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This article is in Finnish. REGIONAL FOREST PROGRAMMES AND FOREST REGULATION – THE POTENTIAL AND WEAKNESSES OF COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE IN ENHANCING ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE SILVICULTURE Ecological sustainability of forestry remains a distant target due to increasing loggings and intensive silvicultural measures such as soil preparation and forest ditching. This threatens e.g. biodiversity and water protection. Finnish forest regulation consists of the Forest Act and the Nature Conservation Act, soft law guidance and forest certification. The Forest Act requires that the Finnish Forest Centre prepares regional forest programs (RFP) in cooperation with parties representing the forest sector and other relevant stakeholders and stipulates that RFPs contain the general objectives for sustainable forest management of each region. RFPs are non-binding and general in nature – typical soft law instruments. In this article we have considered RFPs as a part of forest regulation and scrutinized what kind of added value RFPs bring to ecologically sustainable forest management. We interviewed representatives of Finnish Forest Centre (9) and an environmental NGO (7) and analyzed RFPs in order to recognize the weaknesses and strengths of RFPs in making forestry more ecological, and suggested improvements in legislation and practices to make RFPs more effective. Currently RFPs are influential mainly in directing funding for nature protection and management (e.g. educating, protecting valuable forest habitats and restoring ecosystems) within a region. RFPs are also used to influence the contents of other plans such as Rural Development Plans. According to the interviews, the main benefit of RFP process is its role as a discussion forum. In addition to debating and information sharing, this can sometimes lead to concrete collaborative projects, too. In general, the added value of RFPs is modest, and most measures mentioned in RFPs would be taken by the Finnish Forest Centre in any case. Despite the fairly insignificant impact of the RFPs, they are the only collaborative instrument for governing forestry on the regional level. The regulation of the RFPs could be improved by emphasizing the weight of environmental sustainability and the representatives of ecological knowledge and viewpoints (environmental authorities, scientists and NGOs) in the planning process. Also, other tools and practices should be developed, and more funds should be allocated for forest authorities to implement nature conservation and management measures mentioned in RFPs, including educating forest owners and loggers.

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Ympäristöpolitiikan ja -oikeuden vuosikirja 2020. Peatlands and mires cover one third of Finnish production forests and they are an important source of wood in Finland as about one fifth of Finnish wood resources grow on them. However, this has several environmental consequences. Firstly, the use of peatlands for forestry has required extensive draining and still nowadays ditch network maintenance (DNM) is a significant source of diffuse water pollution: e.g. the load of suspended solids and increase in nutrition levels (esp. P and N). Secondly, forest logging and preparation of soil are part of water pollution resulting from forestry. Lately the scientific knowledge on P and N discharges from forestry has shown that the effect on waters is bigger than anticipated earlier. This made us question how current regulation responses to the situation and what are the main pitfalls of the regulation. We scrutinize related regulation through the lens of mitigation hierarchy. Currently the water protection of forest loggings is in practice regulated only by soft law, mainly best practice recommendations. DNM projects are regulated by the Water Act and soft law; normally a ditching notification to environmental authorities is required. However, most of the water protection measures have been based on soft law only. As of mitigation hierarchy, the regulation of water protection neglects the means to avoid discharges and emphasizes the mitigation instruments, which have proven to be ineffective in catching the discharges of drainage and soil preparation. Therefore, we suggest strong emphasis on the first stage of the mitigation hierarchy; avoidance of discharges. This would require more effective planning, including identifying the high-risk areas and enhancing cooperation in catchments, the use of consideration of alternative means for forest management measures (e.g. using ash fertilizer or uneven structured forestry to avoid ditch maintenance) and tightening the requirements for subsidies for DNM projects (e.g. emphasizing the means test). Improving regulation is vital for ensuring the achievement of the good status of waters.
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Biodiversity is declining all over the world, although there are numerous conventions, policies, and strategies for tackling the problem. One way to approach the imminent problem is to use the no net loss (NNL) of biodiversity principle to help to prevent harm to biodiversity. The NNL principle urges the prevention of biodiversity losses during and after the completion of a development project or other land-use. According to mitigation hierarchy, losses should be first avoided and then minimized, and if possible, restored on the spot. If biodiversity loss occurs despite preventive measures, it must be fully compensated to create a no net loss situation. In this article, Finnish legislation and soft law regulation concerning forest management is scrutinized within the framework of the NNL principle. The analysis shows that there are many shortcomings in Finnish forest and nature protection regulation at all levels of mitigation hierarchy. Overall, the NNL principle proves to be useful for evaluating the ecological sustainability of ongoing land use such as forest management.
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Yksi suomalaisen metsäpolitiikan keskeisistä tavoitteista on metsäalan yhteiskunnallisen hyväksyttävyyden lisääminen. Tästä lähtökohdasta kaikille alueellisten metsäneuvostojen jäsenille lähetettiin kysely, jonka tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten eri sidosryhmät ovat kokeneet osallistumisen alueellisen metsäohjelman (AMO) laadintaan. Tutkimuksen avulla haluttiin löytää osallistumisen onnistumisia ja ongelmia, selvittää tasapuolisuuden toteutumista metsäneuvostoissa, niiden jäsenten käsityksiä ohjelmatyön vaikuttavuudesta ja heidän sitoutumistaan ohjelman tavoitteisiin.
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The Water Framework Directive sets the aim to achieve and maintain the good status of surface and ground water by 2015. In general the water quality has improved in Finland during the last centuries but especially diffuse pollution is still a problem. Ditch network maintenance is a typical example of a source of diffuse pollution where cumulative effects of several projects are the main cause of water pollution. This article examines Finnish regulation concerning ditch network maintenance and evaluates how well it meets the aim of achieving and maintaining the good quality of surface waters. The article highlights that while Finnish legislation seems to work relatively well for individual projects, there are flaws in the law and in practice that do not enable authorities to take cumulative effects properly into account. The results suggest that the Water Framework Directive has not yet been quite comprehensively implemented into Finnish legislation.
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Despite major reforms in water management, many water resources are still over-exploited and under threat. Hard questions are accordingly being asked as to whether present legal and governance tools are providing adequate answers to Australia's pressing water problems. Of particular concern is the need to improve community engagement in water law and governance. Responding to these concerns, this article draws on 68 interviews and a survey of community and government stakeholders involved in three different collaborative decision-making processes designed to manage diffuse pollu- tion of local streams, dry land salinity and nutrient/sediment runoff, and groundwater overuse. The article explores and critically examines the internal dynamics of the decision-making processes, and provides a range of insights for policy and theory for designing meaningful and effective collaborative decision-making in the practice of governing water resources. The article also considers the implications of these collaborative approaches for our understanding of the modern regulatory state.
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Collaborative approaches are increasingly used to address challenging environmental problems in the United States and around the world. The inclusion of multiple stakeholders and sources of information is expected to solve such problems. Prior research has highlighted the importance of collaborative process characteristics in reaching agreements and building social capital, but less is known about what factors affect the implementation of such agreements. A parallel stream of research in policy implementation theory has developed variables and frameworks to explain the implementation of authoritative policy prescriptions. Drawing on the top-down/bottom-up perspectives on implementation, this study examines implementation of collaborative recommendations along a continuum of top-down/bottom-up approaches. A comparison of six cases in two states (Lower Saxony, Germany and Ohio, United States) indicates important differences in perceptions of implementation and environmental improvements, although whether an effort was more top down or more bottom up was not a key determinant of results. In both states, stakeholder collaborative planning efforts included substantial involvement from stakeholders and multiple government agencies and levels. Participants in the Ohio cases perceived higher levels of implementation and environmental improvements. Key factors promoting implementation of plan recommendations were resources (funding and a full-time coordinator), willing land owners, and networks. In the Lower Saxony cases, collaborative plans were seen as less impactful, but nevertheless the process of plan development did foster networks for implementing some actions to improve water quality.
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Sustainable natural resource use and management make novel demands on governance arrangements, the design of which requires normative guidance. Although governance principles have been developed for diverse contexts, their availability for sustainable natural resource governance is so far limited. In response, we present a suite of governance principles for natural resource governance that, while developed in an Australian multilevel context, has general applicability and significance at local, subnational, and national scales. The principles can be used to direct the design of governance institutions that are legitimate, transparent, accountable, inclusive, and fair and that also exhibit functional and structural integration, capability, and adaptability. Together, they can also serve as a platform for developing governance monitoring and evaluation instruments, crucial for both self-assessment and external audit purposes.
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Many tout the benefits of collaborative environmental management as an alternative to centralized planning and command and control regulation, but the excitement over collaborative processes has not been matched by evidence that these processes actually improve the environment. The most crucial question in collaborative environmental management remains unanswered and often unasked: To what extent does collaboration lead to improved environmental outcomes? We know much about why collaboration is occurring and how collaborative processes and outputs vary. The primary goal of future research on collaborative environmental management should be to demonstrate whether collaboration improves environmental conditions more than traditional processes and newer market-based processes. Collaboration is not a panacea; it is a choice that policy makers and public managers should make based on evidence about expected outcomes.
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This study based on regulatory theory aims to provide new insights on how Finnish air and water pollution regulation has worked. Which features make pollution regulation effective and efficient? Does pollution regulation foster technological development? Are new policy instruments replacing traditional regulation? What should the role of European-wide standards be? How could regulation be improved? These and other regulatory issues are examined. Due to the preparation for EU membership, the amount of annually adopted environmental legislation peaked in 1994. However, excluding the impact of EU membership the amount of environmental legislation continues to increase. The rate of legislative change has been rapid. Only a few pieces of legislation in force were adopted prior 1990 and about one third is less than 5 years old. Most of new legislation relates to traditional regulation, although there is more legislation than before on economic instruments and other new policy instruments. However, the impact of new instruments on the total volume of legislation is slight. There is no evidence to suggest that the relevance of new policy instruments for the achievement of policy goals exceeds their relative amount. The relative role of environmental agreements not based on new legislation is even smaller. This does not support a significant shift towards new policy instruments as often suggested in the literature. About 30 % of the environmental legislation between 1994 and 2003 was implementing EU legislation. This is more than in most other policy sectors. The most Europeanized environmental policies were waste, chemicals, and pollution control. It is likely that the EU impact is greater than the relative amount of implementing legislation suggests. Most substantial changes of environmental regulation are affected by EU policy. In the long run, impacts on technological development are crucial for environmental policy. This study shows that water pollution regulation has often forced the pulp and paper industry to adopt new end-of-pipe technologies. In addition, this, with other factors, has influenced the development of process technologies. Integrated pollution regulation (adopted in 2000) aimed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of policy. Although the number of regulated units did not increase, the more comprehensive way of regulation improved its effectiveness. After the reform new opportunities to set priorities were also created and used. No impacts based on cross-media effects were observed. The fact that elements of the previous sectoral system were transferred to the new system hampered the achievement of the full potential of integrated regulation. Integrated pollution regulation could be improved. In particular the regulation of minor activities should be made lighter through the repeal of obsolete requirements, development of new control methods and standardization of information gathering. With regard to major activities, the combination of economic instruments and integrated permitting would increase effectiveness and efficiency. The creation of common markets for those developing technologies would foster technological development. However, to ensure efficiency of regulation standard-setting should remain differentiated. The enlargement of the size of regulated unit would make it more efficient. Key words: regulatory theory, policy evaluation, environment, pollution control, regulation, effectiveness, efficiency, technological development Tämän sääntelyteroaan pohjautuvan tutkimuksen tavoitteena on kriittisesti arvioida teollisen toiminnan pilaantumisen ehkäisyn sääntelyä. Vuosien 1988 ja 2003 välillä uuden ympäristölainsäädännön vuotuinen määrällinen huippu saavutettiin 1994. Tätä selittää valmistautuminen EU:n jäsenyyteen. EU:n jäsenyyden vaikutus poislukien, sääntelyn kasvu on ollut jatkuvaa. Muutos on ollut nopeaa. Harvat pilaantumista koskevat lait ja säädökset ovat vanhempia kuin 15 vuotta ja vajaa kolmannes on vain 5 vuotta vanhaa. Erityisesti perinteinen sääntely (command-and-control regulation) on kasvannut. Vaikka taloudellisten ja muiden uusien sääntelyvälineiden määrä on sekin kasvanut, niin niiden merkitys lainsäädännön kokonaisvolymiin on pieni. Ympäristösopimusten, jotka eivät edellytä lainsäädäntöä, rooli on Suomessa tätäkin pienempi. Uusien sääntelyvälineiden määräänsä suuremmalle merkitykselle ei löydetty tukea. Useimpia ympäristöongelmia, kuten happamoitumista, rehevöitymistä, vaarallisia aineita, pysyviä orgaanisia yhdisteitä, raskasmetalleja, haihtuvia orgaanisia yhdisteitä ja jäteiden käsittelyä säännellään pääasiassa perinteisen sääntelyn keinoin. Tiettyissä kysymyksissä, kuten energian tuotannon ja käytön sääntelyssä, taloudelliset ohjauskeinot ovat kuitenkin keskeisessä asemassa. Määrällisesti mitattuna suurin osa ympäristölainsäädännöstä on kotimaista alkuperää. Kansallisesta ympäristölainsäädännöstämme noin 30 % oli vuosina 1994-2003 muodollisessa mielessä EU:n lainsäädännön täytäntöönpanoa. Tämä on enemmän kuin monilla muilla aloilla. Suurinta EU:n vaikutus oli jäte-, kemikaali- ja pilaantumissääntelyssä. On kuitenkin ilmeistä, että EU:n vaikutus on suurempi mitä täytäntöönpanosäädöksien määrä osoittaa. Monilla ympäristöaloilla merkittävät sääntelyn sisällön muutokset liittyvät EU:n sääntelyyn. Pitkällä tähtäyksellä teknologisella kehityksellä on kriittinen merkitys ympäristöpolitiikan onnistumiselle. Vesien pilaantumislupa on käytetyn aineiston mukaan usein pakottanut paremman puhdistusteknologian käyttöönottoon massa- ja paperiteollisuudessa. Lisäksi sääntely on yhdessä muiden tekijöiden kanssa osaltaan edistänyt kehittyneemmän prosessitekniikan käyttöönottoa. Vuonna 2000 käytöön otetun yhdennetyn pilaantumisen sääntelyyn tavoitteena oli sääntelyn vaikuttavuuden ja kustannus-tehokkuuden lisääminen. Sääntelyn muutos ei lisännyt säännetyjen toimintojen määrää, mutta se lisäsi sääntelyn vaikuttavuutta. Toimintoja säännellään nyt kokonaisvaltaisemmin. Sääntelyn kustannus-tehokkuutta lisäsi ympäristöinvestointien ajallinen priorisointi. Oletusta, että yhdennetty sääntely johtaisi edullisemman teknologian käyttöönottoon, ei pystytty vahvistamaan. Sektorikohtaisen järjestelmän piirteiden siirtäminen osaksi uutta järjestelmää on rajoittanut yhdennetyn sääntelyn koko potentiaalin hyödyntämistä. Yhdennetyn sääntelyn etujen takia se muodostaa myös tulevaisuudessa teollisen toiminnan ympäristösääntelyn ytimen. Sitä on kuitenkin syytä tehostaa. Erityisesti pienimuotoisten toimintojen osalta vanhentunutta sääntelyä tulee poistaa, kevyempiä kontrollimuotoja kehittää ja päätöksenteon edellyttämiä tiedon keruumenetelmiä standardisoida. Erityisesti laajojen toimintojen osalta perinteistä sääntelyä tulee vahvistaa taloudellisella ohjauksella. Ympäristönsuojelun yhtenäinen taso koko EU:n alueella edistää teknologian kehittämistä. Sääntelyn kustannus-tehokkuus kuitenkin edellyttää tapauskohtaisen harkinnan säilyttämistä. Sääntely-yksikön laajentaminen lisäisi sääntelyn kustannus-tehokkuutta. Avainsanat: sääntelyteoria, politiikan arviointi, ympäristö, pilaantumisen ehkäisy, sääntely, vaikuttavuus, kustannus-tehokkuus, teknologinen kehitys
In the literature on "new governance" forms of regulation, the blurring of traditional boundaries is a pervasive but largely implicit theme. This Article makes this theme explicit, and argues that the capacity to blur boundaries is one of new governance's signature strengths. New governance regulation frequently blurs the roles of regulatory actors, the stages of regulation, the modes of regulation, the functions of a regulatory regime; and the structure of the regulatory regime. The Article applies this lens to a series of case studies, and demonstrates how industry attempts at preemptive self-regulation have created opportunities where new governance forms of regulation could have emerged. Turning prescriptive, this Article calls attention to the political and strategic dynamics around attempts to regulate new domains, and calls on policymakers and scholars to embrace the blurred boundaries of new governance approaches as a possible approach that combines the best of state-centered and self-regulatory forms of governance.
The article examines the role of public participation rights in the Finnish forest planning system and considers the need for improvement, with a particular focus on private forests. Public participation is approached here as one of the tools for achieving social and ecological sustainability in forestry. The paper shows that public participation rights are very limited in the forest planning and management schemes in Finland. Among other things, access to environmental information is restricted, which is exceptional in modern environmental and natural resource law. The article concludes that there is a need to strengthen the participatory elements in forest planning if the aim is to improve environmental and social sustainability in forestry.
The opening up of Finnish forest policymaking to new interest groups and a change to more flexible forms of partnerships at multiple levels signals a transition to new governance relations. Drawing on the concept of institutional capacity, we analyze the governance potential of stakeholder forums, called Regional Forest Councils, to balance economic considerations with ecological ones in preparing Regional Forest Programs. More specifically, we look into knowledge resources that are produced and shared in the Regional Forest Program process, relational resources such as trust and reciprocity created and sustained in the Regional Forest Councils, and the capacity to mobilize resources and take action to implement the program. The two processes we have analyzed demonstrate various elements of institutional capacity for collective action, and illustrate the challenges that a traditional hierarchically organized and expert-driven sector can face in developing more inclusive forms of governance.
The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatization of resources have been advocated, but neither the state nor the market have been uniformly successful in solving common pool resource problems. After critiquing the foundations of policy analysis as applied to natural resources, Elinor Ostrom here provides a unique body of empirical data to explore conditions under which common pool resource problems have been satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily solved. Dr Ostrom uses institutional analysis to explore different ways - both successful and unsuccessful - of governing the commons. In contrast to the proposition of the 'tragedy of the commons' argument, common pool problems sometimes are solved by voluntary organizations rather than by a coercive state. Among the cases considered are communal tenure in meadows and forests, irrigation communities and other water rights, and fisheries.
Over the past few decades the systems of governance have been transformed in response to supra-national as well as national demands. Consequently, the number of informal governance instruments has increased at all administrative levels. Among these instruments temporary project organizations are especially important, serving as informal mechanisms of horizontal as well as vertical co-ordination. Projects have become symbols of efficiency, innovation and adaptability. They are expected to be flexible instruments making it possible to cope with unforeseen situations but they are also expected to provide means of co-ordination and policy coherence. The potential consequences of project proliferation have received surprisingly limited attention in the extensive governance debate. The empirical data available to date is limited and there is a lack of conceptualizations concerning the relationship between permanent and temporary structures. This article scrutinizes the potential consequences of project proliferation. Especially in fields like environmental management, characterized by cross-sectoral and multi-level policy problems it is—according to this analysis—evident that an increasing temporality in public decision-making may challenge fundamental administrative values such as transparency and democratic accountability.
New approaches to regulation have emerged to deal with inadequacies of traditional command and control systems. Such new governance mechanisms are designed to increase flexibility, improve participation, foster experimentation and deliberation, and accommodate complex multi-level systems. In many cases these mechanisms co-exist with conventional forms of regulation. As new forms of governance emerge in arenas regulated by conventional legal processes, a wide range of configurations is possible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary mapping of such relationships using examples drawn from the European Union and the United States. When the two processes are consciously yoked together in a hybrid form, we might speak of a real transformation in the law. In other cases, the two systems may exist in parallel but not fuse together in a single system. Where both systems co-exist, there are numerous possible configurations and relationships among them. Thus, one might simply be used to launch the other, as when formal law is used to mandate a new approach. Or, they might operate independently yet both may have an effect on the same policy domain. Finally, in some areas one system may take over the field, ether because new governance methods replace traditional law altogether, or because opposition to innovation halts efforts to employ new approaches.
Participation is seen as an important aspect of sustainable forest management (SFM). Especially important are the policy processes, where the effectiveness of the policy is determined by the commitment of the stakeholders to the selected policy. There are, however, different opinions as to what constitutes a successful participatory process. In this study, we analysed the stakeholder perspectives about proper participation process in Regional Forest Programme preparation in Finland using Q-methodology. We found four different perspectives: pragmatic consensus-seekers, reformers, expertise-oriented actors and participation sceptics. The pragmatists seek for consensus, but purely on traditional forestry issues. The reformers, on the other hand, wanted to introduce other aspects into the process and opposed the dominant position of the traditional forestry network in the RFP process. The expertise-oriented group was ready to discuss different aspects, but wanted to promote the power of experts. The sceptics wanted to allocate the minimum effort to participation. The results suggest that framing and organizing the process, reaching commitment, roles of different information, and the ways of taking into account the views of general public should be emphasized in future RFP's.
In this thoughtful and intricate cross-disciplinary debate, Professors Eric W. Orts, of Penn's Wharton School, and Cary Coglianese, of Penn's Law School, discuss the benefits and disadvantages of collaborative public policy decision making in the environmental context. It is no exaggeration to say that each year the world grows ever more aware of the nature of the environmental problems we face, and yet critical policy solutions continue to remain beyond the grasp of even the most interested parties.Professor Orts argues that it is time to embrace a different policymaking approach--that of collaborative environmental lawmaking. He argues that "the view that centralized governments acting alone will arrive at 'correct' solutions . . . begs the question of incommensurable values and the various people who hold them." Professor Orts's skepticism of the independence of political and other governmental actors in a world in which "lobbyists and campaign financiers . . . play large and often decisive roles in th[e public policymaking] process" leads him to conclude that "in many situations, it makes better sense to trust less in the traditional centralized process of environmental lawmaking and to consider more frequently the alternative of engaging in collaborative environmental law."Professor Coglianese responds that collaborative environmental law is "not at all feasible for making real-world decisions about major environmental problems," and that this policymaking approach "introduces new types of predictable and serious problems." He cautions that "[t]he issue is not whether policymakers should reach out to affected interests and members of the public. Rather, the issue lies with the purpose of public engagement." Professor Coglianese contends that, by making agreement the primary aim of policymaking, collaborative environmental law actually conveys a willingness to give in to interested parties in pursuit of the "holy grail" of consensus. Instead, Professor Coglianese urges that public "engagement should be used with another goal in mind . . . mak[ing] the best possible decision [to] . . . best advance[] the overall public interest."
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) Metsäkeskus: -Alueelliset metsäohjelmat
  • Maa-Ja Metsätalousministeriö
Maa-ja metsätalousministeriö: -Metso-ohjelma. [] (25.9.2019) -Suomen biotalousstrategia. ( suomen-biotalousstrategia) (25.9.2019) Metsähallitus: -Alue-ekologinen suunnittelu. [] (katsottu 30.4.2019) -Luonnonvarasuunnittelu. [] (29.4.2019) Metsäkeskus: -Alueelliset metsäohjelmat. [] (15.8.2019) -Maakunnalliset metsäneuvostot. [] (25.9.2019)
2019) -PEFC-numeroina
  • Metsäkeskus -Tapio
Metsäkeskus -Tapio: Yhteenveto luonnonhoidon alueellisista toteutusohjelmista, 2017. [] (15.8.2019) PEFC: -Kansainvälisesti. [] (13.9.2019) -PEFC-numeroina. [] (13.9.2019) Suomen ympäristökeskus: -Iijoella saatu iso työ päätökseen. Uutinen 15.10.2018. [ fi-FI/Ajankohtaista/Uutiskirjeet/Vesistokunnostusverkosto/Iijoella_saatu_ iso_tyo_paatokseen(48204)] (24.9.2019) -Luontotyyppien uhanalaisuus 2018. Erityisen uhanalaisia ovat vanhat ja karujen kasvupaikkojen kangasmetsät. Tiedote 18.12.2018. [] (15.8.2019)
s. 259) esittävätkin, että ohjelmissa olisi syytä asettaa tavoitteita ja toimenpiteitä alueellisesti suppeammalle alueelle
  • Weckroth Ym
Weckroth ym. (2009, s. 259) esittävätkin, että ohjelmissa olisi syytä asettaa tavoitteita ja toimenpiteitä alueellisesti suppeammalle alueelle, esimerkiksi kuntatasolla.
Tietämys maakunnallisista metsäneuvostoista ja niiden toiminnasta sekä alueellisista metsäohjelmista (AMO) oli vähäistä. Jopa hyvin aktiiviset metsäalan toimijat pitivät metsäkeskuksen tiedottamista ja erityisesti maakunnallista tiedottamista riittämättömänä
  • Myös Pelkonen
Myös Pelkonen (2017, s. 2, 30) on havainnut, ettei toimijoilla ole tietoa alueellisista metsäohjelmista. Pelkosen mukaan: "Tietämys maakunnallisista metsäneuvostoista ja niiden toiminnasta sekä alueellisista metsäohjelmista (AMO) oli vähäistä. Jopa hyvin aktiiviset metsäalan toimijat pitivät metsäkeskuksen tiedottamista ja erityisesti maakunnallista tiedottamista riittämättömänä."
Suomen metsäkeskusta, metsänhoitoyhdistyksiä ja metsätietojärjestelmää koskevien lainsäädäntöuudistusten vaikutukset ja tavoitteiden toteutuminen
  • Paavo Pelkonen
Pelkonen, Paavo: Suomen metsäkeskusta, metsänhoitoyhdistyksiä ja metsätietojärjestelmää koskevien lainsäädäntöuudistusten vaikutukset ja tavoitteiden toteutuminen. Arviointiraportti. 2017.
Alueellisen metsäohjelman laadinta ja kehittäminen metsäkeskuksissa, Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 3/2009, s. 255-262. (Weckroth ym. 2009) Metsähallitus: -Alue-ekologinen suunnittelu
  • T Weckroth
  • T. -Repo E-L. -Nikkola Nummi
Weckroth, T. -Nummi, T. -Repo E-L. -Nikkola, A.: Alueellisen metsäohjelman laadinta ja kehittäminen metsäkeskuksissa, Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 3/2009, s. 255-262. (Weckroth ym. 2009) Metsähallitus: -Alue-ekologinen suunnittelu. [] (katsottu 30.4.2019) -Luonnonvarasuunnittelu. [] (29.4.2019) Metsäkeskus: -Alueelliset metsäohjelmat. [] (15.8.2019) -Maakunnalliset metsäneuvostot. [] (25.9.2019) -Vesiensuojelu turvemaiden uudistamisessa. [ kuormitus-kuriin] (3.8.2019)
Suomen ympäristökeskus: -Iijoella saatu iso työ päätökseen
  • Metsäkeskus -Tapio
Metsäkeskus -Tapio: Yhteenveto luonnonhoidon alueellisista toteutusohjelmista, 2017. [] (15.8.2019) PEFC: -Kansainvälisesti. [] (13.9.2019) -PEFC-numeroina. [] (13.9.2019) Suomen ympäristökeskus: -Iijoella saatu iso työ päätökseen. Uutinen 15.10.2018. [ fi-FI/Ajankohtaista/Uutiskirjeet/Vesistokunnostusverkosto/Iijoella_saatu_ iso_tyo_paatokseen(48204)] (24.9.2019) -Luontotyyppien uhanalaisuus 2018. Erityisen uhanalaisia ovat vanhat ja karujen kasvupaikkojen kangasmetsät. Tiedote 18.12.2018. [] (15.8.2019)
Kaakkois-Suomi) 5.3.2019. Wik-Portin, Karen (Uusimaa) 27.3
  • Jouni Väkevä
Väkevä, Jouni (Kaakkois-Suomi) 5.3.2019. Wik-Portin, Karen (Uusimaa) 27.3.2019.