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Curiosity has comprehensive benefits in the workplace: Developing and validating a multidimensional workplace curiosity scale in United States and German employees

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Abstract

Curiosity is a fundamental human motive that is beginning to garner closer attention by researchers and practitioners interested in workplace functioning. Recent work suggests that rather than designating someone as possessing curiosity or not, there is benefit in detailing the various elements of curiosity. To date, there is no research on how multiple dimensions of curiosity operate in the workplace. Across four samples, we developed and validated the M-Workplace Curiosity Scale. Participants were American and German employees from a range of industries. We found evidence for four workplace curiosity dimensions: Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, and Openness to People's Ideas. These workplace curiosity dimensions predicted a substantial amount of variance in adaptive outcomes including job satisfaction, work engagement, job crafting, healthy work relationships, and innovation; as a test of construct specificity, workplace curiosity outperformed trait mindfulness in predicting each of these workplace outcomes. Results offer support for a comprehensive model of curiosity that identifies high performing, satisfied individuals in the workplace. These findings underscore the importance of understanding, assessing, leveraging, and developing curiosity in teams and organizations.

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... It drives exploration in response to unexpected problems and events due to the need to reduce uncertainty and, at the same time, create a sense of mastery (Litman, 2008). It has been showed that curiosity has a motivational nature that influences learning, knowledge acquisition and life fulfillment (Kashdan et al., 2020). In the long run, consistently acting on curious feelings tends to expand knowledge and build intellectual and creative capacities (Von Stumm & Ackerman, 2013). ...
... Recently, studies on work-related curiosity have identified four dimensions (for more details, see Kashdan et al., 2020): (1) Joyous Exploration (feeling happy when looking for new solutions, ideas and experiences); (2) Deprivation Sensitivity (until problems are solved); (3) Stress Tolerance (the perceived ability to tolerate the anxiety of confronting the new), and (4) Openness to People's Ideas (social curiosity). ...
... The personality research has investigated the impact of curiosity on key personal outcomes, such as well-being (e.g., Kashdan & Steger, 2007), however there are few studies focused on the impact of curiosity in the workplace (Kashdan et al., 2020). Overall, this stream of the literature has suggested that curiosity is conducive to positive outcomes (Kashdan et al., 2018). ...
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Objective The present research explores the path between work-related curiosity and positive affect. To justify this relationship, we rely on the conservation of resources theory (COR) and include performance as a mediator of the curiosity-positive affect path, such that curiosity was expected to stimulate performance, resulting in higher positive affect. We also aimed to explore whether the Dark Triad personality would moderate this mediating path. Methodology Three studies were conducted. Study 1 analyzed the indirect path of curiosity on positive affect through performance (n = 241). Study 2 resorted to two samples, one with participants in telework (n = 406), and the other one with participants in face-to-face work (n = 240), to explore the mediated link. Study 3 (n = 653) explored the moderating role of the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) on the mediated relationship. Findings Study 1 demonstrated that curiosity boosted positive affect through performance. Study 2 showed that, when workers were in telework, the mediated relationship occurred, however the same did not happen in face-to-face work. Study 3 showed that Machiavellianism and psychopathy moderated the indirect effect of curiosity on positive affect through performance, in a way that it was present for individuals low on these traits, but not for individuals high on such traits. Narcissism did not moderate the mediated relationship. Implications We discuss the impact that curiosity may have on behavioral and affective consequences (performance and affect), and the role that personality may have on this relationship.
... The people who always enjoy exploring ideas and information, they are always deprived of the challenges. These people want to expand their knowledge and skills by seeking different opportunities (Todd B. Kashdana, 2020). These people are intrinsically motivated (Gross, Zedelius, & Schooler, 2020). ...
... This factor is very important in order to achieve organizational creativity. The results of this finding are in parallel with the results of the previous studies carried out by (Gross, Zedelius, & Schooler, 2020) and (Todd B. Kashdana, 2020). They said that people who want to expand their knowledge and skills by seeking different opportunities and who are intrinsically motivated are more creative and lead to organizational creativity. ...
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The study was on "Organizational Creativity and Organizational Citizenship: In the Context of Turkish Academicians". The persistence of this research was to study that how different independent variables (Organizational Citizenship, Joyous Exploration and Social Curiosity) affect dependent variable (Organizational Creativity). The primary data was collected by distributing questionnaires online through google docs to the Turkish academicians working in different Turkish universities. The sample size used for this study was 131 respondents. SPSS software was used to analyze the data for frequencies, reliability, correlation and regression analysis. The results were contingent by usual principles of statistics. Data used for this study is also reliable in order to see the results. Based on the results all the hypotheses were accepted and all of the independent variables (Organizational Citizenship, Joyous Exploration and Social Curiosity) have a significant effect on the dependent variable (Organizational Creativity).
... Work curiosity (WC) was assessed using the 16 items multidimensional workplace trait curiosity scale developed by Kashdan et al. (2020). The scale consists of four dimensions: openness to people's ideas, stress tolerance, deprivation sensitivity, and joyous exploration. ...
... From the perspective of an employee's characteristics, we developed how the innovative behavior of employees is affected by work curiosity and emphasized the significance of employees' psychological quality based on the empirical evidence from China. Kashdan et al. (2020) proposed that curious employees have four characteristics: joyous exploration, deprivation sensitivity, openness to people's ideas, and stress tolerance. Joyous exploration means that individuals actively seek new information when they do not lack the information needed to solve the problem, and in this process, they get a sense of pleasure for learning and growth; deprivation sensitivity means that employees seek the information they need to solve complex work-related problems until the problem is solved, ...
... As interest in curiosity seems to be increasing, a concomitant push toward crafting instruments for measuring curiosity has also occurred. Some recent curiosity models tend to be eclectic and summarize diverse aspects such as stress tolerance under the umbrella of curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2020b). Wagstaff, Flores, Ahmed, and Villanueva (2020) observed that organizational scholars have used thirteen different scales that attempt to directly measure some variant of the intra-psychic nature of curiosity. ...
... For the EAC, the operational definition includes the extent to which employees self-report measures of curiosity as a motivational state and the appreciations of their level of work-related curiosity for going to search for new knowledge to solving problems and improving the process. The current study measures employee curiosity using 10 items adapted from Celik et al. (2016), Kashdan et al. (2018) and Dilek et al. (2017). Items such as "I search for novel ideas and information at all stages of service development and delivery". ...
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Innovative behaviour and its antecedents attracted research interest recently. To address this need, the researcher draws on State-Trait Curiosity Inventory and self-determination theory to examine the impacts of work-related curiosity (WRC) and employee absorptive capacity on innovative employee behaviour. The mediating variable of employee absorptive capacity (EAC) was examined. Data was collected and analysed from 292 full-time employees who are working within the service sector in Jordan. The outputs from smart partial least square SmartPLS analysis reveal that WRC effects EAC, which consequently affects innovative employee behaviour. Surprisingly, supportive leadership behaviour was found to play a moderating role in the relationship between WRC and EAC, but it has an inverse effect. These findings provide managers knowledge on how to enhance innovative employee behaviours by encouraging employee curiosity and absorptive capacity.
... We measure it in two ways: (1) curiosity questions (questions team members ask each other motivated by interest in each other's work) and (3) task motivation. Acts of curiosity have been positively correlated with job performance [34], and although the literature is split on this finding [35], curiosity may be particularly important to art-science collaborations as a mechanism for Sustainability 2020, 12, 8634 4 of 27 signaling interest in each other's research. Task motivation is defined as the reason people undertake and stick with a task through completion [26]. ...
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The complexity and interconnectedness of sustainability issues has led to the joining of disciplines. This effort has been primarily within the sciences with minimal attention given to the relationship between science and art. The exclusion of art is problematic since sustainability challenges are not only scientific and technical; they are also cultural, so the arts, as shapers of culture, are critical components that warrant representation. Hence, it stands to reason that understanding art-science integration will benefit sustainability’s focus on use-inspired basic research. In this paper, we focus on artist-scientist team dynamics and the impact of those team dynamics on the quality of their outputs, in service of gleaning insight into how interdisciplinary teams can better work together to address sustainability challenges. In other words, we ask the question “How do art-science teams reason together, validate ideas, and produce robust outcomes when facing a task related to complex socio-ecological systems, which sit at the crux of sustainability challenges?” To address this question, we conducted a small-group pilot study of artist-scientist teams tasked with developing interpretive signage for the Tres Rios wetland site. We collected survey and ethnographic data to account for intra- and interpersonal interactions in teams. Specifically, this study focuses on variables we call barriers or carriers, which aid or hinder the collaborative interactions of deeply diverse teams. We found that successful art-science collaborations appear to result in improved communication skills, better problem articulation, more creative problem solving, and the questioning of personal and disciplinary mental models.
... That is the greater interest in learning, then that person will tend to pay more attention to the object being studied until the desired goal is achieved. The indicators that indicate that someone has an interest, that is showing feelings of pleasure, giving attention, high awareness, and a high curiosity [7]. The existing interest in students can be referred to as factors that influence learning outcomes because with that interest a student will try to achieve the goals he wants. ...
Conference Paper
This research aims to analyze the interest motivation instrument (IIM) to measure interest and motivation to study doctoral physics education using RapidMiner. The research method used is quantitative methods, with samples consisted of 132 people consisting of 41 graduates from the bachelor program in physics education, 84 graduates from the magister program in physics education, and 7 graduates from the doctoral program in physics education from 34 universities in Indonesia. Analysis of IIM is an online instrument Using RapidMiner that contains questions about interest and motivation to continue the study of doctoral programs in physics education. The results showed that 63.2% was considered, 26.3% would enroll a doctoral program, 8.3% was taking a doctoral program, and 22% were not interested in continuing. The motivation to continue the doctoral program is that 56.4% want to increase their expertise, 25.6% want to become a lecturer, and 18% other reason. The RapidMiner information of identified one predictive model is used IIM in statistics through decision tree techniques. The conclusion is that people will consider continuing studies in doctoral programs in physics education and interest to internship and research abroad. Then, the motivation to continue studies is to increase expertise at work.
... Scholars have recently proposed a reconceptualization of resilience factors as dynamic networks characterized by multiple factors interconnected via causal associations with each other (Kalisch et al., 2019). Consider the example of curiosity, stressor reflections, and self-regulation; a strong disposition to seek out new information and experiences (curiosity; Kashdan et al., 2020) may encourage one to engage systematically in reflections on their experiences with stressors (Crane, Boga, et al., 2019), which in turn may enable them to identify self-regulatory strategies that they have available to them to deal with similar stressors in the future (e.g., social support) or which they may need to learn (e.g., emotional flexibility). When combined with a temporal perspective, the network approach can shed light on the associations among resilience factors throughout different phases after experiencing an adversity. ...
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There is intuitive and practical appeal to the idea of emergent resilience, that is, sustaining healthy levels of functioning or recovering quickly after some degree of deterioration following exposure to heightened risk or vulnerability. Scholars typically utilize mean levels of functioning indices to identify qualitatively distinct latent subgroups of individuals who share similar patterns of change over time. We propose and showcase an alternative, yet complementary operationalization of emergent resilience via temporal changes in within-person variability. Twenty-nine male personnel (26.25 ± 2.67 years) from the Australian Army who passed a 3-week Special Forces Selection Course provided device-based assessments of sleep functioning for seven nights immediately following course completion. Participants also provided a hair sample for cortisol analysis prior to and immediately after the selection course as an index of accumulated stress, and self-reported their adaptability prior to the 7-day monitoring period. We combined latent growth modeling with an exponential variance function to capture fluctuations around latent means and their change over time. Consistent with our conceptualization of “bounce back” emergent resilience, within-person variability in sleep duration decreased each night by around 10%, which reflects a meaningful small mean decrease over time. We also revealed differential effects of the predictor variables; biological stress primarily influenced the total sleep duration on the first night of the 7-day monitoring period, whereas adaptability largely affected temporal changes in the within-person residual variances. These findings underscore the importance of synergizing concept, operationalization, and method for the science of human resilience.
... However, studies have shown that constructs reflect the reality they represent better when they are specific rather than general [13]. The specificity of a given construct could be improved by making it context-specific [14,15]. With regards to emotion regulation, for example, Ford et al. [16] state that context-sensitive emotion regulation is more adaptive and successful than context-insensitive approaches. ...
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In a two-stage process, we validated and established the item quality of an initial 15-item trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) scale in teacher leadership in higher education. First, we compute the interrater agreement (κ = 0.87) based on the trait EI domain using data obtained from a panel of nine experts. Second, item-rest correlation and item factor loading for the 15-item trait EI scale were determined based on data collected from a pilot sample of 61 teacher-leaders working with higher educational institutions in Northeast Nigeria. The results of the item-rest correlations (in two rounds) reduced the scale to nine items with excellent psychometrics (Cronbach alpha = 0.928; average interitem correlation = 0.589). This result was confirmed through the item factor loadings (range: 0.626-0.855) computed using JASP software. The scale showed good to reasonable model fit (χ 2 = 127.105; df = 90; χ 2 /df = 1.412; p >0.006; RMSEA = 0.099; and TLI 0.870). Overall, this study produced a valid and reliable 9-item trait EI scale in teacher leadership that can be used in assessing the trait EI of teacher-leaders in higher education. Also, the study contributes to the refinement of the sampling domain of the trait EI construct.
... The finding that across studies, curiosity was increased through interventions supports the potential of programs intended to raise curiosity as an end goal. The finding also supports the potential of programs that seek to raise curiosity to obtain related effects such as increases in creativity (Schutte & Malouff, 2019a), innovation (Celik et al., 2016), life satisfaction (Kashdan & Steger, 2007), life meaning, academic performance (Von Stumm et al., 2011), and job satisfaction (Kashdan et al., 2020). In such research the increases in curiosity can then be viewed as a manipulation check of the intended impact of the intervention. ...
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Curiosity is associated with a number of beneficial outcomes, such as greater life satisfaction, more work engagement and better academic performance. The connection between curiosity and beneficial outcomes supports the importance of examining whether it is possible to increase curiosity and to investigate what approaches may be effective in facilitating curiosity. This meta-analysis consolidated the effects of curiosity-enhancing interventions. Across 41 randomized controlled trials, with a total of 4,496 participants, interventions significantly increased curiosity. The weighted effect size was Hedges' g = 0.57 [0.44, 0.70]. These results indicated that interventions were effective across a variety of intervention principles used, with participants in various age groups, across various measures, and over different time periods. Interventions aiming to increase general curiosity showed larger effect sizes than interventions aiming to increase realm-specific curiosity. Interventions incorporating mystery or game playing had especially high effect sizes. Because higher levels of curiosity tend to be associated with various beneficial outcomes, the finding that across studies interventions are effective in increasing curiosity holds promise for future efforts to increase curiosity to bring about additional benefits.
... A pszichológiai tőke forrásával kapcsolatban Seligman (2002) -akit Csíkszentmihályi Mihály mellett a pozitív pszichológiai tudományterület megalapítójaként tartanak számon -úgy fogalmaz, hogy amikor elkötelezettek vagyunk, a flow mentális állapotába merülünk, ezzel befektetünk a jövőnkbe és pszichológiai tőkét építünk. Kutatók a flow-állapot kíváncsiságra és fejlődésre gyakorolt pozitív hatását (Kashdan et al., 2020), illetve a tanulásra és fejlődésre való megnövekedett nyitottságot is elemzik (López, Arias-Oliva, Pelegrín-Borondo & Marín-Vinuesa, 2021). ...
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A szerzők tanulmányukban a vezetés emberi tényezőivel foglalkoznak, Csíkszentmihályi Mihály flow-elméletéhez (1997) kapcsolódóan a munkahelyi flow-állapotot elősegítő vezetéshez szükséges készségeket és ezek összefüggéseit vizsgálják. Rámutatnak arra, hogy a játékosítás és a komoly játékok fontos szerepet tölthetnek be a modern vezetőképzésben: az érintettek valósághű virtuális döntési szituációkon keresztül tapasztalatokat szerezhetnek készségeikről, döntéseik hatásáról, egyben fejleszthetik versenyképességet biztosító vezetői képességeiket. A kutatás újdonsága, hogy a flow-elmélet és a vezetői készségek közötti kapcsolatot a komoly játék eszközével létrehozott, kiterjedt adatbázison vizsgálja: a FLIGBY® („Flow is Good Business For You”), a flow-alapú vezetői készségek mérésére és fejlesztésére kidolgozott komoly játék közel egy évtizedre visszatekintő adatai adják empirikus elemzésük alapját. Többszáz magyar megfigyelés alapján, a vezetői készségek közti kapcsolatok statisztikai elemzésével megvizsgálják, hogy a munkahelyi flow-t elősegítő négy fő készséget (a stratégiai gondolkodásmód, a visszacsatolás, az egyéni erősségek felismerése, valamint a kihívások és a készségek közti egyensúly megteremtésének készsége) milyen további vezetői képességek támogatják leginkább.
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This article describes some of the issues affecting measures that are translated and/or adapted from an original language and culture to a new one. It addresses steps to ensure (a) that the test continues to measure the same psychological characteristics, (b) that the test content is the same, and (c) that the research procedures needed to document that it effectively meets this goal are available. Specifically, the notions of test validation, fairness, and norms are addressed. An argument that such adaptations may be necessary when assessing members of subpopulations in U. S. culture is proposed.
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In this article, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychologists can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of human capital. Specifically, complex problem solving (CPS) and collaborative problem solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are generally considered critical in the 21st century workplace. The assessment of these skills in education has linked fundamental research with practical applicability and has provided a useful template for workplace assessment. Both CPS and ColPS capture the interaction of individuals with problems that require the active acquisition and application of knowledge in individual or group settings. To ignite a discussion in industrial and organizational psychology, we discuss advances in the assessment of CPS and ColPS and propose ways to move beyond the current state of the art in assessing job-related skills.
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The authors propose that need for cognition, an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, is associated with individual innovation behavior. Moreover, drawing on an interactionist perspective, the authors suggest that need for cognition becomes more important when individuals face lower job autonomy and time pressure in their work. This is because, when these job characteristics are low, there is no contextual driving force for individual innovation, so personality has a stronger influence. In a multisource study of 179 employees working in a Dutch research and consultancy organization, the authors' expectations were largely supported. They found that need for cognition was positively associated with peer-rated innovation behavior, as were job autonomy and time pressure, even when controlling for openness to experience and proactive personality. Furthermore, the relationship between need for cognition and innovation behavior was strongest for individuals with low job autonomy and low time pressure and indeed was nonexistent at high levels of these contextual variables. This study, therefore, suggests that context can substitute for an individual's need for cognition when it comes to individual innovation.
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We applied trait activation theory to investigate the situational properties that moderate the correlation of intellect, a sub-dimension of the Big Five factor openness to experience, with work-related criteria. We collected data from a sample of 185 employees from diverse organizations and positions. Results from moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed that perceived situational properties at the task level moderated the correlation between intellect and job success. Additionally, correlations between intellect and organizational commitment were moderated at task and organizational levels. This study shows how trait activation theory can be utilized to investigate the situational properties moderating the correlation of personality variables with external criteria. Implications for applied purposes are discussed.
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In the present study, we used a quantitative diary design to investigate within-person fluctuations in student engagement and performance. Specifically, we analyzed the impact of weekly personal and study resources on weekly student engagement, active learning behaviors, and performance. In addition, we investigated whether students high (vs. low) in trait Openness reacted differently to their weekly resources. The sample was composed of 45 first-year psychology students who filled in a questionnaire over 3 weeks; twice per week (N = 45 × 6 = 270 occasions)—during the days they had tutorial group meetings. The tutors evaluated each student’s active learning behaviors during these meetings. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that study engagement fully mediated the relationship between personal resources and observed learning activities; study resources were indirectly positively related to learning activities through study engagement. In addition, observed learning activities were positively related to the course grade. As hypothesized, trait Openness strengthened the positive relationship between personal/study resources and study engagement. Our findings highlight the importance of fostering students’ engagement. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical implications for education and suggestions for future research.
SUMMARY—As the workplace has become increasingly diverse, there has been a tension between the promise and the reality of diversity in team process and performance. The optimistic view holds that diversity will lead to an increase in the variety of perspectives and approaches brought to a problem and to opportunities for knowledge sharing, and hence lead to greater creativity and quality of team performance. However, the preponderance of the evidence favors a more pessimistic view: that diversity creates social divisions, which in turn create negative performance outcomes for the group.
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In this essay we argue for a more person-centric direction for research in industrial–organizational (I–O) psychology. We argue that the prevailing paradigm within I–O treats workers as objects and in so doing limits the ability to develop a deep and continued understanding of the important ways in which humans relate to work. In response, we think there is a need for a more coherent focus on the worker and on the subjective experience of working. After describing the current paradigm we suggest an alternative—a person-centric work psychology that takes the worker as its focus and worker experience as a topic of study.
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There is growing evidence that mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have positive consequences for psychological and physical health. The most well-established of these interventions typically involve relatively large resource commitments, in terms of both the provider and participant. A number of recent studies have begun to explore whether the benefits of such interventions can be generalised to less intensive methods. Methods include pure and guided self-help utilising resources such as books and workbooks, computer programmes and applications and audio-visual materials. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have evaluated the effectiveness and acceptability of low-intensity interventions including mindfulness and acceptance-based components. Fifteen RCTs (7 ACT-based, 4 mindfulness-based and 4 multi-component interventions including elements of mindfulness and/or acceptance) were identified and reviewed. Interventions that included mindfulness and/or acceptance-based components produced significant benefits in comparison to control conditions on measures of mindfulness/acceptance, depression and anxiety with small to medium effect sizes. Engagement with the self-help interventions varied but on average two-thirds of participants completed post-intervention measures. Emerging research into low-intensity mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions is hopeful. Recommendations for research and practice are presented.
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The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for reducing psychological distress in working adults. A comprehensive literature search of relevant databases included articles written in English published on December 2012. The meta-analysis included 19 controlled and uncontrolled intervention studies with a total of 1,139 participants. Analyses yielded medium-to-large mean effect sizes for the within-group (pre–post) comparison (Hedges's g = 0.68, 95 % confidence interval (CI) [0.58, 0.78]) and for the between-group (Hedges's g = 0.68, 95 % CI [0.48, 0.88]) comparison of MBI with an inactive control. Effectiveness was largely maintained at a median follow-up of 5 weeks (Hedges's g = 0.60, 95 % CI [0.46, 0.75]). Analyses based on subgroup comparisons suggested that brief versions of mindfulness-based stress reduction developed for organisational settings are equally effective as standard 8-week versions originally developed for clinical settings. However, there is little evidence to suggest that MBIs are more effective than other types of occupational stress management interventions, such as relaxation training and yoga, for reducing psychological distress in working adults. Overall, these findings support the use of MBIs in organisational settings for the reduction of psychological distress. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
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Although the concept of mindfulness has attracted scholarly attention across multiple disciplines, research on mindfulness in the field of management remains limited. In particular, little research in this field has examined the nature of mindfulness and whether it relates to task performance in organizational and occupational settings. Filling these gaps, the present article delineates mindfulness by (a) defining it as a state of consciousness in which attention is focused on present-moment phenomena occurring both externally and internally, (b) comparing it to a range of other attention-related concepts, and (c) developing theory concerning the factors that determine when mindfulness is beneficial versus costly from a task performance standpoint.
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Researchers often debate about whether there is a meaningful differentiation between psychological well-being and subjective well-being. One view argues that psychological and subjective well-being are distinct dimensions, whereas another view proposes that they are different perspectives on the same general construct and thus are more similar than different. The purpose of this investigation was to examine these two competing views by using a statistical approach, the bifactor model, that allows for an examination of the common variance shared by the two types of well-being and the unique variance specific to each. In one college sample and one nationally representative sample, the bifactor model revealed a strong general factor, which captures the common ground shared by the measures of psychological well-being and subjective well-being. The bifactor model also revealed four specific factors of psychological well-being and three specific factors of subjective well-being, after partialling out the general well-being factor. We further examined the relations of the specific factors of psychological and subjective well-being to external measures. The specific factors demonstrated incremental predictive power, independent of the general well-being factor. These results suggest that psychological well-being and subjective well-being are strongly related at the general construct level, but their individual components are distinct once their overlap with the general construct of well-being is partialled out. The findings thus indicate that both perspectives have merit, depending on the level of analysis.
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Job burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job and is defined here by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and sense of inefficacy. Its presence as a social problem in many human services professions was the impetus for the research that is now taking place in many countries. That research has established the complexity of the problem and has examined the individual stress experience within a larger social and organizational context of people's response to their work. The framework, which focuses attention on the interpersonal dynamics between the worker and other people in the workplace, has yielded new insights into the sources of stress, but effective interventions have yet to be developed and evaluated.
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Humans are a cultural species, and the study of human psychology benefits from attention to cultural influences. Cultural psychology's contributions to psychological science can largely be divided according to the two different stages of scientific inquiry. Stage 1 research seeks cultural differences and establishes the boundaries of psychological phenomena. Stage 2 research seeks underlying mechanisms of those cultural differences. The literatures regarding these two distinct stages are reviewed, and various methods for conducting Stage 2 research are discussed. The implications of culture-blind and multicultural psychologies for society and intergroup relations are also discussed. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.
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This posthumous fragment of a book that Dr. Berlyne was writing at the time of his death was sent to MOTIVATION AND EMOTION by his colleagues at the University of Toronto. Its appearance in print is by permission of the Berlyne family and with appreciation to F. G. Hare and John Ogilvie of the University of Toronto and Seymour Weingarten of Plenum Publishing corporation, who were instrumental in providing a copy of the manuscript to the editor; to George Rappolt and Pat Monahan, of Clark University, who assisted in compiling the bibliography; and to Dr. Edward L. Walker, who provided some editing and wrote the brief introduction. References to figures (in Chapters 1 and 3) were deleted, as no figures could be found to accompany the manuscript. In any case, it appeared that these would have merely supplemented the text and were neither new nor original, insofar as could be judged. The reader may further note that perhaps a half dozen references are missing, and others may not have been those intended by Dr. Berlyne. While it seems unlikely that the chapters presented here were either complete or in their final draft stage, it was nevertheless felt that publication of even this fragment of Daniel Berlyne's last major work, with only minimal editing, would be of value to fellow students of motivation theory. M.H.A.
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Then correlation matrices based upon real and random data with squared multiple correlations in the diagonals are factored, the hypothesis is that the point at which the curves of the latent roots cross indicates the number of common factors. Sampling studies confirm the hypothesis when the common factor model provides a good fit to the data. When small overlapping, nonrandom factors are introduced, the expected value of the number of common factors can still be the number of major factor in the population when the nonrandom "noise" is small compared to sampling error "noise." This criterion for the number of common factors, furthermore, is more accurate than the method of maximum likelihood.
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This study (a) compared the effect of perceived supervisor support (PSS) and perceived coworker support (PCS) on work attitudes; (b) examined the moderating role of gender, tenure, and job type in the support—attitude relationship; and (c) tested a theoretical model hypothesizing relationships among PCS, PSS, perceived organizational support, and work attitudes. In a meta-analysis, PSS was found to be more strongly related to job satisfaction (.52 vs. .37), affective commitment (.48 vs. .28), and turnover intention (—.36 vs. —.19) than was PCS. Further, job type (customer-contact vs. non-customer-contact jobs) was found to be a significant moderator. Finally, the proposed model received empirical support. Different forms of support were closely related to work attitudes and to each other. Implications for research on social support are discussed.
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Purpose – Academic and practitioner interest has focused on innovation as a method of competitive differentiation and as a way to create customer value. However, less attention has been devoted to developing a measure of innovation culture. The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically-based comprehensive instrument for measuring an organization's innovation culture. Design/methodology – This paper describes a procedure which explicates the innovation culture construct, and proposes a multi-item measure of innovation culture predicated on exploratory factor analysis. These descriptors were derived from extant literature, key informant interviews, and a survey of over 282 employees from the financial services industry. Findings – Findings suggest that an innovation culture scale may best be represented through a structure that consists of seven factors identified as innovation propensity, organizational constituency, organizational learning, creativity and empowerment, market orientation, value orientation, and implementation context. Practical implications – The seven-factor model can be used both descriptively and diagnostically. Among other things, it presents a practical way to measure an organization's innovation culture, and could initially be used to establish a baseline level of innovation culture. From there, it could be used as a metric to chart the organization's efforts as it moves to engender innovation. Originality/value – More effort should be devoted to developing measures to assess innovation culture specifically. This model presents an innovation culture construct that is complimentary to work that has preceded it. The findings combined with the suggestions provide an alternative perspective as a measure of innovation and extends a basic framework for further investigation.