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Implementation of Critical Path Method in Project Planning and Scheduling

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Scheduling in a project is a tool to determine the activities needed to complete a project in a certain order and time frame, in which every activity must be carried out so that the project is completed on time at an economical cost. The purpose of this study is to find out the critical path in project implementation and find out which projects are postponed and which cannot be delayed in their completion which can affect the entire project work process so that the project can be completed on time. The method used in this study is the Critical Path Method (CPM), which is a network method that has a series of activity components with the longest total amount of time and shows the fastest time period of completion. The results of this study indicate that the use of CPMs is able to get the longest total amount of time with the fastest project completion period, project scheduling and project critical paths can be seen more clearly so that the project can be completed on time.
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Implementation of Critical Path Method in Project Planning and
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INCITEST 2019
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 662 (2019) 022031
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/662/2/022031
1
Implementation of Critical Path Method in Project Planning
and Scheduling
S Atin1*, R Lubis1
1Informatics Engineering , Faculty Of Engineering and Computer Science,
Universitas Komputer Indonesia, Indonesia.
Email: sufaatin@email.unikom.ac.id
Abstract. Scheduling in a project is a tool to determine the activities needed to complete a project
in a certain order and time frame, in which every activity must be carried out so that the project
is completed on time at an economical cost. The purpose of this study is to find out the critical
path in project implementation and find out which projects are postponed and which cannot be
delayed in their completion which can affect the entire project work process so that the project
can be completed on time. The method used in this study is the Critical Path Method (CPM),
which is a network method that has a series of activity components with the longest total amount
of time and shows the fastest time period of completion. The results of this study indicate that
the use of CPMs is able to get the longest total amount of time with the fastest project completion
period, project scheduling and project critical paths can be seen more clearly so that the project
can be completed on time.
1. Introduction
The project is a combination of several resources (labor, budget, equipment, facilities, support services)
in one organization to achieve the stated objectives [1]. Planning is an activity carried out in the project
to anticipate existing tasks and conditions by setting goals and objectives to be achieved and determining
implementing policies, programs to be carried out, schedule and time of implementation,
implementation procedures and administrative and operational as well as budget and source power [2].
Project scheduling is an activity carried out to determine the duration of project activities that must be
completed, raw materials, labor and the time needed by each activity [2]. To make planning and
scheduling projects can use several methods, one of which is the Critical Path Method (CPM) [3]. CPM
is an integrated network consisting of a series of activities with one another intended to obtain maximum
work efficiency [3]. In determining the total time, the CPM project is simpler, it is obtained by summing
the duration of each activity and taking the last / greatest finish time. The path where delays may not
occur in each project activity is called the critical path [3]. CPM is more used than other traditional
methods. CPM concentrates on the most important tasks the project can be confirmed on time and in
line with the predetermined schedule [4][5].
Some previous studies using CPM were studies carried out by the 1950 DuPont Company and
Remington Rand Corporation, CPMs used to manage power plants and construction could save the
company one million dollars in the first year of use [5]. In 2013 Putra proved that scheduling time using
CPM proved to be very helpful in time and cost efficiency [6]. Another study conducted by Hamzah et
al. In 2013 [7] proved that CPM networks help in time and cost efficiency. As well as a study conducted
by Ezekiel, et al. [8] stated that CPM is suitable for scheduling, formulating, and managing various
INCITEST 2019
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2
activities in all construction work, because it provides a schedule built on experience, and observations
that have been made.
The purpose of this study is to find a project critical path that can be used to find out the longest time
the project is completed, as well as the project leader's guidance to determine which jobs can be delayed
and which jobs cannot be delayed. In this study, researchers used CPM to design and schedule projects
so that a critical path in construction projects was obtained, namely the construction of government
buildings. By using the CPM time of project execution and the critical path of the project can be known
so that the project can be completed on time.
2. Methodology
The research methodology used in this research is descriptive methodology. Descriptive methodology
is a research methodology that is used to make descriptions, drawings or paintings systematically,
factually and actually about the facts, the characteristics and relationships between the phenomena
investigated. The methodology of this research begins with a review of CPM literature studies together
with secondary data collection and determining the logical relationship between jobs. Then calculate the
project's forward time value, then calculate the project backward time. After the forward time and
backward time, the next step is to calculate the total float and determine the critical path and the last one
produces the design guide and project scheduling.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Secondary Data Collection
The data used in this study is a data on the construction of BUMN buildings in the city of Bali, where
the project implementation schedule starts from January 9, 2017 to December 18, 2017 (350 days or 50
weeks). There are five steps to using CPM [9], namely identifying all project activities, calculating
forward time, calculating backward time, calculating float and building a network diagram. The
identification, activities, relationships between jobs and duration of project work can be seen in Table
1.
Table 1. Activity, relationship between work and duration of project work
No.
Job Name
Code
Follower's work
Duration (weeks)
I
Project Preparation Work
I
II, III
4
II
Site Development Job
II
V
22
III
Lower Building Works
III
IV, VII
14
IV
Upper Building Works
IV
VI
12
V
Roof and Canopy Jobs
V
IX
8
VI
Install Work and Partitions
VI
VIII
2
VII
Floor and Wall Coating Work
VII
IX
16
VIII
Doors, Windows and Locking Works
VIII
X
4
IX
Ladder Railing Work
IX
XI, XV
4
X
Roof and Ceiling Jobs
X
XII, XVII
4
XI
Painting Work
XI
XIII, XVI
4
XII
Interior work
XII
XIV
4
XIII
Furniture work
XIII
XVIII
4
XIV
Main Building-Electric Work
XIV
End
4
XV
Electrical Site Development and
Guard Posts
XV
XVIII
8
XVI
Electronic work
XVI
XVIII
4
XVII
Plumbing work
XVII
End
8
XVIII
Drainage Work
XVIII
End
2
3.2 Calculating Forward Time
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The first step to find a critical path is to calculate the forward time, namely the fastest time of a project
can be completed using the formula EF (i-j) = ES (i-j) + D (i-j) [10], then the forward time value is
obtained as in Table 2.
Table 2. Forward time calculation results
Activities
Dution
Forward Calculation
I
J
Code
ES
EF
0
1
I
4
0
4
1
2
II
22
4
26
1
3
III
14
4
18
3
4
IV
12
18
30
2
5
V
8
26
34
4
6
VI
2
30
32
7
9
VII
16
18
34
6
8
VIII
4
32
36
5
9
IX
4
34
38
8
10
X
4
36
40
9
11
XI
4
38
42
10
12
XII
4
40
44
11
18
XIII
4
42
46
14
19
XIV
4
44
48
9
18
XV
8
38
46
11
18
XVI
4
42
46
10
19
XVII
8
40
48
18
19
XVIII
2
46
48
3.3 Calculating Countdown Time
After calculating the forward time, the next step is to calculate the countdown time, the countdown time
is done starting at the end of the moving network towards the beginning of the network [11]. Calculation
of backward time is used to find the longest time of a project can be solved using the formula LS (i-j) =
LS (i-j) - D (i-j) and the countdown time is obtained as in table 3.
Table 3. Countdown time calculation results
Activities
Duration
Countdown Calculation
I
J
Code
LS
LF
0
1
I
4
0
4
1
2
II
22
4
26
1
3
III
14
4
18
3
4
IV
12
18
30
2
5
V
8
26
34
4
6
VI
2
30
32
7
9
VII
16
22
38
6
8
VIII
4
32
36
5
9
IX
4
34
38
8
10
X
4
36
40
9
11
XI
4
38
42
10
12
XII
4
40
44
11
18
XIII
4
42
46
14
19
XIV
4
44
48
9
18
XV
8
38
46
11
18
XVI
4
42
46
10
19
XVII
8
40
48
18
19
XVIII
2
46
48
3.4 Calculating Total Float
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Total float is the amount of time allowed for an activity to be delayed, without knowing the overall
project schedule. To calculate the total float in this study using the formula TF = LS - ES. The results
of the total float calculation can be seen in Table 4.
Table 4. Total float calculation results
Activities
Duration
Forward Calculation
Countdown
Calculation
TF
I
J
Code
ES
EF
LS
LF
0
1
I
4
0
4
0
4
0
1
2
II
22
4
26
4
26
0
1
3
III
14
4
18
4
18
0
3
4
IV
12
18
30
18
30
0
2
5
V
8
26
34
26
34
0
4
6
VI
2
30
32
30
32
0
7
9
VII
16
18
34
22
38
4
6
8
VIII
4
32
36
32
36
0
5
9
IX
4
34
38
34
38
0
8
10
X
4
36
40
36
40
0
9
11
XI
4
38
42
38
42
0
10
12
XII
4
40
44
40
44
0
11
18
XIII
4
42
46
42
46
0
14
19
XIV
4
44
48
44
48
0
9
18
XV
8
38
46
38
46
0
11
18
XVI
4
42
46
42
46
0
10
19
XVII
8
40
48
40
48
0
18
19
XVIII
2
46
48
46
48
0
Based on the calculations in table 4, it can be concluded that the initial total project work is 48 weeks,
and the work in the critical path can be determined by looking at the results of Total Float (TF), TF = 0,
from the results the critical path is obtained at work I- II-V-IX-XV-XVIII. The results of analysis of
project critical work can be seen in table 5 while the project network can be seen in Figure 1.
Table 5. Project Critical Job Analysis Results
No
Jobs Name
Code
Duration
(Weeks)
Jobs Status
I
Project Preparation Work
I
4
Critical path
II
Site Development Job
II
22
Critical path
III
Lower Building Works
III
14
-
IV
Upper Building Works
IV
12
-
V
Roof and Canopy Jobs
V
8
Critical path
VI
Install Work and Partitions
VI
2
-
VII
Floor and Wall Coating Work
VII
16
-
VIII
Doors, Windows and Locking Works
VIII
4
-
IX
Ladder Railing Work
IX
4
Critical path
X
Roof and Ceiling Jobs
X
4
-
XI
Painting Work
XI
4
-
XII
Interior work
XII
4
-
XIII
Furniture work
XIII
4
-
XIV
Main Building-Electric Work
XIV
4
-
XV
Electrical Site Development and Guard Posts
XV
8
Critical path
XVI
Electronic work
XVI
4
-
XVII
Plumbing work
XVII
8
-
XVIII
Drainage Work
XVIII
2
Critical path
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Figure 1. Project Work Network
3.5 Results and Differences with Previous Research
Based on the calculations made, the results show that a CPM can save project time and produce a critical
path that can be used as a guide for project implementation so that the project can be completed on time,
this result is in line with the research conducted by Putra and Hamzah. In addition, CPM can help in the
time efficiency and cost of the project differently from the research developed by DuPont Company and
Remington Rand Corporation which CPM can only save on project costs.
4. Conclusion
The conclusion in this study is that the critical path on the project can be used to determine the longest
time that shows the project completion period. In addition, the critical path can be a reference for project
leaders in the project that work on the critical path must be timely in order for the project to finished on
time.
5. Acknowledgments
The researcher thanked to The Directorate of Research and Community Service Institution (LPPM)
Universitas Komputer Indonesia for funding this research using the internal research scheme in 2018,
and the xyz company for data contributions for this study.
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