Chapter

Microbiological Water Quality of Rivers in Montenegro

Authors:
  • Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", University of Belgrade, Serbia
  • Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", University of Belgrade, Serbia
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Abstract

The literature data on the microbiological water quality of the surface and groundwaters in Montenegro is very scarce. Therefore, this chapter aims to provide an insight in the microbiological water quality of rivers in Montenegro by compiling the data obtained in period 2009–2018 in national monitoring program and the data collected within the Montenegro survey in 2019 with an emphasis on the hotspots of faecal pollution and possible sources of pollution. Despite the high risk that poor implementation of wastewater treatment might represent for Montenegro, the obtained dataset indicates that overall microbiological water quality of rivers in Montenegro is quite good. About 80% of the investigated sites have bathing water quality according to Montenegrin legislation. Only four sites were identified as hotspots of faecal pollution where the human source of pollution prevails.

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... Vukašinović-Pešić et al. (2019) found an increase in surface water quality since 2012, but indicated that there were significant differences in the values of the considered chemical parameters between the rivers in the north (Black Sea Basin) and in the south (Adriatic Basin). Analysis of data from 2009 to 2018 indicated that the overall microbiological water quality in Montenegrin rivers was quite good (Kolarević et al., 2019). ...
... In recent years, there has been an improvement in the quality of river water. Similar statements about the state of quality of rivers in Montenegro are made by Kolarević et al. (2019) and Vukašinović-Pešić et al. (2019). ...
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... Vukašinović-Pešić et al. [26] found an increase in surface water quality in Montenegro since 2012 but pointed out that there are significant differences in the values of the considered chemical parameters between the rivers in the north (Black Sea basin) and in the south (Adriatic basin). Analysis of data from 2009 to 2018 indicates that the overall microbiological water quality in Montenegrin rivers is quite good [27]. ...
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Coastal wetlands are receiving increased attention as a putative source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in Southern California coastal waters. We examined temporal trends of water and sediment-associated FIB after rain events along with spatial sediment characteristics at two sites within the Santa Ana River wetlands and made comparisons to FIB levels observed in adjacent surf zone waters. During the first two rain events, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) in wetland water and sediment samples peaked either on the same day or within several days of the rain event, while the third resulted in elevated wetlands sediment TC levels only. TC in adjacent coastal waters consistently peaked on the same day as the rain event and decreased quickly thereafter (within 1 day). The TC/EC ratios of surf zone samples consistently fell below 10, indicating an increased probability of human fecal contamination whereas wetland TC/EC ratios were higher, averaging approximately 60 and 14 at each site. These results suggest sediment-associated FIB populations may be distinct from those found in the water samples, or at least have internal dynamics independent of water-borne populations. Increases in sediment-associated FIB may be due to in situ population growth and/or increased survival due to changes in environmental parameters (salinity, moisture and nutrient input) resulting from the rain events. Spatial differences in between the two sites may be due to sediment differences such as organic content and finer grain size and/or discrete sources of FIB.
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We report the design and validation of new TaqMan((R)) assays for microbial source tracking based on the amplification of fecal 16S rRNA marker sequences from uncultured cells of the order Bacteroidales. The assays were developed for the detection and enumeration of non-point source input of fecal pollution to watersheds. The quantitative "universal"Bacteroidales assay BacUni-UCD detected all tested stool samples from human volunteers (18 out of 18), cat (7 out of 7), dog (8 out of 8), seagull (10/10), cow (8/8), horse (8/8), and wastewater effluent (14/14). The human assay BacHum-UCD discriminated fully between human and cow stool samples but did not detect all stool samples from human volunteers (12/18). In addition, there was 12.5% detection of dog stool (1/8), but no cross-reactivity with cat, horse, or seagull fecal samples. In contrast, all wastewater samples were positive for the BacHum-UCD marker, supporting its designation as 100% sensitive for mixed-human source identification. The cow-specific assay BacCow-UCD fully discriminated between cow and human stool samples. There was 38% detection of horse stool (3/8), but no cross-specificity with any of the other animal stool samples tested. The dog assay BacCan-UCD discriminated fully between dog and cow stool or seagull guano samples and detected 62.5% stool samples from dogs (5/8). There was some cross-reactivity with 22.2% detection of human stool (4/18), 14.3% detection of cat stool (1/7), and 28.6% detection of wastewater samples (4/14). After validation using stool samples, single-blind tests were used to further demonstrate the efficacy of the developed markers; all assays were sensitive, reproducible, and accurate in the quantification of mixed fecal sources present in aqueous samples. Finally, the new assays were compared with previously published sequences, which showed the new methodologies to be more specific and sensitive. Using Bayes' Theorem, we calculated the conditional probability that the four assays would correctly identify general and host-specific fecal pollution in a specific watershed in California for which 73 water samples had been analyzed. Such an approach allows for a direct comparison of the efficacy of different MST methods, including those based on library-dependent methodologies. For the universal marker BacUni-UCD, the probability that fecal pollution is present when the marker is detected was 1.00; the probability that host-specific pollution is present was 0.98, 0.84, and 0.89 for the human assay HF160F, the cow assay BacCow-UCD, and the dog assay BacCan-UCD, respectively. The application of these markers should provide meaningful information to assist with efforts to identify and control sources of fecal pollution to impaired watersheds.
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