Article

Opportunities to Enrich Caregiver–Child Interactions Community Efforts in Oklahoma and Pennsylvania

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A child’s early language skills are one of the best predictors of academic success, and a number of community interventions have aimed to increase caregiver–child interactions to improve language development and related outcomes. This article describes ongoing community efforts in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, aimed at enriching caregiver–child interactions during everyday moments and in community settings. These interventions target everyday spaces, such as grocery stores or bus stops, and encourage playful learning and conversations through messaging and suggested activities. Descriptions of interventions are provided, as well as initial research findings and lessons learned about program implementation and working with community partners.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Article
Young children have better math abilities when their parents engage in more math‐related conversations with them. Yet, previous studies have found that math talk occurs only very infrequently in everyday interactions. In the present study, we sought to promote adult–child conversations about math in a naturalistic context using minimal instructions. We observed 179 adult–child dyads while they shopped in grocery stores with signs prompting them to engage in math‐related conversations (math condition), signs prompting them to talk about other topics (general language condition), or without any signs (baseline condition). In the math condition, more adults talked about math compared to the general language or the baseline condition, and this finding could not be explained by demographic characteristics of the dyad or the overall amount of conversations. This study demonstrates that cost‐effective signs placed in everyday contexts can promote math‐related conversations and potentially provide math learning opportunities for children.
Full-text available
Article
In the United States, children from under-resourced communities regularly enter formal schooling lagging behind their peers in language development, reading readiness, and spatial skills. These deficits predict later mathematical and vocabulary knowledge and can persist throughout life, affecting everything from occupational attainment to health outcomes. To address these gaps, policymakers have focused largely on schooling as the great equalizer. Yet, children in Western countries only spend 20 percent of their waking hours in school and there is little attention spent helping children engage in formative experiences in the other 80 percent. Additionally, by 2050 over 70 percent of the world’s children will live in cities. How can developmental scientists, city planners, architects, and educators come together to address this “other 80 percent” of children’s waking hours in places where most children live, for the benefit of children’s development? One answer is the Learning Landscapes initiative, which marries the learning sciences with urban revitalization to craft carefully planned play experiences that focus on learning outcomes, particularly for children and families from under-resourced communities. Playful learning, a broad pedagogical approach featuring child-directed play methods, provides a unique way to foster learning and engagement organically within the built environment. Learning Landscapes capitalizes on global momentum towards placemaking and putting the user experience first in the designing of public spaces. The initiative has already demonstrated efficacy through several well-documented projects. The Ultimate Block Party brought over 50,000 people to Central Park to engage in playful learning activities. Supermarket Speak made grocery stores hotspots for caregiver-child interaction by simply adding signs with interaction prompts to everyday “trapped” environments. Urban Thinkscape transformed a bus stop and adjacent lot into a hub for playful learning while families were waiting for public transportation. Finally, Parkopolis is a life-size human board game that fosters STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and reasoning skills in public spaces. Most importantly, Learning Landscape takes a rigorous research-to-practice approach with implementation rooted in the science of learning and clear, measurable outcomes. This paper summarizes data from these Learning Landscapes projects while reflecting on lessons learned and exploring future directions.
Full-text available
Article
Children from under-resourced communities regularly enter formal schooling lagging behind their peers. These deficits in areas such as language development, reading readiness, and even in the kind of spatial skills that predict later mathematical knowledge, may persist throughout their lifespan. To address such gaps, policymakers have focused largely on schooling as the great equalizer. Yet, children only spend 20% of their waking hours in school. How can developmental scientists and educators address this "other 80%" for the benefit of children's development? One answer is the Learning Landscapes initiative, which involves crafting carefully planned play experiences that focus on learning outcomes, particularly for children and families from under-resourced communities. Playful learning, a broad pedagogical approach featuring child-directed play methods, provides a unique way to foster learning and engagement organically within the built environment. Learning Landscapes already incorporates several well-documented projects. The Ultimate Block Party brought over 50,000 people to Central Park to engage in playful learning activities. Supermarkets became hotspots for caregiver-child interaction by simply adding prompts for caregiver-child interaction through signage in everyday "trapped" experiences. Urban Thinkscape transformed a bus stop and adjacent lot into a hub for playful learning while families were waiting for public transportation. Finally, Parkopolis is a life-size human board game that fosters STEM and reasoning skills in public spaces. This paper reflects on data from these projects while reflecting on lessons learned and future directions.
Full-text available
Article
Prior studies indicate that children vary widely in their mathematical knowledge by the time they enter preschool and that this variation predicts levels of achievement in elementary school. In a longitudinal study of a diverse sample of 44 preschool children, we examined the extent to which their understanding of the cardinal meanings of the number words (e.g., knowing that the word "four" refers to sets with 4 items) is predicted by the "number talk" they hear from their primary caregiver in the early home environment. Results from 5 visits showed substantial variation in parents' number talk to children between the ages of 14 and 30 months. Moreover, this variation predicted children's knowledge of the cardinal meanings of number words at 46 months, even when socioeconomic status and other measures of parent and child talk were controlled. These findings suggest that encouraging parents to talk about number with their toddlers, and providing them with effective ways to do so, may positively impact children's school achievement.
Article
Children's skill levels in language, mathematics, literacy, self-regulation, and social–emotional adjustment at kindergarten entry are believed to play an important role in determining school success through their long-term association with academic and social skills in primary and secondary education. Hence, children's school readiness is a national priority. To date, there is some evidence that specific individual school readiness skills relate to specific outcomes, but much of that research has not addressed concerns regarding generalization due to the high levels of correlations among the school readiness skills. The interrelationships among school readiness domains and patterns of skill acquisition – during the first three years of primary education in which basic skills are the focus and in the later years of primary or secondary education when higher-order skills are the focus – have not been explored adequately. Using the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset (n = 1364), this research conducted growth curve analyses to examine a comprehensive set of readiness indicators in kindergarten and identify which domains were stronger predictors of academic and social trajectories through grade 3 and from grades 3 to 5. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple school readiness domains simultaneously rather than separately, and moving beyond outcomes (skill levels) at a particular grade to consider which kindergarten skills predict gains over time (skill acquisition) both within- and across-domains. Empirical and methodological implications are considered for educational research, policy, and practice.
Article
Mobile devices are a ubiquitous part of American life, yet how families use this technology has not been studied. We aimed to describe naturalistic patterns of mobile device use by caregivers and children to generate hypotheses about its effects on caregiver-child interaction. Using nonparticipant observational methods, we observed 55 caregivers eating with 1 or more young children in fast food restaurants in a single metropolitan area. Observers wrote detailed field notes, continuously describing all aspects of mobile device use and child and caregiver behavior during the meal. Field notes were then subjected to qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods to identify common themes of device use. Forty caregivers used devices during their meal. The dominant theme salient to mobile device use and caregiver-child interaction was the degree of absorption in devices caregivers exhibited. Absorption was conceptualized as the extent to which primary engagement was with the device, rather than the child, and was determined by frequency, duration, and modality of device use; child response to caregiver use, which ranged from entertaining themselves to escalating bids for attention, and how caregivers managed this behavior; and separate versus shared use of devices. Highly absorbed caregivers often responded harshly to child misbehavior. We documented a range of patterns of mobile device use, characterized by varying degrees of absorption. These themes may be used as a foundation for coding schemes in quantitative studies exploring device use and child outcomes.
Article
This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner, ), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to become more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children's symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across 4 years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver's actions.
Article
This volume explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, author John W. Creswell compares theoretical frameworks, methodologies in employing standards of quality, strategies for writing introductions to studies, the collection and analysis of data, narrative writing, and result verification. New to the Second Edition: (a) Brings the philosophical and theoretical orientations to the beginning of the book: This change helps ground students in the foundational thinking behind these methods much earlier. (b) Gives broader coverage of narrative research: Creswell expands one of the original five approaches from "Biography" to "Narrative," thus exploring a wider range of narrative opportunities--biography still being one of them. (c) Offers a much deeper discussion of interpretive approaches: This edition places much more emphasis on interpretive and postmodern perspectives such as feminism, ethnicity, and critical theory. (d) Provides more specific steps for doing research within each approach: Creswell discusses the actual procedure for each approach and includes the types of qualitative research within each of the five approaches. (e) Illustrates phenomenology and ethnography: The Second Edition contains two new, recent sample journal articles: one covering a phenomenological study, the other covering ethnographic study. (f) Includes additional examples: The author provides examples from the field of human services to enhance the already robust examples from education, sociology, and psychology. Intended Audience: This is a useful text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in introductory qualitative research methods across the social, behavioral, and health sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Dissecting Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties in learning to read, despite reasonable effort and instruction, form the basis of dyslexia. Gabrieli (p. 280 ; see the cover) now reviews the latest research into the causes of dyslexia. Neuroimaging studies may give early notice of impending dyslexia, and it is hoped that early interventions may lessen the impact of dyslexia. Learning occurs in many settings. Humans uniquely use the formalized settings of schools and curriculum. Infants and children also do plenty of learning outside these settings, often intermingling social interactions. Meltzoff et al. (p. 284 ) survey the variety of learning contexts that people experience and discuss how recent advances in neuroscience and robotics are driving a new synthesis of learning.
How does the built environment affect behaviour and cognition
  • H Brekke
Brekke, H. (2016). How does the built environment affect behaviour and cognition? In A. Fritz, (Ed.), Conscious cities: An anthology No. 1. London, UK: The Cube and the Museum of Architecture.
Utilizing faithbased literacy events to build community and promote positive parenting. Poster presented at the 16th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health
  • J E Jespersen
  • M Zapata
  • R Singh
  • A S Morris
Jespersen, J. E., Zapata, M., Singh, R., & Morris, A. S. (2018, May). Utilizing faithbased literacy events to build community and promote positive parenting. Poster presented at the 16th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health, Rome, Italy.
Supermarket Speak: Increasing talk among low-socioeconomic status families
  • K E Ridge
  • D S Weisberg
  • H Ilgaz
  • K A Hirsh-Pasek
  • R M Golinkoff
Ridge, K. E., Weisberg, D. S., Ilgaz, H., Hirsh-Pasek, K. A., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2015). Supermarket Speak: Increasing talk among low-socioeconomic status families. Mind, Brain, and Education, 9(3), 127-135.
Talk, read, and sing campaign: Attitudes and behavior towards talking, reading, and singing to babies. Poster presented at the 16th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health
  • R Singh
  • M Zapata
  • A Treat
  • J Jespersen
  • A S Morris
Singh, R., Zapata, M., Treat, A., Jespersen, J., & Morris, A. S. (2018, May). Talk, read, and sing campaign: Attitudes and behavior towards talking, reading, and singing to babies. Poster presented at the 16th World Congress of the World Association for Infant Mental Health, Rome, Italy.