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Geographical Alignments of Megalithic Sites in Northern Europe – An Unexpected Finding

Authors:

Abstract

In examining the alignments of megalithic sites in northern Europe it has been determined that more than a dozen appear to point toward a geographic location near or within modern-day Paris. The earliest sites (late Neolithic) that face in this direction are not aligned with celestial events such as solstices or lunar standstills. However, later sites are oriented to celestial events as well. That these sites both reference celestial events and a specific geographic location suggests that their locations could not have been chosen at random. The probability that over a dozen sites are aligned to face a specific geo-location is extremely small. Despite the common belief that Neolithic people were organized in relatively small groups, this finding suggests they had knowledge of a larger group/higher level of organization that was connected in some way with a place of importance – a location near Paris, and could align sites hundreds of kilometers away to that location.
Geographical,Alignments!of#Megalithic#
Sites&in&Northern(Europe!!An#Unexpected#
Finding"
Mark%Carlotto%(mark@carlotto.us)%
%
Abstract(
In%examining%the%alignments%of%megalithic%sites%in%northern%Europe%it%has%been%determined%
that% more% than% a% dozen% appear% to% point% toward% a% geographic% location% near% or% within%
modern-day% Paris.% The% earliest% sites% (late% Neolithic)% that% face% in% this% direction%are% not%
aligned%with%celestial%events%such%as% solstices% or% lunar% standstills.% However,% later% sites%are%
oriented% to% celestial% events% as% well.% That% these% sites%both%reference% celestial% events% and% a%
specific% geographic% location% suggests% that% their% locations% could% not% have% been% chosen% at%
random.%The%probability%that%over%a%dozen%sites%are%aligned%to%face%a%specific%geo-location%is%
extremely% small.% Despite% the% common% belief% that% Neolithic% people% were% organized% in%
relatively%small%groups,%this%finding% suggests% they% had%knowledge% of% a% larger% group/higher%
level% of% organization% that%was% connected% in% some% way% with% a% place% of% importance% –% a%
location%near%Paris,%and%could%align%sites%hundreds%of%kilometers%away%to%that%location.%%
Introduction(
Stone% circles,% cairns,% tumuli,% and% other% megalithic% structures% exist% throughout%northern%
Europe.%Although%some%are%aligned%by%themselves%or%in%groups%to%the%cardinal%directions,%to%
solstice% sunrises/sunsets%or% lunar% standstill% moonrises/moonsets,% others%do% not%seem% to%
have%an%astronomical%explanation%for%their%alignment.%%
%
Among% the% most% enigmatic% megaliths% in% Europe% are% those% at%Carnac% in%western%France.%
Thousands% of% menhirs% are% aligned% in% an% east-northeast%direction% that% does% not% appear% to%
have% any% astronomical% significance.% In% the% process% of% analyzing% the% Carnac%alignments% it%
became%evident%that%certain%megalithic%structures%in%nearby%Saint-Michel%and%Locmariaquer%
seemed%to%reference%a%similar%direction.%Broadening%the%search%for%other%late%Neolithic%sites%
that%did% not% appear%to% be% astronomically%aligned,% one% was% found%north%of%Carnac%at%Pierre%
Tourneresse,% and% another% at% Clendy% in% western% Switzerland.% In% extending% alignment% lines%
from%these%sites%they%appeared%to%intersect%at%a%geo-location%near%Paris.%
%
Alignments%between%structures% within% visual%range%of%each%other%have%been%found%at%some%
Neolithic% sites% (Valera% 2016).% Given% the% widespread%belief% that% Neolithic% people% were%
organized% in% relatively% small% groups% there% would% be% little% reason% to% consider% spatial%
relationships%between%distant%sites%such%as%those%that%are%thought%to%have%been%established%
later%on%in%Europe.%For%example,%Richer’s%theory%of%alignments%(Richer%2009)%holds%that%the%
ancient%Greeks% aligned% oracles%and%other%sites%to%one%another%and% to% places% of% importance.%
An%experiment%was%performed%to%test%the%hypothesis%that%some%Neolithic%sites%in%northern%
Europe%were%aligned%to%a%place%that%could%have%been%important%at%the%time%that%is%now%in%or%
near%modern%day%Paris.%%
Methodology(
Sites%were% identified% using%Google% Earth% for% study% that% contain% structures% or% groups% of%
structures%large%enough%to%be%visible%and%sufficiently%well%resolved%for%analysis.%Orientations%
of%individual%objects%and%linear%features%such%as%barrows%and%entrances%into%passage%tombs%
were% evaluated% as% well% as%alignments% between% standing% stones,% cairns,% and% other% point%
features.% The% orientation% and% alignments% angles% were%compared% to%summer% and% winter%
solstice% sunrise% and% sunset% and% major% and% minor% lunar% standstill% moonrise% and% moonset%
directions%plotted%on%georectified%imagery%(Sacred%Directions%2019).%Variations%in%solar%and%
lunar%alignment%angles%were%evaluated%over%the%full%obliquity%cycle.%%
%
The% alignment% angle%𝐴%to% a% reference% geolocation% was% computed% using% spherical% trian gles%
(Carlotto%2019)%
%
𝐴=sin!!sin 𝑎sin 𝐵
1cos 𝑎cos 𝑐+sin 𝑎sin 𝑐cos 𝐵!%
(1)%
%
%
where% 𝜆!,𝜑!%and% 𝜆!,𝜑!%are% the% latitudes% and% longitudes% of% the% site% and% reference%
locations,%𝑎=𝜋/2𝜆!,%𝑐=𝜋/2𝜆!,%and%𝐵=𝜑!𝜑!.%
Results(
Table% 1% summarizes% the% results% of% our% analysis.% The%five% oldest% sites%examined%(4700% to%
4000%BCE)% built% in% the% late%Neolithic%are%not% aligned%in%any% of%the%astronomical%directions%
considered.%Thousands%of%menhirs% at% Carnac,%along%the%coast%of%Brittany%are%oriented%east-
northeast%and% include% those% in% the% Menec% (Figure% 1a)% and% Kermario%alignments.% The%
tumulus% at% Saint-Michel% is% also% aligned% in% the% same% direction% (Figure% 1b).% Nearby,% a% long%
barrow%at% Locmariaquer% faces%north-northwest%(Figure% 1c),% at% a% r ight% angle% to% the% Carnac%
and% Saint-Michel% direction.% The%entrance% to% a% passage% tomb% at% Pierre% Tourneresse% to% the%
north% in% Lower% Normandy%faces% east-southeast% (Figure% 2a).% Opposite% to% these% sites% in%
western% Switzerland,% a%group% of% fourteen% menhirs% at% Clendy% (Figure% 2b)% are% aligned% at% a%
right% angle% to% a% line% that% intersects% the% alignments% from% the% three% French%sites% at% a%
geographic%location%within%modern-day%Paris%(Figure%3).%
%
It%is%evident%in% the%figures%that%the% alignment% directions%of% these% sites% cannot% be% precisely%
defined,%especially% for% formations% such% as% those% at% Carnac.% If%𝛿%is% the% angular % accuracy% (in%
degrees)%of%an% alignment,% there% are,%on% average%𝑁=180/𝛿%resolvable% opposing%alignment%
directions%for%each%site.%The%probability%that%alignment%lines%from%all%𝑀%sites%intersect%at%any%
given%location%is%𝑝=𝑁!!.%For%example,%assuming%an%angular%accuracy%of%𝛿=,%for%𝑀=5%
sites,%the%probability%that%the%alignments%lines%intersect%at%a%particular%place%is%~1.6×10!!".%%
%
The%above%sites%are%located%within%400%km%of%Paris.%Additional%sites,%dated%from%3500%BCE%to%
the% first% century%CE% that% are% aligned%in% astronomical% directions%have% been% found% that%also%
appear%to%face%in%the% direction%of%Paris% (Figure% 4).% Stonehenge% is%slightly% less% than%400%km%
northwest%of%Paris.%The%winter%solstice%sunrise%alignment%at%Stonehenge%(circa%3500%BCE)%is%
in% the% same% general% direction% of% Paris% (within% a% few% degrees)% of% azimuth% up% until%
approximately%700%CE%at%which%time%the%two%directions%coincide%(Figure%5).%
%
Troldkirken%in%northern%Denmark%is%considerably%farther%away%from%Paris,%more%than%1000%
km%to% the% northeast.%A% barrow% at% Troldkirken% (Figure% 6 )% is%aligned% in% the% direction% of% the%
major%lunar%standstill.% What% is% interesting% ab out% this% site% is% that% the% standstil l% direction% is%
slightly%misaligned% with%the% arrangement% of% stones% at% the% time% the% site% is% thought% to% have%
been%constructed,%around%3500%BCE.%However%the%alignment%measured%with%respect%to%two%
large% megaliths% at% either% end% of% the% barrow% is% exact% two% thousand% years% earlier% and%
coincides%exactly%with%a%line%toward%Paris.%
%
Almost%in%the%same%line%as%Stonehenge,%Knowth%and%Newgrange%in%Ireland%are%located%twice%
the% distance% from% Paris.% The% entrances% to% passage% graves/tombs% at% the% two% nearby% sites%
built% around% 3000% BCE% face% in% the% general% direction% of% the% winter% solstice% sunrise.%
Remarkably% the% winter% solstice% alignments% line% up% more% precisely% with% the% entrance%
directions%at%a%much%earlier%date%of%12000%BCE.%This%direction%coincides%almost%exactly%with%
the%line%toward%Paris%(Figure%7).%
%
Tustrup,%another% site% in% Norway% southeast% of% Troldkirken,%contains%several%passage%tombs%
with% entrances% that% face% in% southerly% directions.% One% faces% southeast% toward% the% winter%
solstice% sunrise.% Another% (Figure% 8)% faces% southwest% toward% the% major% sta ndstill% moonset%
and%in%the%direction%of%Paris.%
%
Figure%9% is%a%schematic%of%the%alignments%of%six%menhirs%at%Epoigny%in%eastern%France.%Only%
four% of% the% standing% stones% are% at% or% near% their% original% location% (Lieux% Insolites%2003).%
Menhirs% M1% and% M6% define% a% range% of% directions% 30-35°% west% of% north% toward% Paris% and%
menhirs%M2%and%M3%lie%in%the%major%standstill%moonrise%direction%(Figure%10).%
%
The% alignment% of% stone% cairns% at% Beaghmore% in% Ireland% (May% and% Mitchell%1953)% is% also%
approximately%at%a%right%angle%to%the%direction%of%Paris%(Figure%11).%
%
Three%much%more%recent%sites%that%appear%to%reference%Paris%are%a%stone%circle%Stoplesteinan%
in% Norway% (Figure% 12),% a% Roman-era% pyramid”% near% Couhard% in% eastern% France,% and% a%
pyramidal% structure% in% Nice% (Figure% 13)% that% is% in% almost% in% the% same% line% to% Paris% as% the%
Couhard%pyramid.%%
%
In%all,%of%the%25%sites%examined%we%have%discovered%15%of%the%sites%appear%to%reference%a%geo-
location% near% Paris.% Assumin g% a% 2°% alignment% accuracy,% the% probability% tha t% the% alignment%
lines%from%all%of%these% sites% intersect%at%a%particular%location% such% as%one%near%Paris%is%very%
small%𝑝5×10!!".%The%probability%of%this%occurring%by%chance%in%picking%14%out%of%22%sites%
at%random%is%very%small,%%
%
𝑝25
15 =5×10!!" × 3×10!= 1.5×10!!" (2)
%
%
It% can% be% argued% that% we% have% examined% only% a% small% fraction% of% the% total% number% of%
candidate%sites%in%the%area.%Even%we%identify%and%examine%an%order%of%magnitude%more%sites%
and% find% no% additional% aligned% sites%then%the% probability% that% any% 15%out% of% 250%sites% are%
aligned%to%a%particular%location%is%still%on%the%order%of%one%in%a%million:%
%
𝑝250
15 =5×10!!" × 5×10!" %= 2.5×10!! (3)
Discussion(
How%did%the%builders%of%these%and%other%megalithic%sites%determine%where%to%build%the%sites?%
Although%a%site%that%references%astronomical%events%such%as% solstices%and% lunar% standstills%
can%in%principle%be%built%anywhere%where%there%is%clear%line%of%sight,%Higginbottom%and%Clay%
(2016)%believe% that% the%surrounding% landscape%played% an% important%role% in% the% location%of%
megalithic%sites.%The%five%oldest%(late%Neolithic)%sites%that%face%in%the%direction%of%Paris%could%
have%been%built%almost%anywhere.%However%later%sites%that%also%reference%solar%and/or%lunar%
alignments%in%the%same%direction%as%Paris%could%only%have%been%built%at%certain%locations%in%
order%to%satisfy%both%types%of%alignments.%
%
Before% the% advent% of% radiocarbon% dating% archaeologists% believed% that% the% megalithic%
tradition%in%Europe%had%spread%westward%from%the%Near%East.%Based%on%a%statistical%analysis%
of% thousands% of% radiocarbon-dated% samples% from% megalithic% sites% across% Europe% Schulz%
Paulsson% (2019)% concluded% that% the% megalithic% phenomenon% in% Europe% originated%
independently%in%northwest%France%during%the%fifth%millennium%BCE.%
%
The% concept% of% the% “omphalos”% or% center% is% referenced% by% ancient% civilizations% and%
religious/spiritual% traditions% in% the% context% of% sacred% stones% that% are% kept% in% places% of%
importance.% Examples% include%the% Omphalos% of% Delphi,% the% Black% Stone% in% the% Kaaba% at%
Mecca,%and%others.%Richer%(2007)%believed%that%Greek%oracles%including%the%Temple%of%Apollo%
at%Delphi%were%aligned%to%specific%locations,%one%being%Mt.%Ida%on%the%island%of%Crete,%which%
was% thought% to% have% been%the% birthplace% of% Zeus.% The% city% of% Cuzco,% which% translates% as%
"navel"%in%Quechua,% is% the% point%of%origin% of%radial% lines% called% ceques”%that% emanate%from%
the%city%in%all%directions%(Farrington%2018).%
%
The%results%presented%here%suggest%that%numerous%sites%in%northern%Europe%were%aligned%to%
a% place% in% northwest% France,% specifically% a% location% near%P aris.%That% this% region % of% Europe%
was%an%independent%place%of%origin%of%the%megalithic%tradition%is%an%interesting%coincidence.%
Could%Paris%or%a%place%nearby%have%been%a%place%of%importance%–%a%center%or%“navel”%of%some%
kind%–%in%Neolithic%times?%And%if%so%how%were%Neolithic%people%able%to%align%structures%over%
such%distances?%
%
In%India,%there% are%five%Hindu%temples% devoted%to%Shiva%representing%earth,% water,% fire,% air,%
and% space% that% are% known% as% Pancha% Bhoota% Sthalam”% (2019).% Three% of% the% five%temples%
devoted%to%earth,%air,%and%space%that%were%built%a%thousand%years%or%more%ago%are%aligned%to%
within% 0.1°% of% true% north% over% a% distance% of% approximately% 260% km.%The% alignment% of%
mosques%to%the%“qibla”%that%is%typically%the%direction%of%Mecca%is%perhaps%the%best%example%of%
sites%aligned%over%distances%of%hundreds%or%even%thousands%of%kilometers.%The%development%
of%mathematic%techniques%and% mechanical%calculators% (based% on% the% concept%of% a% spherical%
earth)% to% determine% the% direction% of% Mecca% were% applications% of% practical%importance%
historically%in%Islamic%science%(Nasr%1976).%%
%
The%alignment%of%mosques%toward% Mecca% is% an%example% of% how% geometry%can% symbolize%a%
higher%order%of%organization.%%The%apparent%alignment%of%over%a%dozen%sites%in%the%direction%
of% Paris% suggests% that% a% higher% level% of% organization% and% technology% than% is% currently%
thought% could% have% existed% in% the% late% Neolithic% period% in% northwest%Europe.%That% this%
conflicts% with% current% theories% suggests% that% there% may% be% fundamental% gaps% in% our%
knowledge%of%this%area%at%this%time%in%its%history.%
%
References(
%
Carlotto,% Mark% (2019)% “Computing% Solar,% Lunar,% and% Geographical% Alignments% of%
Archaeological%Sites,”%Unpublished%working%paper,%(https://ssrn.com/abstract=3484144)%
%
Farrington,%Ian%(2018).%The$Oxford$Handbook$of$the$Incas,%(Sonia%Alconini%and%R.%Alan%Covey,%
eds.)%Oxford%University%Press.%
%
Higginbottom,% Gail% %and% Clay,% Roger% (2016)% “%Origins% of% Standing% Stone% Astronomy% in%
Britain:% New% quantitative% techniques% for% the% study% of% archaeoastronomy,”$ Journal$ of$
Archaeological$Science:$Reports,%Vol.%9%(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.05.025).%
%
Lieux% Insolites%(2003)% “L'alignement% de% menhirs% de% Couches,”% (https://www.lieux-
insolites.fr/saoneloir/couches/couches.htm)%
%
May,% A.% McL.% and% Mitchell,% G.% F% (1953)% “Neolithic% Habitation% Site,% Stone% Circles% and%
Alignments% at% Beaghmore,% Co.% Tyrone,”% The$ Journal$ of$ the$ Royal$ Society$ of$ Antiquaries$ of$
Ireland,%Vol.%83,%No.%2,%pp.%174-197.%
$
Nasr,% Seyyed% Hossein%(1976)% Islamic$ Science:$An$ Illustrated$ Study,% World% of%Islam% F estival%
Publishing%Company%Ltd,%Kent%England.%
%
Pancha%Bhoota%Stalam%(2019)%(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancha_Bhoota_Stalam)%
%
Richer,% Jean% (1994)%Sacred$Geography$ of$ the$ Ancient$Greeks,% State% University% o f% New% York%
Press,%Albany.%
%
Sacred% Directions% (2019)% (https://apps.apple.com/us/app/sacred-
directions/id1454817888?mt=12)%
%
Schulz% Paulsson,% B.% (2019)% “Radiocarbon% dates% and% Bayesian% modeling% support% maritime%
diffusion%model%for%megaliths%in%Europe,”%Proceedings$National$Academy$of$Sciences,%Vol.%116,%
No.%9.%(http://%www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1813268116).%
%
Valera,'António'Carlos' (2016)' “Ditched' enclosures' and' the' ideologies' of' death' in'the' Late'
Neolithic% and% Chalcolithic% South% Portugal,”% Giants$ in$ the$ Landscape:$ Monumentality$ and$
Territories$in$ the$European$ Neolithic,% Proceedin gs% of% the% XVII% UISPP% World% Congres s% (17%
September,%Burgos,%Spain),%Volume%3%/%Session%A25d.%%
%
%
%
% %
Table&1&Megalithic&sites,&locations,&estimated&dates&of&construction&and&alignments&
%
%
%
%
Figure&1&Location&of&five&sites&dated&prior&to&3900&BCE&aligned&towards&Paris.&(Google&Earth)&
%
Site Country Latitude Longitude Year Alignments
Locmariaquer France 47.571588 -2.950042 -4700 Paris
Carnac:Alignments France 47.592578 -3.082542 -4500 Paris
Kerlescan:Alignments France 47.604423 -3.049056 -4500
Saint-Michel:Tumulus: France 47.587987 -3.073249 -4500 Paris
Clendy:Menhirs Switzerland 46.780707 6.6564 -4000 Paris
La:Pierre:Tourneresse France 49.235177 -0.441117 -3900 Paris
Grønsalen Denmark 54.896402 12.1531 -3600
Stonehenge England 51.178848 -1.8261924 -3500 Solstices,:Standstills Paris
Troldkirken Denmark 57.008285 9.7508919 -3500 Major:standstill:at:-5700 Paris
Beaghmore Ireland 54.701356 -6.938427 -3300 Paris
Disa:Ting:Stone:Circle Sweden 55.426953 13.712773 -3300
Tustrup Denmark 56.490943 10.512878 -3200 Solstice Paris
Callanish:Stones Scotland 58.197576 -6.7450911 -3000
Knowth Ireland 53.701198 -6.4914281 -3000 Solstice:at:-12000:(?) Paris
Newgrange Ireland 53.692768 -6.4780823 -3000 Solstice:at:-12000:(?) Paris
Les:Menhirs:d'Epoigny France 46.876122 4.5343882 -3000 Major:standstill Paris
Grey:Wethers England 50.631783 -3.925866 -2500
Maughanasilly Ireland 51.770424 -9.3867975 -1500 Major:standstill
Naveta:d'Es:Tudons Spain 40.003099 3.8916514 -1000 Minor:standstill
Stoplesteinan Norway 58.439655 6.0143602 -500 Solstices,:Standstills Paris
Riesenberg:Barrow Greman 54.653143 13.393435 -500 Standstills:(current)
Pyramide:de:Couhard France 46.943238 4.3140714 0 Major:standstill Paris
Ale's:Stones Sweden 55.38247 14.0547386 1400 Solstices,:Standstills
Falicon:Pyramid France 43.749911 7.2603707 1800 Paris
Stenness:Stones Scotland 58.99421 -3.2081315 3100
%
%
%a)%Ground%view%of%menhirs%in%Kermario%
formation%at%Carnac.%(Creative%Commons)%
%
b)%Overhead%%view%of%Menec%formation%at%Carnac.%
Orange%line%points%toward%Paris.%
%
c)%Major%axis%of%tumulus%at%St.%Michel%a%short%
distance%to%the%south%is%in%the%same%direction.%
%
%
d)%Orientation%of%barrow%at%Lacmariaquer%is%
perpendicular%to%the%direction%to%Paris.%% %%
%
Figure&2&Sites&at&Carnac,&St.&Michel,&and&Lacmariaquer&aligned&toward&Paris.&(Apple&Maps)&
%
a)%Entrance%to%passage%tomb%at%Le%Pierre%
Tourneresse%faces%Paris.%
%
%
b)%Alignment%of%menhirs%at%Clendy%is%
perpendicular%to%the%direction%of%Paris.%
Figure&3& Sites& at& Le&Pierre& Tourneresse&in& France& and& Clendy&in& Switzerland& aligned& toward&
Paris.&(Apple&Maps)&
%
%
Figure&4&All&15&sites&including&later&sites&dated&3500&BCE&to&1800&CE&aligned&towards&Paris.&
(Google&Earth)&
%
%
%
%
Figure&5&Stonehenge&solstice&directions&circa&3500&BCE&(left)&and&line&to&Paris&(right)&(Apple&
Maps)&
%
%
%
Figure&6&Troldkirken&major&standstill&directions&circa&5700&BCE&(left)&and&line&to&Paris&(right).&
(Apple&Maps)&
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Figure&7& Newgrange& (top)& and& Knowth& (bottom).& & Solstice&alignments&circa&12000&BCE& (left)&
and&line&to&Paris&(right)&(Apple&Maps)&
%
%
%
Figure&8&Major&standstill&directions&at&Tustrup&(left)&and&line&to&Paris&(right).&(Apple&Maps)&
%
Figure&9& Alignments&of& menhirs& at& d'Epoigny&with& directions&A,&B,&and& C& superimposed&over&
original& schematic.& Circle& around& M1& is& its& location& uncertainty.& Original& location& of& M3& is&
believed&to& be& several& meters& east&of& its& current& location,& Original& schematic&courtesy&Lieux&
Insolites&(2003).&
A"
B"
C"
%
%
%
%
Figure&10&Major&standstill&circa& 3000&BCE&aligns&with&menhirs&at&d'Epoigny&(left)&and&line&to&
Paris&(right).&(Apple&Maps)&
%
Figure&11&Cairns&at&Beaghmore&are&aligned&to&major&lunar&standstills&and&lie&perpendicular&to&
line&in&the&direction&of&Paris.&(Apple&Maps)&&&
%
%
%
Figure& 12&Astronomical& alignments& at& Stoplesteinan&circa& 500& BCE& (left)& and& line& to& Paris&
(right).&(Apple&Maps)&
%
%
Figure& 13&Pyramide& de& Couhard&(left)& and& Falicon& Pyramid&(right)& face& in& the& direction& of&
Paris.&(Google&Earth)&
%
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There are two competing hypotheses for the origin of megaliths in Europe. The conventional view from the late 19th and early 20th centuries was of a single-source diffusion of megaliths in Europe from the Near East through the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coast. Following early radiocarbon dating in the 1970s, an alternative hypothesis arose of regional independent developments in Europe. This model has dominated megalith research until today. We applied a Bayesian statistical approach to 2,410 currently available radiocarbon results from megalithic, partly premegalithic, and contemporaneous nonmegalithic contexts in Europe to resolve this long-standing debate. The radiocarbon results suggest that megalithic graves emerged within a brief time interval of 200 y to 300 y in the second half of the fifth millennium calibrated years BC in northwest France, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic coast of Iberia. We found decisive support for the spread of megaliths along the sea route in three main phases. Thus, a maritime diffusion model is the most likely explanation of their expansion.
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