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The Effect of Skipping rope Exercise on Physical and Cardiovascular fitness among Collegiate Males

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine the effect of skipping rope exercise on physical fitness and cardiovascular fitness among collegiate males. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Sedentary life style is contributing to the early onset and progression of life style disease such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Cardiovascular fitness reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases like diabetes or Hypertension. Skipping rope is a low-cost physical activity. Thus, its impact on the physical fitness is being studied by various researchers. Skipping rope involves the muscles in arms and legs, and it also improves cardiovascular function. METHODOLOGY: This experimental study was conducted among collegiate males of age group between 18 and 25 years at Faculty of physiotherapy. Study duration was twelve weeks. Subjects were selected by simple random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were inactive subjects based on IPAQ-S. Exclusion criteria were minimally active and active subjects based on IPAQ-S, sports population, those with heart disease, any lung disease and anemia. Outcome measure for cardiovascular fitness is VO2 max by step test and Physical fitness by FMS (Functional Movement Screening) and by IPAQ-S (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short form). PROCEDURE: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-S) was given to participants initially Inactive subjects were recruited based on IPAQ-S values and randomly divided into two groups Group A (experimental) and Group B (control group). Subjects were selected based on inclusion criteria. Pre-Assessment of the cardiovascular fitness and physical fitness were noted. Experimental group received skipping rope exercise two sessions per day from moderate to vigorous intensity based on target heart rate including warm up and cool down period to avoid injuries. Exercise began with 55% of target heart rate and then progressed to 65% by 2 nd week and progressed to 70% by 3 rd week and 75 % by 4 th week and finally 85% by 5 th week. Group B (control group) were suggested to do their as usual routine activities. Heart Rate was periodically noted. Post test scores were recorded after 12 weeks of intervention. RESULT: On comparing the pre and post test values between groups, it shows statistically significant improvement in Group A (Experimental group) at p ≤ 0.001 on VO2 max and FMS.
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 12(10): October 2019
4831
ISSN 0974-3618 (Print) www.rjptonline.org
0974-360X (Online)
RESEARCH ARTICLE
The Effect of Skipping rope Exercise on Physical and Cardiovascular
fitness among Collegiate Males
Veena Kirthika. S1*, Lakshmanan. R1, Padmanabhan. K1, Selvaraj Sudhakar1,
Senthil Selvam. P2
1Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Maduravoyal, Chennai600095
2School of Physiotherapy, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
*Corresponding Author E-mail: veena.physio@drmgrdu.ac.in
ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine the effect of skipping rope exercise on physical fitness and
cardiovascular fitness among collegiate males. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Sedentary life style is
contributing to the early onset and progression of life style disease such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension,
diabetes and obesity. Cardiovascular fitness reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases like diabetes or
Hypertension. Skipping rope is a low-cost physical activity. Thus, its impact on the physical fitness is being
studied by various researchers. Skipping rope involves the muscles in arms and legs, and it also improves
cardiovascular function. METHODOLOGY: This experimental study was conducted among collegiate males of
age group between 18 and 25 years at Faculty of physiotherapy. Study duration was twelve weeks. Subjects were
selected by simple random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were inactive subjects based on IPAQ-S.
Exclusion criteria were minimally active and active subjects based on IPAQ-S, sports population, those with
heart disease, any lung disease and anemia. Outcome measure for cardiovascular fitness is VO2 max by step test
and Physical fitness by FMS (Functional Movement Screening) and by IPAQ-S (International Physical Activity
Questionnaire Short form). PROCEDURE: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-
S) was given to participants initially Inactive subjects were recruited based on IPAQ-S values and randomly
divided into two groups Group A (experimental) and Group B (control group). Subjects were selected based on
inclusion criteria. Pre-Assessment of the cardiovascular fitness and physical fitness were noted. Experimental
group received skipping rope exercise two sessions per day from moderate to vigorous intensity based on target
heart rate including warm up and cool down period to avoid injuries. Exercise began with 55% of target heart
rate and then progressed to 65% by 2nd week and progressed to 70% by 3rd week and 75 % by 4th week and finally
85% by 5th week. Group B (control group) were suggested to do their as usual routine activities. Heart Rate was
periodically noted. Post test scores were recorded after 12 weeks of intervention. RESULT: On comparing the
pre and post test values between groups, it shows statistically significant improvement in Group A (Experimental
group) at p ≤ 0.001 on VO2 max and FMS.
KEYWORDS: Vo2 max, FMS, Cardiovascular fitness, Physical fitness, Step test, Target Heart Rate, Pulse ox
meter, IPAQ-S, Skipping rope, Exercise intensity.
Received on 03.04.2019 Modified on 21.05.2019
Accepted on 28.06.2019 © RJPT All right reserved
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(10):4831-4835.
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00836.9
INTRODUCTION:
Skipping rope is a cheap and portable material which is
affordable to everyone and also needs only minimum
space. It is a low-cost physical activity, thus its impact
on the physical fitness is being studied by various
researchers Skipping rope exercise involves the muscles
in arms and legs, and it also improves cardiovascular
function and metabolism(1). Many researchers suggested
that physical activities including skipping rope would
give better result in physical fitness(2,3,4,5,6,7). During
initiation of this skipping rope, arms rotate the rope and
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 12(10): October 2019
4832
both legs would perform repeated jumping, at the same
time it aims to maintain constant vertical take-off and
landing phases and body also needs to control the
balance and force through a coordinated action of upper
and lower body muscle groups. The role of skipping rope
exercises within training programs has been proved that
it gives positive effects on physiological parameters of
cardiovascular and respiratory systems(8,9,10).
Epidemiological study has shown that sedentary life
style will lead to onset and progression of life
threatening disease such as hypertension, cardiovascular
disease and obesity(11). It is a serious growing health
problem. Thus, it is essential to be fit physically and
improve the cardiovascular fitness. Causes of mortality
indicated that both the low physical fitness and low
cardiovascular fitness have higher risk factor and is
relatively associated with higher mortality rate among
both men and women(12,13). Krahenbuhl in 1985 had
demonstrated that VO2max and reduction in O2
consumption at submaximal workloads which predicts
the endurance fitness or cardiovascular fitness(14).
When performing skipping rope exercise, it is necessary
to coordinate the upper and lower body to maintain
balance and rhythm. Skipping rope can enhance the
precise coordination of multiple muscle groups, which is
why it is used widely in athletic training programs.
Skipping rope combines the angular momentum of the
rope and vertical displacement of the body. Also,
skipping rope involves upper and lower synchrony
(hand-foot coordination) where positioning and timing is
critical. The ability of time reproduction makes it
possible to reproduce specified time periods with great
precision. Skipping rope skill involves good perception
of time reproduction(15,16) In spite of numerous
publications on various general physical capacities (i.e.
jumping or running), there haven’t any investigation
related to the effects of skipping rope exercise on
physical fitness and cardiovascular fitness among
inactive college students. Thus this study is intended to
study the effects of skipping rope exercises on physical
and cardiovascular fitness among collegiate males.
METHODOLOGY:
This experimental study was conducted among collegiate
males of age group between 18 and 25 years at Faculty
of physiotherapy Dr. MGR Educational and Research
Institute. Study duration was twelve weeks. Subjects
were selected by simple random sampling method.
Inclusion criteria were inactive subjects based on IPAQ-
S. Exclusion criteria were minimally active and active
subjects based on IPAQ-S, sports population, those with
heart disease, any lung disease and anemia. Outcome
measure for cardiovascular fitness is VO2 max by step
test and Physical fitness by FMS (Functional Movement
Screening) and by IPAQ-S (International Physical
Activity QuestionnaireShort form). Skipping rope and
Pulse ox meter were the materials used.
PROCEDURE:
Inactive subjects were recruited based on IPAQ-S values
and randomly divided into two groups Group A
(experimental) and Group B (control group). Subjects
were selected based on inclusion criteria.
All the subjects signed informed consent before
initiation of the exercise. Experimental group received
skipping rope exercise two sessions per day from
moderate to vigorous intensity based on target heart rate
including warm up and cool down period to avoid
injuries. Exercise began with 55% of target heart rate
and then progressed to 65% by 2nd week and progressed
to 70% by 3rd week and 75 % by 4th week and finally
85% by 5th week. Group B (control group) were
suggested to do their as usual routine activities. Heart
Rate was periodically noted. Post test scores were
recorded after 12 weeks of intervention. Experimental
group received exercise as per ACSM’s guidelines;
exercise prescription was made to the subjects of
experimental group. Exercise prescription comprises of
mode, frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise.
There are many techniques in skipping rope in which
basic jump or easy jump technique was used for
experimental group. In this technique, jump with both
feet slightly apart over the rope and it was performed
individually.
EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION:
According to American College of Sports Medicine
recommended aerobic training intensity of 55% or 60%
to 90% of one’s maximum heart rate (HR max) or 40%
or 50% to 85% of VO2 max.
EXERCISE MODE:
Aerobic Exercise: EXERCISE FREQUENCY:
Frequency of this exercise program is 6 days per week
and 2 sessions in a day. EXERCISE DURATION:
Cardiovascular conditioning with endurance exercise
periods as brief has 5 to 10 minute per day.
EXERCISE INTENSITY:
As discussed earlier, exercise intensity will be prescribed
according to target heart rate. 55% of target heart rate for
the first week, 65% by second week, 70% by third week,
75% by fourth week and finally 85% of target heart rate
so on.
CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS:
Cardiovascular endurance was measured for all the
subjects in both groups and recorded by VO2 max by 3
minutes Mc Arld step test. This assessment was taken
individually. In this test, subject has to step up and step
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 12(10): October 2019
4833
down over the step bench for the duration of 3 minutes
and their heart rate noted and calculated using the
following formula. FORMULA: VO2 max (ml/kg/min) =
111.33(0.42×heart rate (bpm))
Vo2 max BY McArld STEP TEST:
The Harvard Step Test was first developed by Brouha,
Graybriel and Heath in 1943 (Brouha, Graybiel & Heath,
1943, found in Maud & Foster, 1995). It is a simple 3
minute step test that uses a step bench that is 40cm high
for males. It can be used for both men and women of
various ages and relies on the linear relationship between
heart rate and VO2 to predict maxVO2.
PHYSICAL FITNESS:
Physical fitness was assessed for all the participants in
both groups. Physical fitness was assessed by FMS
(Functional Movement Screen) which comprises of 7
different movement patterns and each movement pattern
score ranges from 0 to 3. The attained score was
recorded.
FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING:
The movement patterns are designed to provide
observable performance of basic locomotor,
manipulative and stabilizing movements by placing an
individual in extreme positions where weaknesses and
imbalances become noticeable if appropriate mobility
and motor control is not utilized. Once these deficiencies
have been identified through the FMS Screen, a program
of corrective exercises is then developed with the goal of
preventing musculoskeletal injuries(17). The FMS
consists of seven movement patterns which require
mobility and stability.
The seven following movement patterns were scored
from 0-3 points, with the sum creating a score ranging
from 0-21 points. (18, 19) The Functional Movement
Screen is made up of seven different movements 1) Deep
squat 2) Hurdle step 3) Inline lunge 4) Shoulder mobility
5) Active Straight leg raise 6) Trunk Stability Push Up 7)
Rotary Stability
DATA ANALYSIS:
The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using
both descriptive and inferential statistics. All the
parameters were assessed using statistical package for
social science (SPSS) version 17.0. Paired t-test was
adopted to find the statistical difference within the
groups & Independent t-test (Student t-Test) was
adopted to find the statistical difference between the
groups.
Table1 Comparison of Vo2 Max Between GroupA and Group-B in Pre and Post Test
Vo2max
#GROUP - A
#GROUP - B
t-test
MEAN
S.D
MEAN
S.D
df
PRE
43.28
5.88
43.84
4.75
-.331
38
POST
43.71
5.86
62.95
3.03
-13.042
38
Table 2 Comparison of fms Between Group-A and Group - B in Pre And Post Test
FMS
#GROUP - A
#GROUP - B
t - TEST
MEAN
S.D
MEAN
S.D
df
PRE
11.80
1.321
11.95
1.190
-.377
38
POST
12.00
0.973
15.40
0.820
-11.943
38
*Comparison of Vo2 Max Between Group A and Group - B In Pre
And Post Test
*Comparison of Fms Between Group A and Group - B In Pre
And Post Test
Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 12(10): October 2019
4834
RESULT:
On comparing the pre and post test values within
experimental group, it shows statistically significant
improvement on VO2 max where p value is (p≤0.001) And
also in pre and post test values of experimental group, it
reveals significant difference on Functional Movement
Screen where p value is (p≤0.0001)* whereas in control
group, there is no difference or improvement on
analyzing pre and post test values of mean.
DISCUSSION:
The present study gives a clear picture that experimental
group showed better results and it was observed that
there is a significant difference in the physical fitness by
functional movement screen and cardiovascular fitness
by vo2max (queens college step test).
Our study supports the findings of Mahboobeh Sohrabi
in 2015 on 9 to 10 years old female to improve their
physical fitness up to 23.88%. This study also confirms
the findings of Chen et al in 2010 related to the positive
impact of jump-roping on the balance of children with
slight mental disorders(20).The study done by
Dharmendra singh in 2015 proved that skipping rope
exercises improved the leg strength and agility among
girls. In this study, there was a better performance in
experimental group as compared to control group due to
the progressive training program for the duration of eight
weeks. It was concluded that regular conditioning or
training of optimum intensity brings specific changes in
various parameters like cardiovascular system, muscular
system and body composition(21).
Another study done by Fatemeh Fallah in 2014 showed
the effect of jump rope training on static balance in male
and female students with intellectual impairment. The
results of this study showed that one can suggest these
exercises in order to improve the (static) balance.
However, the researchers believe that the jump rope
workout, have specific advantage, since these exercises
are of the dynamic activities, which causes vigor in the
people, while strengthening the pivotal muscles. John A.
Baker in 2013 compared skipping rope exercise with
jogging and finally concluded that 10 minutes of
skipping rope exercise is more beneficial than 30
minutes of jogging where both interventions were used
to improve cardiovascular efficiency(22). When power
improves, strength should also increase. Jump-rope
exercises may cause muscle protein degradation, as a
result of increased strikes and resistance. However, this
process also causes a potential increase of muscle size
and power. With the increase in power, when speed stays
still, the strength also improves.
It should be noted that jump-roping is a jumping exercise
and it is highly similar to the Plyometric Exercises.
Similar to the Plyometric exercises, jump-roping also
have two levels of extrovert contraction and rapid
introvert contraction. During the extrovert contraction,
when the Quadriceps and twin muscles are stretched, the
elastic components are also stretched. Thus, part of the
energy is stored in the form of elastic potential energy.
During the introvert contraction, this energy releases and
results in the increase of power and the speed of
movement. An increase in the mentioned factors also
causes the improvement of strength. Additionally, the
nervous coordination that occurs as a result of power
exercises, such as Plyometric and jump-roping (the
stretching reflex of muscle spindles), results in the
increase of power(23,24). This study showed a significant
improvement in physical fitness and the cardiovascular
fitness among collegiate males those who performed
skipping rope exercise and thus has a potential to
minimize long term lifestyle diseases.
CONCLUSION:
By the obtained result from this experimental study, it is
concluded that the skipping rope exercise has a better
improvement on cardiovascular fitness as well as
physical fitness which is proved. Skipping rope training
is really a good exercise for those people who want to
maintain their fitness level and also it needs only lesser
space to perform this exercise and affordable to everyone
in this society. Hence, skipping rope training is a good
choice for those who’re having a sedentary lifestyle.
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Background: There is a mutually influencing relationship between physical activity and fitness level, especially the cardiorespiratory endurance component. Types of exercise that can increase cardiovascular endurance are skipping rope, fast walking, and weight lifting. Thoses exercises are simple and easy to do. This study aimed to determine whether or not there was a difference in influence and which one was the most influential between skipping rope, fast walking, and weight training on the cardiorespiratory endurance of physiotherapy students. Subjects and Method: This was a randomized control trial study, conducted at the Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health, Surakarta, from July to August 2020. A total of 36 students was selected by random sampling, and allocated into 4 groups consisted of 9 students: (1) Skipping rope exercise group; (2) Fast walking group; (3) Weight training group; and (4) Control group. The dependent variable was cardiorespiratory endurance. The independent variable was skipping rope, fast walking, and weight training. Cardiorespiratory endurance was measured by the Cooper method to measure VO2 max. Data were analyzed using paired t test, Wilcoxon, and One Way ANOVA. Results: After intervention, cardiorespiratory endurance was increased in all intervention groups. There was no statistically significant different effects on cardiorespiratory endurance between skipping rope group (Mean= 1.48; SD= 0.42), fast walking group (Mean= 1.42; SD= 0.30), weight training group (Mean= 1.38; SD= 0.22), and control group (Mean= 1.17; SD= 0.28) with p value of 0.218. Conclusion: Skipping rope and weight training significantly increase cardiorespiratory endurance. There is no difference in the effect of skipping rope, fast walking, and weight training on cardiorespiratory endurance.
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The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of jumping rope training on the health-related physical fitness in students with intellectual impairment. Nine students aged between 13-15 and who at Chung-Shan Junior High School in Taichung City were selected as the study sample. Using the random sampling method, students were divided into the experimental group (N=6) and the control group (N=3). Tests of health-related physical fitness were conducted before and after the training. The paired t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used in the statistical analyses for the test results Keywords: jumping rope, Intellectual impairment, health-related physical fitness.
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The importance of physical fitness to health for all individuals has been well documented.Physical fitness is a required element for all the activities in our society. Health related physical fitness of an individual is mainly dependent on lifestyle related factors such as daily physical activity levels. It was believed that the low physical fitness level of an individual is associated with higher mortality rate.Physical fitness is also considered as the degree of ability to execute a physical task under various ambient conditions. The purpose of this study is to experiment, measure and evaluate the level of physical fitness among college students of Islamic Azad University (IAU), shabestar branch based on gender. There were 450 students who has been involved in this physical fitness test study which were 250 male students(mean ± SD; Age: 22.5 ± 8.25 yrs, Height: 174.23 ± 5.2 cm, Weight: 68.45 ± 9.29 kg) and the other 200 are female students(mean ± SD; Age: 22.75 ± 6.2 yrs, Height: 159.75 ± 5.2 cm, Weight: 56.71 ± 8.84 kg).There were 6 activities in this test which were 12 minute run, sit-up, vertical jump for explosive strength, 10 meter agility shuttle, flexibility and push up. All these tests were evaluated the level of fitness from aspect agility, speed, endurance of cardiovascular, power of leg and flexibility. Physical fitness performance was better in male students, except for sit and reach test, in which female students performed better.
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Two measures of self-concept were administered to 11 children, aged from 9 to 11 yr., before and after 8 wk. of participation in a guided exercise program of precision rope jumping. Despite the fact that the children evidenced as a group high self-concept at the outset, a significant improvement on this measure appeared after the jump-rope regimen. This psychological change was noted while there was no alteration in the physiological indices of body composition and cardiovascular fitness.
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This study was conducted to determine the effects upon cardiovascular efficiency that result from programs of rope skipping and jogging. The Harvard step test was administered to 92 male students in order to determine their level of cardiovascular efficiency. The subjects were then randomly divided into two groups; group I skipped rope 10 min. daily for 6 weeks and group II jogged 30 min. daily for 6 weeks. Upon completion of the conditioning programs the subjects again were administered the Harvard step test and comparisons were made from the pre-exercise and postexercise data. The conclusions of this study were that a daily 10-min. program of rope skipping will significantly improve (p = .05) cardiovascular efficiency as measured by the Harvard step test, that a daily 30-min. program of jogging will significantly improve (p = .05) cardiovascular efficiency as measured by the Harvard step test, and that a 10-min. daily program of rope skipping is as efficient as a particular 30-min. daily program of jogging for improving cardiovascular efficiency as measured by the Harvard step test.
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The aim was to assess dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women attending an obesity clinic, and to rate differences in HRQL in those with the highest and lowest levels of physical activity (PA). The sample included 113 sedentary and 101 physically active subjects from a total sample of 375 overweight women 16-65 years, with a body mass index (BMI) > or =27.5 kg/m(2) consulting at an outpatient Endocrinology Clinic, and 82 lean female volunteers who served as a reference. Weight, height, body composition, PA, physical medical conditions, depression, body image, cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of obesity, eating behavior, functional status, walking ability, exercise capacity, social functioning, and general health and perceived quality of life were assessed cross-sectionally. The prevalence of medical conditions and depression was not statistically different (P < 0.05) in sedentary and active women. In sedentary obese women, body attitude, walking ability, and aerobic fitness were poorer; the number of people to turn to for social support was smaller; physical attributions about the basis of the subjects obesity were less pronounced; and eating was more the consequence of external triggers or diffuse emotions than in physically active obese women (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that a higher level of PA in an obese female clinical population was positively associated with diverse dimensions of HRQL. However, it was not possible to determine if these favorable aspects of HRQL are the cause or the consequence of a higher PA level.
The role of vision in rope skipping training for balance development in the mental retardation
  • H C Yeh
Yeh, H. C. (2007). The role of vision in rope skipping training for balance development in the mental retardation. Unpublished Master's Thesis/. Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University.