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How Pair Programming Influences Team Performance: The Role of Backup Behavior, Shared Mental Models, and Task Novelty

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... The goals of agile methods are to increase transparency of project progress, create usable interim products and services, and respond more quickly and efficiently to new or changing customer requirements (Bick et al., 2017). The method focuses on collaboration within the software development subunit and with customers (Kude et al., 2019;Maruping & Matook, forthcoming). ...
... For example, if a legacy system needs to be moved to modern cloud environment, setting up a team of people with different backgrounds will facilitate the move. Existing research highlights that autonomy and diversity is a key of teams (Kude et al., 2019;Lee & Xia, 2010). In DevOps teams is it essential that the team members have specialist knowledge in a certain area and that they broaden their knowledge to support and fill in for each other. ...
... We show that communication and knowledge sharing in DevOps teams are enabled by competency broadening and skill distribution, as all team members take responsibility for all end-to-end development and operations activities. This fosters shared understanding and leads to better performance (Kude et al., 2019). Hence, the different competencies of development and operations are aligned. ...
Article
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A top priority of organisations around the globe is to achieve IT-business alignment at all levels of the organisation. This paper addresses operational alignment within IT functions. Traditionally, IT functions are divided into highly independent subunits. In the face of pressure to adapt to rapidly changing customer demands and to manage increasingly complex IT architectures, many organisations have begun implementing joint, cross-functional DevOps teams, which integrate tasks, knowledge and skills pertaining to planning, building, and running software product activities. In this study, we examine eight cases of DevOps implementation. We apply grounded theory to identify three mechanisms comprising a tripartite model of intra-IT alignment: individual componentization, integrated responsibility, and multidisciplinary knowledge. Our model provides insights into how alignment between development and operations can be achieved in DevOps teams within the IT function.
... Agile SD practices focus on more IS artifact-centric tasks that primarily guide the execution of the software development process itself emphasizing technical aspects and automating mechanisms (Baham & Hirschheim, 2021). The most popular of these practices stem from XP (Kude, Mithas, Schmidt, & Heinzl, 2019;VersionOne, 2019). When implementing unit testing, for example, developers use dedicated test code to (automatically) test the effects of changes to the system. ...
... Following this, scholars began to extensively examine project-and team-level effects in agile ISD. The wide range of phenomena and outcomes studied on these levels includes project and team performance, product quality, decision-making, team communication, and knowledge sharing (Coyle, Conboy, & Acton, 2015;Drury et al., 2012;Hummel, Rosenkranz, & Holten, 2015;Kude et al., 2019;Maruping, Zhang, et al., 2009). Only recently, scientific research turned significant attention towards individual-level implications of agile ISD. ...
... Team or project characteristics, such as team distribution, project complexity, or leadership practices (Windeler, Maruping, & Venkatesh, 2017), could generate further insights on boundaries of a resource-enhancing or resource-depleting effect of agile ISD practices use. Similarly, studying team performance as a valuable team-level outcome of the application of ISD practices (Kude et al., 2019;Pee, Kankanhalli, & Kim, 2010) might be complemented by taking individual-level ego depletion into account. In addition to multi-level examinations, researchers could engage in dyadic studies and compare the implications of agile ISD practices use from different stakeholder perspectives, e.g., developers and product managers (Benlian & Haffke, 2016;Yakovleva, Reilly, & Werko, 2010). ...
Preprint
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While much is known about the beneficial effects of agile information systems development (ISD), scholars have largely neglected to shed light on its potential downsides. Specifically, research has overlooked to examine the ambivalent implications of the specific demands placed on developers working in agile ISD teams, including potentially depleting effects. Drawing on ego depletion theory and literature, we provide a more balanced view and introduce self-regulatory resource depletion triggered by using agile ISD practices - encompassing software development (SD) and project management (PM) practices - as a theoretical perspective on why agile developers experience different levels of work-related fatigue that lead to stronger or weaker turnover intentions. Furthermore, we propose that due to the specific way in which agile ISD methods organize ISD project work, workload perceived by developers influences the intensity by which agile ISD practices affect self-regulatory resources and developers' feelings of fatigue. We examined our research model using a multimethod approach including quantitative and qualitative data. We found that agile SD practices use enhances developers' self-regulatory resources and reduces fatigue and turnover intention. Our results also show that perceived workload strengthens the energizing effects of agile SD practices use and reveals a depleting effect of agile PM practices use, with countervailing implications for turnover intention. This study contributes to agile ISD literature by drawing a more nuanced and balanced picture with both resource-enhancing and resource-draining effects of agile ISD practices use. Finally, we give managerial advice regarding factors to consider when designing and managing agile ISD projects.
... A Game also has: Platform [1-3] (PC, Console, Mobile), Genre [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] (Action, Adventure, RPG, Simulation, Strategy, Puzzle, Sports, Platformer, Shooter, Racing, Roguelike, Running 6 ), Mode [1][2][3] (Single/Multi Player, Online). ...
... Mitigation depends on the game company. Game developers report that pair programming [10] and code reviews [1] are not common in game industry while they are well-established practices in traditional software development. Similar practices could be adapted in the game industry, even pairing technical and non-technical developers. ...
Article
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Context Given its competitiveness, the video-game industry has a closed-source culture. Hence, little is known about the problems faced by game developers. However, game developers do share information about their game projects through postmortems, which describe informally what happened during the projects. Objective The software-engineering research community and game developers would benefit from a state of the problems of the video game industry, in particular the problems faced by game developers, their evolution in time, and their root causes. This state of the practice would allow researchers and practitioners to work towards solving these problems. Method We analyzed 200 postmortems from 1997 to 2019, resulting in 927 problems divided into 20 types. Through our analysis, we described the overall landscape of game industry problems in the past 23 years and how these problems evolved over the years. We also give details on the most common problems, their root causes, and possible solutions. We finally discuss suggestions for future projects. Results We observe that (1) the game industry suffers from management and production problems in the same proportion; (2) management problems decreased over the years, giving space to business problems, while production problems remained constant; (3a) technical and game design problems are decreasing over the years, the latter only after the last decade; (3b) problems related to the team increase over the last decade; (3c) marketing problems are the ones that had the biggest increase over the 23 years compared to other problem types; (4) finally, the majority of the main root causes are related to people, not technologies. Conclusions: In this paper, we provide a state of the practice for researchers to understand and study video-game development problems. We also offer suggestions to help practitioners to avoid the most common problems in future projects.
... Rather than relying on a leader, agile teams evaluate and plan changes to their performance in retrospective sessions, self-assign tasks based on a prioritized product backlog, and synchronize and combine individual contributions using software tools and task boards (Project Management Institute and Agile Alliance 2017). In addition, agile teams develop and share team knowledge, skills, and abilities using techniques such as pair programming and practices such as colocation, and teams aim for generalist skill sets (Beck and Andres 2005;Kude et al. 2013). ...
... Sometimes if there's a lot of testing work Backup behaviour is recognized in agile team studies, but the focus is on how pair programming supports backup behaviour; other factors or practices that might contribute to backup behaviour are not considered. In one study, Kude et al. (2013) measured agile team effectiveness based on role-focused questionnaire data from 62 colocated scrum teams. The results showed that pair programming helps teams establish backup behaviour by improving the shared mental models among the team's developers and that backup behaviour reduces the negative effect of task novelty on performance. ...
Article
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Teamwork is crucial in software development, particularly in agile development teams which are cross-functional and where team members work intensively together to develop a cohesive software solution. Effective teamwork is not easy; prior studies indicate challenges with communication, learning, prioritization, and leadership. Nevertheless, there is much advice available for teams, from agile methods, practitioner literature, and general studies on teamwork to a growing body of empirical studies on teamwork in the specific context of agile software development. This article presents the agile teamwork effectiveness model (ATEM) for colocated agile development teams. The model is based on evidence from focus groups, case studies, and multi-vocal literature and is a revision of a general team effectiveness model. Our model of agile teamwork effectiveness is composed of shared leadership, team orientation, redundancy, adaptability, and peer feedback. Coordinating mechanisms are needed to facilitate these components. The coordinating mechanisms are shared mental models, communication, and mutual trust. We critically examine the model and discuss extensions for very small, multi-team, distributed, and safety-critical development contexts. The model is intended for researchers, team members, coaches, and leaders in the agile community.
... A Game also has: Platform [1-3] (PC, Console, Mobile), Genre [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] (Action, Adventure, RPG, Simulation, Strategy, Puzzle, Sports, Platformer, Shooter, Racing, Roguelike, Running 6 ), Mode [1][2][3] (Single/Multi Player, Online). ...
... Mitigation depends on the game company. Game developers report that pair programming [10] and code reviews [1] are not common in game industry while they are well-established practices in traditional software development. Similar practices could be adapted in the game industry, even pairing technical and non-technical developers. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Context: Little is known of the problems faced by game developers. However, game developers do share information about their games projects through postmortems, which describe informally what happened during the projects. Objective: The software-engineering research community and game developers would benefit from a state of the problems of video game development, in particular the problems faced by game developers, their evolution in time, and their root causes. This state of the practice would allow researchers and practitioners to work towards solving these problems. Method: We analyzed more than 200 postmortems, comprising 927 problems divided in 20 types from 1997 to 2019. Through our analysis, we describe the overall landscape of game industry problems in the past 23 years and how these problems evolved over the years. We also give details on the most common problems, their root causes, and possible solutions. We finally provide recommendations for future projects. Results: We observe that (1) the game industry suffer from management and production problems in the same proportion; (2) management problems decreased over the years giving space to business problems, while production problems remained constant; (3a) technical and game design problems are decreasing over the years, the later only after the last decade; (3b) problems related to the team increase over the last decade; (3c) marketing problems are the ones that had the biggest increase over the 23 years compared to other problem types; (4) finally, the majority of the main root causes are related to people, not technologies. Conclusions: In this paper we provide a state of the practice for researchers to understand and study video-game development problems. We also offer recommendations to help practitioners to avoid the most common problems in future projects.
... However, many early studies were criticised for lacking theoretical underpinnings and empirical support . After calls for more rigorous academic research (Abrahamsson et al., 2009;Dingsøyr et al., 2012), numerous empirical studies have been conducted (i.e., mostly case study and field survey methods) (Huber et al., 2020;Kude et al., 2019;Maruping & Matook, 2020). These studies, some of which applied theoretical lenses to examine ASD, have helped understand how practitioners perceive, deploy and deal with challenges concerning ASD methods. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades, agile software development (ASD) has garnered much attention in both research and practice. Several ASD methods and techniques have been developed and studied. In particular, researchers have provided several theoretical perspectives on ASD and contributed rich insights to the ASD practice. Still, despite calls for a more unified theoretical understanding of ASD, a theoretical core of ASD has not been identified. This paper offers a theoretical core of ASD research, clarifying what is essential and what is less essential for IS agility, hoping to spark a scholarly discussion, and provides implications of such a core for understanding method tailoring.
... Some research has found positive associations between the use of agile methods in general (rather than of particular practices) and project success [7,8], indicating that the general use of agile methods can enhance project success. Other studies have examined the effects of particular agile practices on project success and found positive effects of pair programming [9,10] and continuous integration [11] and negative effects of daily stand-ups [10]. ...
Chapter
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Although agile practices are gaining in popularity, there is little evidence showing how particular agile practices, in particular those involving the client, affect the success of outsourced software projects. Data from a matched survey of sponsors and developers in 60 outsourced information systems projects indicate negative effects of continuous analysis and positive effects of joint decision making and continuous integration on project success. Moreover, interaction analyses show that some positive effects are enhanced and negative effects dampened when requirements risk is high. These findings caution against continuous analysis in outsourced projects while they support joint decision making and continuous integration. The findings also empirically substantiate the largely untested assertion that agile practices help cope with changing requirements.
... Unlike the medical practice specialties described above, patient needs do not fall into silos. In medical practice, importance is placed on team-based care (Berry and Beckham, 2014), which has been aligned with team-based and agile approaches in software development in recent years (Kude et al., 2019;Mithas and Kude, 2017). Team activities require slack time for scheduling; furthermore, these activities have inherent administrative costs, both in time and in money, which could be reduced by communications technology (Malone et al., 1987). ...
Article
Purpose This paper advances a research agenda for service researchers at the intersection of healthcare and information technologies to improve access to quality healthcare at affordable prices. The article reviews key trends to provide an agenda for research focusing on strategies, governance and management of key service processes. Design/methodology/approach This paper synthesizes literature in information systems, service management, marketing and healthcare operations to suggest a research agenda. The authors draw on frameworks such as the interpretive model of technology, technology acceptance model, assemblage theories and Baumol's cost disease to develop their arguments. Findings The paper situates strategy-related service management questions that service providers and consumers face in the context of emerging healthcare and technology trends. It also derives implications for governance choices and questions related to that. Research limitations/implications The paper discusses service management challenges and concludes with an agenda for future research that touches on governance and service management issues. Practical implications This paper provides implications for healthcare service providers and policymakers to understand new trends in healthcare delivery, technologies and facilities management to meet evolving customer needs. Social implications This paper provides implications for managing healthcare services that touch on many social and societal concerns. Originality/value This conceptual paper provides background and review of the work at the intersections of information systems, marketing and healthcare operations to draw implications for future research.
... The team and its members have to collaborate within the software development subunit and with customers when adopting agile methodologies [27,28]. This makes the team a crucial element of the process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agile development is known for efficient software development practices that enable teams to quickly develop software to cope with changing requirements. Although there is evidence that agile practices are helpful in such environments, the literature does not inform us as to whether agile practices can also be beneficial in hyper-agile environments. Such environments are characterized by an extremely fast pace of change with fluid requirements. COVID-19 vaccine distribution is one such problem that governments have had to deal with. To solve this problem, governments need to come up with robust responses by formulating teams that have the capability to provide software solutions enabling information visibility into the vaccine distribution process. Such emergent teams need to quickly understand the distribution process, oftentimes define the process itself because it might be non-existent, and build software systems to solve the problem in a matter of days. Not much is known about how systems can be developed at such a fast pace. We adopt a clinical research methodology and employ agile software development practices to develop such a mission-critical system. In the process of building the system, we learn important lessons that can be used to adapt and extend agile methodologies to be used in hyper-agile development environments. We offer these lessons as important first steps to understanding the best practices needed to develop software systems that have the capability to provide visibility into the unprecedented health challenge of distribution of life-saving COVID-19 vaccine.
... Moreover, we included the day of the study (i.e., days 1 through 10) to control for spurious effects due to time because it has been found to be a suitable proxy to account for potential general linear time trends in work/project environments (Beal et al. 2003, Gabriel et al. 2019. In terms of between-person controls, following recent AISDPU studies (Kude et al. 2019, Tripp et al. 2016, Venkatesh et al. 2020, we included age, gender, agile development experience, total work experience, team size, project size, project complexity, developer stress (jobrelated), and global life satisfaction as between-person controls in the entry survey. Accounting for the between-and within-person controls allowed us to examine the incremental validity of our predictions over these factors. ...
Article
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Despite the predominant view in the agile Information Systems Development (ISD) literature that agile ISD practices use (AISDPU) has positive ramifications for ISD teams and projects, previous research has paid considerably less attention to whether and how these practices can be simultaneously beneficial and burdensome to individual developers. In addition, much of our knowledge on AISDPU and its effects relies on research into the differences between developers over an extended period of time. Yet, agile ISD practices are typically used on a day-to-day basis and can thus be viewed as an inherently within-person phenomenon, pointing to the need for daily investigations that provide a closer look at the immediate, lived experiences of developers. Drawing on the holistic stress process model, we develop the idea that daily AISDPU can be a source of stressful situational demands with both energizing and depleting effects that may thus help or harm developer well-being. In an experience-sampling study of 131 developers who responded to daily surveys spread over ten workdays, we show that AISDPU can indeed be a double-edged sword: instrumental to developers' energy resources (by increasing work engagement) on some days, yet detrimental to their energy resources (by increasing depletion) on others-two forces with opposing effects on developer well-being. Importantly, we find that the divergent effects of AISDPU critically hinge on whether developers appraise it as a challenge or a threat. As a potential antidote, we investigate the moderating role of IT mindfulness in developers' appraisal processes. Our results show that IT mindfulness serves as a facilitator of challenge appraisals and as a buffer against threat appraisals. More broadly, this study challenges the predominant view of AISDPU as an inherently good thing and offers meaningful insights into why and when AISDPU improves versus impairs developer well-being.
... With almost all enterprises now facing a dynamic environment, organizations are reliant on innovation to survive and to gain competitive advantages (Han and Yang, 2011;Anderson et al., 2014). This is especially true for digital ventures and software development companies during and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, as they must adapt to a rapidly changing market through innovation aimed at developing high-quality products and providing excellent services (Huang et al., 2017;Kude et al., 2019). Individual creativity is the foundation of an organization's innovation (Amabile, 1988), and for IT enterprises, as typical examples of knowledge-based organizations, innovative behavior by their professional employees is the primary source of their competitiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on the event system and regulatory focus theory, this study constructed an impact mechanism model to investigate the relationship between the event strength of co-worker presenteeism and innovative behavior among IT professionals under the 996 work regime. In addition to test the direct effect, we examined the indirect effect of promotion focus and the moderating effect of event time in this relationship. Data were collected through an online survey administered to 374 IT professionals in China. The results showed a positive relationship between the criticality of co-worker presenteeism events and innovative behavior. An indirect effect of promotion focus was also found in this relationship. The timing of co-worker presenteeism events moderated the relationship between the criticality of co-worker presenteeism events and promotion focus. Specifically, the effect was more significant when co-worker presenteeism events occurred during project delays.
... To describe the relationships of the model elements, we built upon the literature. In particular, we adapted and generalized a concept from a related study, which depicts the application of ASD practices and the resulting behavior that causes performance increases [26]. To substantiate our understanding of the realization of ASD success, we moreover referred to the generic ISD success process model [19]. ...
Conference Paper
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Although agile software development (ASD) is widespread, the contributions of individual agile practices to development success are still largely unclear. In this paper, we explore the hidden cause-effect relationships between the application of social agile practices, the realization of social agile principles, and the resulting contribution(s) to ASD success. To capture ASD success, we consider both the effects on developer acceptance and economic business values. Based on an initial ASD success model and data from a survey of 197 developers, we found that social agile practices such as reflection, business IT alignment, and self-organization seem to particularly promote ASD success. We also found indications that the realization of these principles is primarily driven by practices such as retrospective meetings and shared leadership, whereas prominent practices like daily meetings and pair programming seem to have no effect. Our results thus call for reassessment of agile practices and their use in practice.
... The results are substantively unchanged, with positive and significant coefficients for the interaction terms of ITDA with IT investment (column (4), β = 0.570, p < 0.01) and ITCA with IT investment (column (4), β = 0.637, p < 0.05). This approach to address endogeneity is similar to those in prior research (Kude et al. 2019, Anderson et al. 2000. ...
Article
When does IT-business alignment matter more for leveraging IT investment for firm performance? Drawing on dynamic capabilities theory, we posit that firms that focus on IT-business alignment at the later stages (IT delivery, and IT change) of the IT lifecycle are able to better translate their IT investment into revenue than firms that focus on IT-business alignment at the early stage (IT investment planning) of the IT lifecycle. To test our theory, we leverage archival data from more than 120 firms in India that differ in terms of where in the IT lifecycle they focused on IT-business alignment as the key priority. We find that the positive relationship between IT investment and firm revenue is stronger for firms that focus on IT-delivery business alignment or IT-change business alignment than for firms that focus on IT-investment planning business alignment. In addition, we find that at higher levels of IT investment, firms that focus on IT-change business alignment or IT-delivery business alignment have higher revenue than firms that focus on IT-investment planning business alignment; whereas at low levels of IT investment, firms that focus on IT-investment planning business alignment outperform firms that focus on IT-delivery business alignment or IT-change business alignment. Taken together, the results suggest that IT-business alignment at the IT delivery and IT change stages of the IT lifecycle are more critical for leveraging IT investment for firm performance than IT-business alignment at the IT investment planning stage. This study contributes to theory and practice by highlighting that the stage in the IT lifecycle at which IT-business alignment is focused matters significantly for leveraging IT investment for business performance.
Article
The use of Agile practices is typically associated to a wide array of benefits for organizations. This paper extends growing research on the ‘dark’ side of Agile by investigating the depletion of innovation in a large telco company following the large-scale implementation of Agile in R&D units. Our qualitative study reveals a shift in the organizational logics underpinning new product development, from a “navigating through unchartered waters” to a “putting out fires” logic. We tracked the change in key components of logics (goals of teams, source of legitimacy of team members and support and control systems) and explained the multi-level mechanisms through which the shift occurred, i.e., changes in processes of workflow management, work allocation, and performance management. We found that the new organizational logic negatively impacted individual attitudes towards the generation of new ideas by promoting the internalization of short-termism, a perceived drain in competences and confidence, and the lack of accountability for innovation. By focusing on changes in organizational logics, our insights expand current knowledge about the relationship between Agile implementation and individual attitudes. We also explain why unexpected effects of Agile implementation may go undetected in organizations, because they derive from multi-level, diffused, changes in the organization.
Article
This study examines changing team cognition and cognitive artifact use as agile software development iterations progress to better understand team member interactions. The four case studies conducted observed the distributed cognition on the team changing from planning, managing, developing, and concluding tasks in iterations to deliver working functionality. Cognitive artifacts used throughout the iteration also changed. This study provides a clearer understanding of how and when team cognition and artifact use change as agile software development teams use artifacts to manage projects. Interactions between team members and artifacts move from individual to social interactions as the iteration progresses with frequent, short, continuous communication and interactions.
Article
This study investigates how value‐added services (VAS) and customer care services (CCS) moderate the association between satisfaction with the core telephone service and overall customer satisfaction in base‐of‐the‐pyramid (BOP) markets. We propose that customers respond to VAS and CCS differently due to variations in price evaluations of these services. We further examine how the interactions among the service dimensions may differ for local and global telephone providers. We used an archival dataset from a survey of more than 3200 cellphone customers across 34 providers in seven South Asian countries that include India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and Maldives to test our conjectures. We find that satisfaction with VAS negatively moderates the relationship between core connection satisfaction and overall satisfaction, and satisfaction with CCS positively moderates the relationship between core connection satisfaction and overall satisfaction. Furthermore, the positive and negative interaction effects are stronger for global vs. local providers. We discuss contributions and managerial implications of the findings.
Thesis
The software industry is rapidly introducing Agile Software Development methodologies like Scrum, Extreme Programming (XP), and Kanban. Even though Agile literature proposes Key Performance Indicators (KPI) to measure Agile, there is a less explored territory for Agile methods. Also, these KPIs identified are less explored for their values and relationship with Agile principles. The objective of this thesis is to increase knowledge and value with these KPIs in the selected Agile methods: Scrum, XP, and Kanban. The author answers three research questions with their sub-questions identified. The first research questions focus on identifying key elements of Scrum, XP, and Kanban methods and understanding why are they key elements by linking them with Agile principles. The second research question focuses on identifying, analyzing, value creation, and building relationships of KPIs, based on the selected key elements of Scrum, XP, and Kanban methods. The final research question is to suggest improvements or build new KPI if needed. The author has used the Grounded Theory approach for literature review. The author identified 574 papers, which was further refined to 31 primary studies through the paper selection process. The analysis indicates that the reasons for and the effects of using metrics are focused on the categories identified: Sprint and Project Progress Tracking, Process, Quality Management, Software Reliability, Business Value Delivered, Continuous Improvement, Customer Service Request, Product, Manage Changing Requirements, Sprint and Project Planning, Communication and Collaboration, Role, Resource, Motivating People, Team Alignment and System Design. Along with the categories, sub-categories are identified for each category which has standard KPI and many custom KPI. The use of KPI in Agile Software Development methodology is identical to that of Traditional Software Development methodology. The whole concept to use KPI in software development is to track project progress, measure quality, identify bottlenecks in the process resolve them, and customer satisfaction. Future work should focus on the empirical study of these KPI for Information Technology (IT) and business alignment.
Article
Considering the crucial role of cross-cultural virtual learning teams (VLTs) in industries and academics, this study adopts a longitudinal approach and investigates in-depth how cross-cultural VLTs collaborate effectively by examining relationships among three concepts, namely swift trust, team trust, and shared mental model (SMM). Categorizing team stages as structuring, work, and termination, our study indicates that swift trust enhances team trust at the structuring stage. At all three stages, team trust strengthens SMM, which then improves team performance. At the work stage, the impact of SMM on team performance reaches its peak. Our findings contribute to the online learning literature and practices.
Book
This open access book constitutes the proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2020, which was planned to be held during June 8-12, 2020, at the IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic the conference was postponed until an undetermined date. XP is the premier agile software development conference combining research and practice. It is a hybrid forum where agile researchers, academics, practitioners, thought leaders, coaches, and trainers get together to present and discuss their most recent innovations, research results, experiences, concerns, challenges, and trends. Following this history, for both researchers and seasoned practitioners XP 2020 provided an informal environment to network, share, and discover trends in Agile for the next 20 years. The 14 full and 2 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 37 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: agile adoption; agile practices; large-scale agile; the business of agile; and agile and testing.
Chapter
With the growing interest of adopting agile methods in offshored process, many companies realized that the use of agile methods and practices in companies located outside the location of early adopters of agile methods may be challenging. India, the main destination of offshoring contracts, have received particular attention, due to the big cultural differences. Critical analysis of related studies suggests that impeding behaviors are mostly rooted in the hierarchical culture of Indian organizations and related management behavior of command-and-control. But what happens in distributed projects with a more empowering onshore management? In this paper, we present the findings from a multiple-case study of DevOps teams with members from a mature agile company located in Sweden and a more hierarchical offshore vendor from India. Based on two focus groups we list culturally different behaviors of offshore engineers that were reported to impede agile ways of working. Furthermore, we report the findings from surveying 36 offshore team members from five DevOps teams regarding their likely behavior in situations reported to be problematic. Our findings confirm a number of previously reported behaviors rooted in cultural differences that impede the adoption of agile ways of working when collaborating with offshore engineers. At the same time, our survey results suggest that among the five surveyed teams there were teams that succeeded with the cultural integration of the offshore team members. Finally, our findings demonstrate the importance of cultural training especially when onboarding new team members.
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How should digital platforms engage with and invest in their online communities to shape innovation and knowledge contributions from members in their platform ecosystems? This is an important question because user contributions are important drivers of technological progress and business value. We examine the effect of platform sponsors' investments in online communities on user knowledge contributions, using fine-grained longitudinal data from a leading enterprise software vendor's community network. We focus on the sponsor practice of knowledge seeding, in which its employees provide free technical support by answering questions posted in discussion forums. We define user knowledge contribution as peer-evaluated, quality-weighted solutions that community members provide to help resolve the questions their peers raise. We show that the platform sponsor's investments in knowledge seeding have a positive, significant association with user knowledge contribution. We also find temporal and geographical variations in returns on the sponsor's knowledge investments. More specifically, returns (i.e., amount of user contribution that is stimulated) decrease with the age of the community, consistent with the observation that the most active contributors are lead users who tend to join the community early. In addition, returns vary across different countries, such that the highest returns are realized when the investment is made in countries with higher levels of information technology (IT) infrastructure, partly because country-level IT infrastructure may be associated with greater absorptive capacity of these countries. We discuss the implications for research and practice.
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Human capital is becoming more critical as the global economy becomes more information intensive and service intensive. Although information systems (IS) researchers have studied some dimensions of human capital, the role of industry-specific human capital has remained understudied. The information technology enabled business process outsourcing (BPO) industry provides an ideal setting to study returns to human capital, because jobs in this industry are standardized and many professionals in this new industry have come from other industries. We build on IS and economics literature to theorize returns to human capital in the BPO industry, and we test the theory using data for over 2,500 BPO professionals engaged in call center work and other nonvoice services (e.g., accounting, finance, human resources, etc.) in India during the 2006-2008 time period. We find higher returns to industry-specific human capital than to firm-specific and general human capital. We also find that junior-level professionals, whose jobs are relatively more standardized, have higher returns to industry-specific human capital than senior-level professionals. We discuss implications for further research and practice in the global economy where inter-industry transfers and migration of skills are becoming increasingly common.
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How do IT-enabled capabilities influence the ability of firms to leverage customer involvement to shape amount of innovation? This study argues and theorizes that effective processing and management of customer information flows requires that organizations possess what we call as relational information processing capability (RIPC) and analytical information processing capability (AIPC). Drawing on and extending the theories of absorptive capacity and complementarities in the context of innovation, we posit that RIPC and AIPC complement product-focused customer involvement and information-intensive customer involvement practices respectively to enhance the amount of firm innovation. To test our hypotheses, we collected archival data from more than 300 large U.S. manufacturing firms and map the relational and analytical information processing capabilities to specific IT applications. Consistent with our theorizing, we find that RIPC positively moderates the relationship between product-focused customer involvement and amount of firm innovation; and AIPC positively moderates the relationship between information-intensive customer involvement and amount of firm innovation. In further exploratory analysis, we find a positive three-way interaction between AIPC, RIPC, and product-focused customer involvement. Taken together, our results suggest that configurations of IT-enabled capabilities alone are not enough for innovation; instead firms benefit more when specific configurations of IT-enabled capabilities are leveraged in unison with specific types of customer involvement. The study contributes to theory and practice by shedding light on important complementarities between specific types of customer involvement (product-focused customer involvement and information-intensive customer involvement) and specific IT-enabled capabilities (relational information processing capability and analytical information processing capability).
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Because research on team mental models is still in its formative stages, there is a need for continued conceptual development of the construct and direct empirical support linking team mental models to team outcomes. Researchers in other fields have developed concepts that are distinct from, but clearly related to team mental models, including information sharing, transactive memory, group learning, and cognitive consensus. Although these research streams currently exist in parallel with little cross-fertilization, there is much to be gained from integration across disciplinary boundaries. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to enrich the theoretical understanding of team mental models and to broaden the empirical research base by adopting a cross-disciplinary focus and incorporating related team knowledge domains from other literatures. Based on a synthesis of various literatures, we develop a framework that delineates the relationships among team knowledge constructs. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Like all teams, knowledge teams must acquire and manage critical resources in order to accomplish their work. The most critical resource for knowledge teams is expertise, or specialized skills and knowledge, but the mere presence of expertise on a team is insufficient to produce high-quality work. Expertise must be managed and coordinated in order to leverage its potential. That is, teams must be able to manage their skill and knowledge interdependencies effectively through expertise coordination, which entails knowing where expertise is located, knowing where expertise is needed, and bringing needed expertise to bear. This study investigates the importance of expertise coordination through a cross-sectional investigation of 69 software development teams. The analysis reveals that expertise coordination shows a strong relationship with team performance that remains significant over and above team input characteristics, presence of expertise, and administrative coordination.
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Agile Software Development methodologies have grown in popularity both among academic researchers and industrial practitioners. Among the various methodologies or practices proposed, pair programming, which is concerned with two programmers collaborating on design, coding and testing, has become a controversial focus of interest. Even though some success stories have been reported with the use of pair-programming in real software development environment, many people remain rather skeptical of the claims on pair-programming productivity. Previous studies in pair programming have only addressed the basic understanding of the productivity of pairs and they have not addressed the variation in productivity between pairs of varying skills and experience, such as between novice–novice and expert–expert. Statistical productivity measurements reported by different researchers also seem to lead to contradictory conclusions. Until now, the literature has not addressed how those results and experiments were related to each other. In this paper, we propose a controlled experiment called repeat-programming which can facilitate the understanding of relationships between human experience and programming productivity. Repeat-programming can be performed when controversial issues in non-traditional programming methodologies and development productivity need to be investigated into. To illustrate how the proposed empirical experiment can put arguable, divisive problems into perspective, we have examined the productivity in pair programming as a case study. With repeat-programming, we are able to (i) better understand why results of previous pair programming control experiments reached different conclusions as to the productivity of pair programming and (ii) most importantly, present a case in which novice–novice pairs against novice solos are much more productive than expert–expert pairs against expert solos.
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Context Software development depends significantly on team performance, as does any process that involves human interaction Objective Most current development methods argue that teams should self-manage Our objective is thus to provide a better understanding of the nature of self-managing agile teams, and the teamwork challenges that arise when introducing such teams Method We conducted extensive fieldwork for 0 months in a software development company that introduced Scrum. We focused on the human sensemaking, on how mechanisms of teamwork were understood by the people involved Results We describe a project through Dickinson and McIntyre's teamwork model, focusing on the interrelations between essential teamwork components Problems with team orientation, team leadership and coordination in addition to highly specialized skills and corresponding division of work were important barriers for achieving team effectiveness Conclusion Transitioning from individual work to self-managing teams requires a reorientation not only by developers but also by management This transition takes time and resources, but should not be neglected In addition to Dickinson and McIntyre's teamwork components, we found trust and shared mental models to be of fundamental importance (C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved
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Although past research has investigated the impact of exploration and exploitation on firm performance, there is limited research on these effects in interorganizational relationships. We examine whether the boundary condition for ambidextrous learning can be extended from firms to long-term interorganizational relationships. Specifically, we focus on a particular aspect of learning--namely, explorative and exploitative knowledge sharing--and examine its impact on the performance of long-term relationships. We also theorize how ambidextrous management of the relationship and ontological commitment to span the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic knowledge boundaries between partners enable knowledge sharing. Our theoretical predictions are tested using data collected from both account managers at customer firms responsible for the relationship with a leading supply chain vendor and account managers at the vendor firm responsible for relationships with customers. The findings suggest that both exploratory and exploitative knowledge sharing lead to relationship performance gains, that such sharing is enabled by the ambidextrous management of the relationship, and that such sharing is facilitated by ontological commitment. Interesting differences in the enablers and consequences of both forms of knowledge sharing are detected between customers and the vendor.
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Extreme programming (XP), arguably the most popular agile development methodology, is increasingly finding favor among software developers. Its adoption and acceptance require significant changes in work habits inculcated by traditional approaches that emphasize planning, prediction, and control. Given the growing interest in XP, it is surprising that there is a paucity of research articles that examine the factors that facilitate or hinder its adoption and eventual acceptance. This study aims to fill this void. Using a case study approach, we provide insights into individual, team, technological, task, and environmental factors that expedite or impede the organization-wide acceptance of XP. In particular, we study widely differing patterns of adherence to XP practices within an organization, and tease out the various issues and challenges posed by the adoption of XP. Based on our findings, we evolve factors and discuss their implications on the acceptance of XP practices.
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Extreme programming is currently gaining popularity as an alternate software development methodology. Pair programming, a core practice of this methodology, involves two programmers working collaboratively to develop software. This study examined the efficacy of pair programming by comparing the performance effectiveness and affective responses of collaborating pairs with those of individual programmers treated as nominal pairs. In a controlled laboratory experiment involving student subjects, proxies for entry level programmers working on entry level tasks, two factors were manipulated: programming setting (collaborative pair versus individuals) and programming task complexity (high versus low). Participants who worked in the individual condition were randomly combined into nominal pairs. The performance and affective responses of the collaborating pairs were then compared with those of the best performers and the second best performers of each nominal pair. Results indicated that programming pairs performed at the level above the second best performers and at the level of the best performers in each nominal pair. This relationship was found to be consistent across both levels of task complexity. Consequently, there was no evidence of an “assembly bonus effect,” where the performance of a collaborating pair exceeds the performance of its best member working alone. While this finding may appear counterintuitive due to the general perception of two heads being better than one, it is consistent with the findings in small group research. When affective responses were considered, programming pairs reported higher levels of satisfaction than those of the best and second-best performing members in nominal pairs. They also showed higher levels of confidence in their performance compared to those of the second-best members. But the confidence levels of pairs were no different from those of the best performing members in nominal pairs. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are presented.
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Then should software development teams have the flexibility to modify their directions and how do we Wbalance that flexibility with controls essential to produce acceptable outcomes? We use dynamic capabilities theory and an extension of control theory to understand these questions. This work is examined in a case study. Our results demonstrate that flexibility may be needed when the starting conditions are uncertain and that effective control in these situations requires use of traditional controls plus a new type of control we term emergent outcome control.
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In this research, a study of the effects of coordination mechanisms and risk drivers such as project uncertainty on the performance of software development projects was conducted. Two types of coordination mechanisms were considered: vertical and horizontal. The former refers to the extent to which coordination between users and IS staff is undertaken by authorized entities such as project managers or steering committees. The latter refers to the extent to which coordination is undertaken through mutual adjustments and communications between users and IS staff. A new research model was developed by synthesizing research using the structural contingency perspective from Organization Theory a;nd the risk-based perspective in Software Engineering. The model suggests that residual performance risk, i.e., the difficulty in estimating performance-related outcomes during the later stages of the project, can clarify the relationship between project uncertainty, coordination mechanisms and performance. Eight hypotheses were derived from the model for empirical testing. Data were collected from 64 software development projects in the banking and other industries. The results provide considerable support for a revised research model. As expected, project uncertainty increases residual performance risk. Both in turn have a direct negative effect on performance. Vertical coordination significantly reduces both project uncertainty and residual performance risk. However, horizontal coordination does not have any significant effect on residual performance risk. Instead, it has a direct positive effect on project performance. Moreover, higher levels of both vertical and horizontal coordination lead to higher levels of overall performance. Their differential impacts on residual performance risk are interesting areas of future research.
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Despite the popularity of agile methods in software development and increasing adoption by organizations there is debate about what agility is and how it is achieved. The debate suffers from a lack of understanding of agile concepts and how agile software development is practiced. This paper develops a framework for the organization of agile software development that identifies enablers and inhibitors of agility and the emergent capabilities of agile teams. The work is grounded in complex adaptive systems (CAS) and draws on three principles of coevolving systems: match coevolutionary change rate, maximize self-organizing, and synchronize exploitation and exploration. These principles are used to study the processes of two software development teams, one a team using eXtreme Programming (XP) and the other a team using a more traditional, waterfall-based development cycle. From the cases a framework for the organization of agile software development is developed. Time pacing, self-management with discipline and routinization of exploration are among the agile enablers found in the cases studies while event pacing, centralized management, and lack of resources allocated to exploration are found to be inhibitors to agility. Emergent capabilities of agile teams that are identified from the research include coevolution of business value, sustainable working with rhythm, sharing and team learning, and collective mindfulness.
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Agility is increasingly being seen as an essential element underlying the effectiveness of globally distributed information systems development (ISD) teams today. However, for a variety of reasons, such teams are often unable develop and enact agility in dealing with changing situations. This paper seeks to provide a deeper understanding of agility through an intensive study of the distributed ISD experience in TECHCOM, an organization widely recognized for its excellence in IT development and use. The study reveals that agility should be viewed as a multifaceted concept having three dimensions: resource, process, and linkage. Resource agility is based on the distributed development team's access to necessary human and technological resources. Process agility pertains to the agility that originates in the team's systems development method guiding the project, its environmental scanning, and sense-making routines to anticipate possible crises, and its work practices enabling collaboration across time zones. Linkage agility arises from the nature of interactional relationships within the distributed team and with relevant project stakeholders, and is composed of cultural and communicative elements. The paper highlights some of the difficulties in developing agility in distributed ISD settings, provides actionable tactics, and suggests contingencies wherein different facets of agility may become more (or less) critical.