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Quantification of the minimum amount of lemon juice and apple cider vinegar required for the growth inhibition of dandruff causing fungi Malassezia furfur

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In the present study, an attempt was made to know the activity of different plant extracts against the dandruff causing organism Malassezia furfur. Various parts of twelve different plants were collected and their crude as well as powered extracts were used for the activity studies. The evaluation was done using cup plate method. Sensitivity of the organism to marketed antidandruff shampoos was also studied. Of all the extracts, antifungal activity was shown by lemon, amla, shikakai, henna (decreasing order of activity). These results were compared with the antifungal activity of three branded shampoos. On comparison, it is inferred that plant extracts showed promising activity against Malassezia furfur when compared with the marketed antidandruff shampoos.
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Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment.
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Malassezia furfur, a lipophilic, dimorphic and yeast-like fungus, occurring in human skin as an opportunistic pathogen, causes diseases such as dandruff, pityriasis versicolar, seborrheic dermatitis, etc. Suitable media for culturing the organism were standardized. A modified medium for the culturing of M. furfur has been proposed. Growth of the fungus was also determined in the presence of different carbon sources under the influence of different temperature, pH and salinity. Plant extracts of 19 species were screened against the growth of the fungus by using disc diffusion method and the results are discussed.
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The article discuss in detail about the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of dandruff including the etio-pathology. The article also discusses in detail about various treatment methods available for dandruff. The status of dandruff being amphibious - a disease/disorder, and relatively less medical intervention is sought after for the treatment, dandruff is the most commercially exploited skin and scalp disorder/disease by personal care industries.
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Several studies indicate that Pityrosporum ovale plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Many of these are treatment studies which describe the effectiveness of antimycotics, paralleled by a reduction in the number of P. ovale colonies and then recolonization, leading to a recurrence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. In this study 20 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp were treated with terbinafine (Lamisil®) 1% solution once daily for 4 weeks. Eleven of 18 patients (61%) were cured and they were still free of lesions 2 weeks after stopping treatment. No side-effects related to treatment were seen. There was also a significant reduction in the number of P. ovale colonies. This may explain both the good clinical effect and the observation that all patients who were cleared of P. ovale were still free of lesions 2 weeks after stopping treatment.
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The yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with a number of diseases affecting the human skin, such as pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and--less commonly--with other dermatologic disorders such as confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy because of their fastidious nature in vitro, and relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. Many studies have been published in the past few years after the taxonomic revision carried out in 1996 in which 7 species were recognized. Two new species have been recently described, one of which has been isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. It also highlights the importance of individual Malassezia species in the different dermatologic disorders related to these yeasts.