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Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2018 in Pakistan; Mapping Stakeholder Perceptions for Future Policy Recommendations

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Abstract

Pakistan is a religiously conservative country with a predominantly Muslim population. The rights of the transgender people have been neglected by the government and the society alike. It is only now, through the efforts of many NGO's working for human rights, that the issues concerning the transgender community in Pakistan have started to gain traction resulting in the adoption of the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2018 by the senate of Pakistan. In 2009 the Supreme Court of Pakistan had also issued directives safeguarding the rights of this community, but all efforts went in vain. The question of “what next?” is paramount. The future is dependent upon measuring the perceptions of the stakeholders surrounding the Act, as positive perceptions help build public opinion. Public policy process is subjective to various factors and one of those factors is public opinion. The current research highlights that the local perceptions have slightly improved and also reveals that though the legal framework of Pakistan in terms of protecting the rights of transgender people is still in its nascent stage, but the doors to future legislation have been opened in Pakistan; which will help in securing the rights of a traditionally marginalized transgender community.
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a:Department of Government and Public Policy, National Defence University
Islamabad-Pakistan
b: Business School, Bahria University Islamabad - Pakistan.
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67 Transgender Rights; Transgender Protection Pakistan;
Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2018;
Marginalization of Transgender Persons
/+!
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 
.8 5
              5  
.                  

93    /932 
  / 2 
9393 
                    
/-2A     
 
4    
 A
-     3 
                  
 -        
93<-&!
B,&)C?'(>'@
    
                
                
          
      
                3    
                  0:
00
,93    
                  
 
 0   

D-
  9  9  $    '()'        
/    6 0    
093
 E 93  
   9 93 
12<-&!&&)'?'(>'@
/ & 0!   % 
$
                
5            5    
  F 
                  
93 G '()*,
/#$%&
'()*2<-&! ,)* ? '(>' @       
5
9  0 #93%
                  
E
9393
                      
93
              
      H  ,      )I -  E

3)'*(
<-&!J&)C?'(>'@
H
E63
,                  
                 
<-&!
J&)C ? '(>' @ K       
L6
  &  63    6            63M
<-&!H)'?'(>'@E
  =    6       <  -&!
-)(?'(>'@H$&F5,
                  &M
                
F5<-&!F)*?'(>'@
E      D            
550

D-&)*G)
    5                
--
-
                      
<-&!&,)*?'(>'@D-&
                    
)*+G-&N&
$-EM  
- &)*G)B  
         
    .             
      '       8           
, 0  D5
  


0
   
0
              )*G)      

                
              D  -      &
)*G)<-&!=)I?'(>'@
/*12$
&58

                  :
!5 # !,%       
                  8
 !  
              /    
#    $%  &  '()*2              
  !               


   0  
:8&
0
                      


&  3              
                
        -        
                    
          &  
,  -            "
7/
                  <  -&!
,))?'(>'@2&--
        
  

                
0 , 
&:,0
      -  :0
-)*C(
D$3A, 
              
:00
          9          
  3     
                

                    
<-&!)'?'(>'@
/ 3!4 !  2  56# !"

!          93        
                  

    
                     
893
 O 9 -  '((*     
0
                  
<-&!F(*?'(>'@
/7 !# 3!   !  2 
8
  '((+      8              8
  93P  
    ,  -              
                 
                  
93P
.
   3 
    .          
3      5      
              4
0      Q        
                    
            
3<-&!-=(+?'(>'@
/9  :  ;)  <    !"  +
"
D,-
HR$&#&H$&%
  8  -  #-%          
042
63  2  .              
0/32
/20 
8
.
  .                 
'
          
<-&!B,&)C?'(>'@
 -   


                
4. M  
 #%<-&!&6)G?'(>'@
56,
&                
933#9%
'()*S(>(
  D  ,  &  #D,&%      D,&  3  933
                  
<-&!&&9)*?'(>'@
  '()(   

  5 
 '()(    

              
.:
              
<-&!E)G?'(>'@
/=>#"53
  '())    -  -  D    6  
        0          /
02<-&!=D)'?'(>'@
                  
)>T
  0                
0:
              0    

/?0@
  H  '()G    ,  F  -    9
$        #    $%  D
'()G                    


348

                -    
8,
-        3            

      M    <  -&!  ,A)G  ?
'(>'@
/@              

!    G  '()*    ,          
            #  
$%  &  '()*                
5
                  
        
0
-&H$&Q

 5  
            
    5          
5<-&!,)*?'(>'@
                      
 

7!
H    '()G            8      
M                
D,#D,%
                  )(S)*
<-&! D,)G ? '(>' @ A   D, 
O:
    5  /&;2      '((((  
                
     I < -&! 9$)G ?
'(>'@  
D,     
  Q            

H
                    
  0 
    
,-'((+'()(
                3  

 .        

)$#!#>!12

#!#>!12 
+ 9A
#" 9A
" A
&" @A
B! A
6B! A
)  $     3)!   C2  
+#)">C!<!+#
!+# 3)!
; 9A
56D =A
0 A
 8A
;#& ?A
:BC* =A
1) 7A
C.* A
 A
0! A
! 7A
,7<-&!B,&)C?'(>'@
9"
          8      
       
                
 
:  
   
'()*
  .    
            
D'()*.
                
              
5

    O          
          3
    O            
<-&!6(+?)(II@
98O8
7              
 -  
  5
 .  O  
                  
O8
,'()C&F
    8        B  ,  &  
H#B,&H%  
  3& F
 E.# E%.
 E    5  

   .   E
 E,
  D  '()* 9    .     
      .        
  
,<-&!&)C?)(II@
  .          
5            
                  
<-&!$)'?)(II@
9/#%!$
)SS*<-&!
E)*?)(II@B&H$&
)SS*               


4
                  
 7 
                  
)(T
  .            
                  
7    D  ,  3    66  &      )>(
              
.
9/7"$
.)>(
F)
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:!#)#2
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  U
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84
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        
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              
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 <-&!AV)(?
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  J              
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    M          :     <  -&!
J)*  ?  )(II  @  ,            
   
 D
 DK6,& 
      3            &  
 5 5
    M  
               M      
        
<-&!6)*?)(II@
8
              3      
    5  8        
     <  -&!  AV)(  ?  )(II  @  A  
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                  8  
)*&
 
       
)SS<-&!J)*?)(II@
=/+!*1$
    #    $%  &  '()*  

8            F    
M8
,&
&8

    #    $%  &  '()*  
.  3  
&)*

            
)SS
&  3                     
                  

        8          
  #    $%  &  '()*      

    #    $%  &  '()*
0
              

E-

                
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)(II@
0)"
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