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News literacy and fake news curriculum: School librarians’ perceptions of pedagogical practices

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... 95), to include information literacy, digital literacy, and communications competencies. Information literacy "has long been one of the major roles of school librarians" (Phillips & Anderson, 2020, p. 385), but technology has exponentially increased accepted definitions and resulting critique of what constitutes news, as an example of new competencies informing the literature (Farmer, 2019). Additionally, the current literature acknowledges the measurable influence of librarians' instruction of information literacy from the approach of disruptive innovation in an empirical study by Adekoya and Adedimeji (2021). ...
... Additionally, the current literature acknowledges the measurable influence of librarians' instruction of information literacy from the approach of disruptive innovation in an empirical study by Adekoya and Adedimeji (2021). Further competencies emerging within information literacy instruction in the literature are the realized importance of raw data in teaching the consumption of information (search engine algorithms come to mind) (Fontichiaro & Johnston, 2020) and in teaching the distinction of impartial content from similarly packaged sponsored content (Farmer, 2019). The recent literature covers the role(s) of the school librarian as an information literacy specialist in empirical studies by Reed and Oslund (2018) librarians' preparation to teach students higher level literacy strategies, as well as librarians' ...
... Farmer (2019) observed that "news literacy...is only addressed in the California language arts framework in a couple of sample units" (p. 8), implying that it is not addressed in the school library standards at all, and that only one case was known among the respondents where a classroom teacher implemented a news literacy curriculum (Farmer, 2019). Farmer (2019) noted that "school librarians seem to spearhead such efforts, if anyone does at all" (p. ...
Article
In 2020 and 2021, K-12 instructional settings diversified worldwide due to COVID-19 pandemic-response. During the 2021-2022 school year, a new instructional setting of K-12 remote-synchronous learning launched in a progressive, southeastern U.S. public school district. Substantial school district realignment occurred to serve this new setting; bypassed, however, was a dedicated school librarian position. Despite positive national impact data and the school library profession’s demonstrated ability since the mid-twentieth century to evolve, newly created positions have been funded nationally in schools to evolve with the times, often at the expense of school library positions. Role tensions may emerge between school librarians and other school positions. School librarians’ lived experiences within this congruence of tensions provides a unique research opportunity. The methodology of the study is phenomenology. A purposive, non-random sample of six school librarians comprised the sample population. Initial and follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with each of the participants, and data was analyzed to yield rich description of the essence of the participants’ lived experiences. The findings suggest that trends toward standardization of their professional role(s) are countered by the pandemic’s contributions to student learning loss and thus, a critical need exists for the school librarians’ role(s). Implications for school librarians are that they are strongly positioned to thrive during further evolutions of their role(s) as instructional settings continue to diversify and students’ needs change. Implications for school administrators are that school librarians are willing and ready to assume a critical role in literacy instruction that they foresee as urgent.
... Evolving conceptions of literacy have focused on the pedagogical potential for multiliteracies (Hibbert, 2013), critical literacies (Asher Golden & Zacher Pandya, 2019;Bonsor-Kurki, 2015), and digital literacies (Martin, 2008;Prinsloo & Rowsell, 2012). While the emergence of "fake news" into the sociocultural lexicon has propelled researchers to investigate pedagogy of information literacy (Cherner & Curry, 2019;Farmer, 2019;Frechette, 2019), more research is needed to explore how young people make meaning while navigating the new information environment. Our study reveals that while students think they are able to navigate digital information environments independently, their practices lack consistent criticality. ...
Article
Current literacy curriculum often reflects an emphasis on traditions of print literacy. This focus is a concern in the post-truth era, as youth engage in diverse meaning-making practices that shape their habits as consumers and producers of information. This in-depth case study investigated the in-class and at-home online behaviors of high school students. We find that even when explicit learning about ‘research’ occurred in class, students are lacking sense-making strategies in their personal online engagements. We also find that curriculum relies on tradition with very little recognition of (multi)literacies as socially constructed and that teachers desire more professional development and guidance about how to engage these literacies more holistically.
... Much of this research and practice takes place in the K-12 classroom (Hobbs, 2017;Schmidt, 2012). Some engagement with media literacy has continued to university classrooms, though has been limited to journalism and library studies perspectives, focusing on "fake news" and identifying whether sources should be trusted (Farmer, 2019;Madison, 2019;Mason, 2018;Padgett, 2017). Further research shows that university classrooms prioritize a critical media literacy perspective, focusing on identifying stereotypes and modes of representation, without discussion of the production process (Kellner & Share, 2007;Scharrer, 2015). ...
... This is no surprise considering recent findings that although young people are adept at using the Internet for site navigation, they struggle to evaluate the veracity of the online content they encounter and are "easily duped" (Wineburg et.al., 2016, p. 4). Since the 2016 election, fake news has also been seen as an important driver in the need for news literacy among the general population (e.g., Farmer, 2019;Jones-Jang, et al., 2019). However, while fake news is an important element of news literacy (Ireland, 2018), focusing on fake news can constrain attempts to teach news literacy in ways that are important to recognize. ...
... News literacy, then, is a subset of media literacy skills and competencies necessary for consuming news (Ashley, 2019;Mihailidis, 2012;Vraga et al., 2020b). This includes thinking critically about news credibility and reliability across media (Fleming, 2014), making sense of the messages in news reports (Farmer, 2019), and understanding news' broader social impacts on society (Moeller, 2012). The goals of news literacy include identifying news, understanding news and its societal role, thinking critically while consuming news, building motivation to follow news, and being empowered with news and information (Malik et al., 2013;Moeller, 2012). ...
Article
The covid -19 pandemic disrupted political, economic, and social life in the United States beginning in March 2020, disproportionately affecting historically underrepresented groups. Media assumed unique roles during the pandemic, serving simultaneously as the gateway to work, education, social life, news, and public health information. Yet the covid -19 pandemic has been so challenged by misinformation that the World Health Organization declared it an infodemic. Because misinformation can prolong pandemics and increase deaths, news and media literacy can benefit society at large, especially vulnerable populations. The purpose of this descriptive study is to capture how undergraduates used media, how they obtained their news, and how they engaged news literacy skills during the covid -19 pandemic. A survey of over 900 undergraduate students showed that over two-thirds of respondents increased media use. Over half of respondents reported entertainment as their top reason for media use during the pandemic and reported news as their last reason. Respondents reporting previous exposure to news literacy education were significantly more likely to use most of the measured news literacy strategies. The findings of this study can support developing pandemic-responsive news and media literacy education which will be useful during future pandemics.
... As stated before, infographics can be utilised to better communicate principles of news literacy by combining visual and text messages (Farmer, 2019;Lester, 2013). An individual's confidence in their ability, or in this case their perceived news literacy, can be different from actual ability. ...
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Objective False news about vaccination shared in digital spaces is a major problem that harms informed health choices. Drawing from processing fluency theory, we propose that an infographic – a visual representation of information – reduces cognitive load, thereby helping people retain and process the necessary information to discern truth from falsehood in health news. Design Web-administered experiment. Setting US web-based experiment on Qualtrics. Method A national sample of participants was randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: a news literacy infographic, the same information but text-only, or a control group (a blank page). After the short intervention, study participants were shown false news about vaccinations and asked to make judgements about this news. Results Our study found that people in the infographic condition were better able to verify false news than others. They also showed lower trust in false news articles and higher confidence in their judgement than those in the control condition. Conclusion Findings further our understanding of how visuals accompanied by text, such as an infographic, can improve the quality of health education. During the current problem of digital spaces filled with misinformation, using a short intervention with visuals can help audiences determine the credibility of information they encounter about vaccines.
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Speaking is a significant and fundamental skill that may help students enhance their ability to communicate with their classmates verbally. Henceforth, instructors or teachers need to incorporate some educating media which can develop the students’ English speaking competence. Therefore, this study aims to discover the viability of news and media literacy for speaking practice at an advanced education level. The researchers used experimental research and took two groups as the sample of this study. There were experimental groups in class 4b and a control group in 4a class that comprised 35 students for each class. Moreover, the speaking test, mainly pre-test and post-test in both experimental class and control class, was also used as gathering information of the research. This research found that the difference between pre-test and post-test average speaking practice results was -24.540 to -17,689, with a 95 percent confidence range of -24.540 to -17,689 for this finding. Finally, this study discovered an average difference in students' speaking practice between the pre-test and post-test. Therefore, enhancing students use of news and media literacy is necessary for speaking practice and teachers need to encourage students’ use of technology to find out online sources as media literacy in learning the second language. They have various kinds of information from media sources and improve the advanced vocabulary that they used while practising speaking with their classmates. To summarize, integrating news and media literacy has a substantial impact on enhancing students' speaking skills among four-semester students of English Language Education in Pekanbaru.
Chapter
The lives of young people have successfully been infiltrated by multiple online actors—many unbeknownst to them. In this chapter, we wonder how young people manage the information they receive from different sources and how they think about and deal with manipulated information, also known as fake news. We are taking a postdigital approach that allows us to describe the normalisation of interactions with digital materials. Students’ lives are entangled and their digital identities are no longer limited to only local feelings of belonging, but are shaped by complex social contextual relationships with multiple cultures. The chapter examines what it may mean when young people find it increasingly easy to connect with like-minded peers and seek positive reinforcements of their views and actions on the topics of their daily life. In this contribution, we illustrate our thinking by presenting vignettes from two projects where young people reflected on their encounters with fake news, and how they manage information they receive online in general. The vignettes are analysed first by foregrounding material actors through actor–network theory, then overlaid with a cultural-historical activity theory framework so we can hone in on socio-material details and what this means for education in postdigital times.
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This book provides a practical and theoretical look at how media education can make learning and teaching more meaningful and transformative. It explores the theoretical underpinnings of critical media literacy and analyzes a case study involving an elementary school that received a federal grant to integrate media literacy and the arts into the curriculum. The voices of working teachers provide many practical ideas and experiences. Their successes and obstacles are analyzed through a critical media literacy framework that provides realistic challenges along with hopeful examples and suggestions. Combining with critical pedagogy, critical media literacy aims to expand the notion of literacy to include different forms of mass communication, information communication technologies and popular culture, as well as deepen the potential of education to critically analyze relationships between media and audiences, information and power. This book could be a valuable addition to any education course or teacher preparation program that wants to promote 21st century literacy skills, social justice, civic participation, media education or critical technology use. It is practical with many examples from practicing teachers as well as theoretical with a multiperspectival approach that engages numerous theories and opportunities for praxis. Communications classes could also find it useful as it explores and applies key concepts of cultural studies and media education.
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Source: Democracy Now! JUAN GONZALEZ: When you follow your friends on Facebook or run a search on Google, what information comes up, and what gets left out? That's the subject of a new book by Eli Pariser called The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. According to Pariser, the internet is increasingly becoming an echo chamber in which websites tailor information according to the preferences they detect in each viewer. Yahoo! News tracks which articles we read. Zappos registers the type of shoes we wear, we prefer. And Netflix stores data on each movie we select. AMY GOODMAN: The top 50 websites collect an average of 64 bits of personal information each time we visit and then custom-designs their sites to conform to our perceived preferences. While these websites profit from tailoring their advertisements to specific visitors, users pay a big price for living in an information bubble outside of their control. Instead of gaining wide exposure to diverse information, we're subjected to narrow online filters. Eli Pariser is the author of The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. He is also the board president and former executive director of the group MoveOn.org. Eli joins us in the New York studio right now after a whirlwind tour through the United States.
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Resolution on access to accurate information
American Library Association. (2017). Resolution on access to accurate information. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statement spols/ifresolutions/accurateinformation
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