should be taken into account in studies on well-being and space. Natural environmental elements in the workplace enhance worker motivation and performance [89,90]. According to Onay and Minucciani [39], being in touch with nature improves one's quality of life and gives one a greater sense of place. ...
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In recent years, well-being has become an increasingly important consideration integrated with functional aspects in the design of educational spaces due to its significant impact on the built environment. Although the features of educational spaces have been explored in a myriad of studies, the potential of in-between spaces has not been well explored. This paper reveals the significance of in-between spaces in educational buildings beyond their functional use as the fundamental circulation within a building, indicating that they also play a dynamic role through their design as elastic gathering spaces that encourage informal interactions and link users psychologically and visually, which affects their well-being. However, the potential of these spaces is often overlooked compared to the main educational spaces. Additionally, during the design process, there seems to be a tendency to reduce these spaces to a bare minimum, in favor of exploiting larger spaces, which shows that they are regarded as merely connecting points or transitional spaces. The research problem addressed here is the lack of a clear, adequate understanding of the effect of designing in-between spaces on the productivity and well-being of users, as there are no criteria regarding in-between space designs to enhance well-being. The current paper aims to evaluate the reality of the in-between space design within the art and architecture faculties of Jordanian universities according to the perception of faculty members and students based on well-being requirements. Accordingly, a survey was designed to address the 11 key criteria identified in the literature, including (1) physical features and visual appearance; (2) size and design of in-between spaces; (3) circulation and movement space zoning; (4) ergonomics and furnishing; (5) lighting; (6) colors and finishing; (7) acoustics; (8) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; (9) visual communication and instructional tools; (10) social and cultural spaces; and (11) accessories. The paper utilizes a mixed approach through survey and observation, where the findings are analyzed from three case studies to reveal the dimensions that need to be taken into account and developed to meet the needs of users. The results of the study demonstrate that the specific dimensions of circulation and movement, ergonomics and furnishings, colors and finishing, and accessories must be taken into account to create an interactive environment that advances the educational process and therefore enhances productivity.
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The business process outsourcing (BPO) sector is important in managing business especially in a developing country like the Philippines. Call centers are one of the most common type of industries within the BPO sector as they generate 75.1% of its revenues. Given the lack of studies regarding the ergonomic factors in the BPO industry, the goal of this research is to examine the relationships of different ergonomic domains on the job satisfaction and overall productivity of the BPO agents in a customer service or call center industry. The data were gathered through an online survey and the approach used for this study was a variance-based partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation. Through analysis, it was proven that macro-ergonomics and physical ergonomics have significant effects on the overall productivity of BPO workers, while cognitive and macro-ergonomics have a significant influence on job satisfaction. In addition to this, it was also proven in the study that overall productivity and job satisfaction were significantly associated. This is one of the first studies to investigate and examine the relationship between ergonomic domains and the productivity and job satisfaction of a Filipino BPO or call center worker. The results of this study could be used as a reference for further investigations by future researchers, especially on more ergonomic factors as well as the extrinsic variables that were not covered by the researchers of this paper. In addition to this, the proposed framework might also be adapted and used as a reference for further studies to produce more accurate and updated results.
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Employee efficiency is vital to an organization’s success and sustainability. As such, the work environment can significantly influence employee productivity, either positively or negatively. Recognizing the importance of employees, top-performing organizations prioritize creating a supportive workplace, given that employees spend a substantial portion of their lives performing work-related tasks. Conversely, unsuitable, and unfavourable work environments can contribute to job-related stress. This study investigates the work environment factors that affect employee productivity and explores how these elements can boost employee performance. Data was collected through a survey of 300 randomly selected staff members from three tertiary institutions Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development (AAMUSTED), Kumasi Technical University (KsTU), and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)) in the Ashanti Region of Ghana to test the conceptual framework. The findings revealed a positive relationship between the workplace environment and employee commitment, suggesting that employee commitment partially strengthens the impact of the workplace environment on employee performance. This study offers practical insights for academic institution management, emphasizing the need to enhance workplace environmental conditions to facilitate effective academic work within these institutions. Keywords: Work environment, employee productivity, employee commitment, employee efficiency
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Situasi pandemi yang berpengaruh terhadap berbagai dimensi kehidupan turut pula mempengaruhi situasi pembelajaran di berbagai sekolah. Riset ini dilakukan terhadap sejumlah guru SD wanita di Jakarta Timur, Jakarta Pusat, Jakarta Utara, Bekasi dan Bogor untuk menganalisis pengaruh iklim kerja dan kesejahteraan subjektif terhadap kinerja ketika proses belajar mengajar dilakukan secara daring. Sebanyak 87 guru SD wanita yang menjadi responden penelitian masih memiliki kinerja yang relatif baik dimasa pandemi. Metode sampel purposive dilakukan mempertimbangkan guru wanita yang sudah menikah memiliki peran ganda akan lebih terdampak bila bekerja dari rumah (WFH). Penelitian ini mengolah data menggunakan analisis SEM dengan smartPLS, dan hasil uji membuktikan iklim kerja berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja, begitu pula terhadap kesejahteraan subjektif. Di sisi lain kesejahteraan subjektif sangat kuat dan signifikan berpengaruh terhadap kinerja serta signifikan memediasi pengaruh iklim kerja terhadap kinerja, meskipun pengaruh langsungnya lebih kuat. The pandemi situation that affects various dimensions of life also affects the learning situation n various schools. This research was conducted on a number of female elementary school teachers in East Jakarta, Central Jakarta, North Jakarta, Bekasi and Bogor to analyze the effect of work climate and subjective well-being on performance when the teaching and learning process is conducted online. A total of 87 female elementary school teachers who became research respondents still had relatively good performance during the pandemi. The purposive sampling method was carried out considering that married female teachers who had multiple roles would be more affected when working from home (WFH). This study processes data using SEM analysis with smartPLS, and the test results prove that the work climate has a significant effect on performance, as well as on subjective well-being. On the other hand, subjective well-being is very strong and has a significant effect on performance and significantly mediates the effect of work climate on performance, although the direct effect is stronger.
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Psychology says not everyone is able to do all type of tasks assigned to them. This point is valid for people working in the software industries as well. Therefore, when assigning the most suitable tasks to people according to their personality type, a software development company’s succession rate can be proliferated to a remarkable level. In this manner, the main theme of this empirical research is to find relationships that establish links between personality type and their job designation preferences in the software industry. For this purpose, this study is comprised of 44 Pakistan developers, who are working in different software houses and are directly involved in developing software projects. In addition, an MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) test indicator is used for the link establishment. With respect to the reported results, tester, team lead, and project manager are found to be ENFJs, which is the least common type in software developers. However, for web developers and software engineers, ISFJ is found to be the most preferable type, with an edge over ENFJ.
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Software engineering projects in Nigeria have been classified generally as a failure, challenged or successful with no proof that the projects fall into these categories. The main focus has been on cost and time overrun, and attention has not been given to check whether projects truly fall within the given categories. Discriminant analysis was employed to determine how the 30 selected projects in the public sector in Nigeria can be correctly classified. This study developed a method for determining the actual category of software engineering projects concerning the characteristics of projects as a failure, challenged, or successful. The developed model was used to reclassify the thirty (30) projects, and it was discovered that twenty- one (21) projects were correctly classified giving 70% of correctly classified projects while nine (9) were wrongly classified giving 30%. It is possible for projects to satisfy the established success criteria (requirements met on time and within budget) whereas the stigma of failure still exists in its result.
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The effect of office indoor room temperature and illumination has an influence on the performance and productivity of office workers. A computerized neurobehavioral test (NBT) has been proposed for the evaluation of office workers' performance. Environmental factors such as indoor temperature and indoor workstation illumination have been investigated at three levels. A field lab to emulate an office has been created. In controlled condition of environmental factors, the neurobehavioral test has been conducted with ten volunteers. The response time and the number of errors in each test have been recorded. A randomized block factorial design was used to analyze the responses of office worker's productivity. The results revealed that the independent and interaction effect of temperature and illumination have significant effect on the office workers' productivity. The effect of indoor room temperature has more influences than the effect of illumination. Similarly block effect of both the responses (Reaction time, Errors) also significant on the productivity of office workers. The optimum level of indoor room temperature (21°C) and illumination (1000lux) have improved the performance and productivity of office workers.
Objective and subjective aspects of Individual and Organizational performances (Valmohammadi & Roshanzamir, 2015) has been focus of research arena at number of instances to conclude about micro, meso and macro level phenomenas within organziations. This study aims to provide a unique outlook on 4 C’s of work environment (meso) and their interrelationship with Organizational Performance through i-e individual performance (micro). Career planning, Consultative management, Communication and Culture (performance oriented) are taken as 4 important C’s, constituting a comprehensive whole of Work environment. The study proposed two research hypotheses. Data was collected through 5 point Likert scale questionnaires, from 297 employees of 42 manufacturing and services sector firms in Pakistan. Bivariate Pearson’s Correlation, Preacher and Hayes Process v 3.0, Model 4, and Bootstrapping is used for data analysis. Results indicate that all four C’s of work environment have strong positive correlation with organziational perfomance through individual performance acting as a mediator.
Background: Supportive supervision is a key determinant of service quality and provider performance, and is particularly pertinent to low-resources settings where supervisors are pivotal to the performance of health workers. To strengthen the human resource management (HRM) function at district and health facility level we implemented the Support, Train and Empower Managers (STEM) project to increase the capacity of managers to support and supervise their staff in Tanzania. Methods: This study used a mixed-methods design, utilising data from health facilities to assess changes in practice and employing focus group discussions to explore perceptions of supervisors 12 months following implementation of STEM in three regions of Tanzania. The present study focused on the perceptions of supervisors on the implementation of supportive HRM processes and how these influenced the supervision practice. Results: The most notable behavioural change attributed to STEM was the introduction of systemic record keeping systems, including staff files and job descriptions. The systems led to an improved work environment and improved communication between health providers and supervisors. In-turn this eased the supervision process and saved on time spent supervising staff. Introduction of registers to monitor staff movement into and out of the facility reduced unexplained absences while availability of clear job descriptions led to more efficient use of HR. Conclusion: Supportive supervision can promote implementation of HRM policies leading to an enabling environment for management to support staff, thereby improving staff morale and retention. Lessons learned from STEM can be incorporated in rolling out such an intervention in other settings and can also enhance our knowledge about developing supportive supervision interventions.
Literary scholar Ann Ronald gathers a selection of her published essays about Nevada, environmental writing and Western American literature. Her topics vary from writers, including Zane Grey and Edward Abbey, to the image of Reno in 19th and 20th century fiction.
The current study purports to establish the linkage between various retention practices and perceived firm performance and innovation performance. Using multiple regression analysis on a sample of 563 respondents from 204 organisations operating in India, the study has highlighted that employee retention practices in the form of ‘development and empowerment’ and ‘supportive organisational culture’ are positively related to perceived firm performance. Findings have also highlighted the positive relationship between ‘development and empowerment’ and innovation performance. However, no such relationship has been found between supportive organisational culture and innovation performance. Implications for HR practitioners and further researches are discussed. Keywords: retention; firm performance; innovation; development and empowerment; supportive culture; India.
Goals are everywhere in human life and organizations. For example, in our private life we set goals for saving money and losing weight. In politics, politicians debate fiscal goals, goals for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, and goals for job and wage growth, among many others. Similarly, in our working life we try to achieve tenure or promotions. At work, we may face sales goals, revenue goals, project milestones, and production goals. Some of these goals are specific, some are vague, some are binding, and some are backed up by monetary incentives. And some goals are self-chosen while others are imposed externally. New forms of management structure in recent decades, such as management by objectives, described by Peter Drucker in the 1950s, have been heavily influenced by goal-setting approaches. In particular, large technology firms such as Google, Intel, and Twitter have started to use goal-setting approaches to provide real-time feedback to their workers. In psychology, the research on goal setting has a long tradition. Studies have consistently demonstrated that an individual’s behavior is affected by goals and that, if well chosen, goals can boost individual productivity. More recently, economists have jumped on the goals bandwagon, adding formal theories to model the functioning of goals and contributing to the empirical evidence. While many studies have found positive effects of goal setting, some cautionary notes on possible adverse side effects have emerged from this research.