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ALUEELLISET METSÄOHJELMAT METSÄTALOUDEN OHJAUKSESSA – YHTEISTOIMINNALLISEN HALLINNAN MAHDOLLISUUDET JA ONGELMAT METSIEN KÄYTÖN EKOLOGISEN KESTÄVYYDEN EDISTÄMISESSÄ

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This article is in Finnish. REGIONAL FOREST PROGRAMMES AND FOREST REGULATION – THE POTENTIAL AND WEAKNESSES OF COLLABORATIVE GOVERNANCE IN ENHANCING ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE SILVICULTURE Ecological sustainability of forestry remains a distant target due to increasing loggings and intensive silvicultural measures such as soil preparation and forest ditching. This threatens e.g. biodiversity and water protection. Finnish forest regulation consists of the Forest Act and the Nature Conservation Act, soft law guidance and forest certification. The Forest Act requires that the Finnish Forest Centre prepares regional forest programs (RFP) in cooperation with parties representing the forest sector and other relevant stakeholders and stipulates that RFPs contain the general objectives for sustainable forest management of each region. RFPs are non-binding and general in nature – typical soft law instruments. In this article we have considered RFPs as a part of forest regulation and scrutinized what kind of added value RFPs bring to ecologically sustainable forest management. We interviewed representatives of Finnish Forest Centre (9) and an environmental NGO (7) and analyzed RFPs in order to recognize the weaknesses and strengths of RFPs in making forestry more ecological, and suggested improvements in legislation and practices to make RFPs more effective. Currently RFPs are influential mainly in directing funding for nature protection and management (e.g. educating, protecting valuable forest habitats and restoring ecosystems) within a region. RFPs are also used to influence the contents of other plans such as Rural Development Plans. According to the interviews, the main benefit of RFP process is its role as a discussion forum. In addition to debating and information sharing, this can sometimes lead to concrete collaborative projects, too. In general, the added value of RFPs is modest, and most measures mentioned in RFPs would be taken by the Finnish Forest Centre in any case. Despite the fairly insignificant impact of the RFPs, they are the only collaborative instrument for governing forestry on the regional level. The regulation of the RFPs could be improved by emphasizing the weight of environmental sustainability and the representatives of ecological knowledge and viewpoints (environmental authorities, scientists and NGOs) in the planning process. Also, other tools and practices should be developed, and more funds should be allocated for forest authorities to implement nature conservation and management measures mentioned in RFPs, including educating forest owners and loggers.

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Weckroth, T. -Nummi, T. -Repo E-L. -Nikkola, A.: Alueellisen metsäohjelman laadinta ja kehittäminen metsäkeskuksissa, Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 3/2009, s. 255-262. (Weckroth ym. 2009)
2019) Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän metsäohjelma
  • Internet
  • Fsc
Internet-lähteet FSC: -Looking back on 25-years of FSC. [https://fsc.org/en/page/25-years-fsc] (13.9.2019) -Facts & Figures. [https://fsc.org/en/page/facts-figures] (13.9.2019) Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän metsäohjelma. [https://www.jyvaskyla.fi/ymparisto/metsat/jyvaskylan-metsaohjelma] (25.9.2019)
  • Runkopuuta Kaatui
-Runkopuuta kaatui 2018 enemmän kuin koskaan. Uutiset 13.6.2019. [https:// www.luke.fi/uutiset/runkopuuta-kaatui-2018-enemman-kuin-koskaan/] (16.9.2019) (Luke 2019b)
) Metsäkeskus: -Alueelliset metsäohjelmat
  • Maa-Ja Metsätalousministeriö
Maa-ja metsätalousministeriö: -Metso-ohjelma. [https://mmm.fi/metso-ohjelma] (25.9.2019) -Suomen biotalousstrategia. (https://mmm.fi/metsat/strategiat-ja-ohjelmat/ suomen-biotalousstrategia) (25.9.2019) Metsähallitus: -Alue-ekologinen suunnittelu. [http://www.metsa.fi/alue-ekologinen-suunnittelu] (katsottu 30.4.2019) -Luonnonvarasuunnittelu. [http://www.metsa.fi/luonnonvarasuunnittelu] (29.4.2019) Metsäkeskus: -Alueelliset metsäohjelmat. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/alueelliset-metsaohjelmat] (15.8.2019) -Maakunnalliset metsäneuvostot. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/maakunnalliset-metsaneuvostot] (25.9.2019)
2019) -PEFC-numeroina
  • Metsäkeskus -Tapio
Metsäkeskus -Tapio: Yhteenveto luonnonhoidon alueellisista toteutusohjelmista, 2017. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/sites/default/files/totelmat-yhteenveto.pdf] (15.8.2019) PEFC: -Kansainvälisesti. [https://pefc.fi/pefc/kansainvalisesti/] (13.9.2019) -PEFC-numeroina. [https://pefc.fi/pefc-numeroina/] (13.9.2019) Suomen ympäristökeskus: -Iijoella saatu iso työ päätökseen. Uutinen 15.10.2018. [https://www.syke.fi/ fi-FI/Ajankohtaista/Uutiskirjeet/Vesistokunnostusverkosto/Iijoella_saatu_ iso_tyo_paatokseen(48204)] (24.9.2019) -Luontotyyppien uhanalaisuus 2018. Erityisen uhanalaisia ovat vanhat ja karujen kasvupaikkojen kangasmetsät. Tiedote 18.12.2018. [https://www.ymparisto.fi/fi-FI/Luonto/Luontotyypit/Luontotyyppien_uhanalaisuus/Luontotyyppien_uhanalaisuus_2018/Luontotyyppien_uhanalaisuus_2018_materi-aalit] (15.8.2019)
s. 259) esittävätkin, että ohjelmissa olisi syytä asettaa tavoitteita ja toimenpiteitä alueellisesti suppeammalle alueelle
  • Weckroth Ym
Weckroth ym. (2009, s. 259) esittävätkin, että ohjelmissa olisi syytä asettaa tavoitteita ja toimenpiteitä alueellisesti suppeammalle alueelle, esimerkiksi kuntatasolla.
Tietämys maakunnallisista metsäneuvostoista ja niiden toiminnasta sekä alueellisista metsäohjelmista (AMO) oli vähäistä. Jopa hyvin aktiiviset metsäalan toimijat pitivät metsäkeskuksen tiedottamista ja erityisesti maakunnallista tiedottamista riittämättömänä
  • Myös Pelkonen
Myös Pelkonen (2017, s. 2, 30) on havainnut, ettei toimijoilla ole tietoa alueellisista metsäohjelmista. Pelkosen mukaan: "Tietämys maakunnallisista metsäneuvostoista ja niiden toiminnasta sekä alueellisista metsäohjelmista (AMO) oli vähäistä. Jopa hyvin aktiiviset metsäalan toimijat pitivät metsäkeskuksen tiedottamista ja erityisesti maakunnallista tiedottamista riittämättömänä."
Suomen metsäkeskusta, metsänhoitoyhdistyksiä ja metsätietojärjestelmää koskevien lainsäädäntöuudistusten vaikutukset ja tavoitteiden toteutuminen
  • Paavo Pelkonen
Pelkonen, Paavo: Suomen metsäkeskusta, metsänhoitoyhdistyksiä ja metsätietojärjestelmää koskevien lainsäädäntöuudistusten vaikutukset ja tavoitteiden toteutuminen. Arviointiraportti. 2017.
Alueellisen metsäohjelman laadinta ja kehittäminen metsäkeskuksissa, Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 3/2009, s. 255-262. (Weckroth ym. 2009) Metsähallitus: -Alue-ekologinen suunnittelu
  • T Weckroth
  • T. -Repo E-L. -Nikkola Nummi
Weckroth, T. -Nummi, T. -Repo E-L. -Nikkola, A.: Alueellisen metsäohjelman laadinta ja kehittäminen metsäkeskuksissa, Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 3/2009, s. 255-262. (Weckroth ym. 2009) Metsähallitus: -Alue-ekologinen suunnittelu. [http://www.metsa.fi/alue-ekologinen-suunnittelu] (katsottu 30.4.2019) -Luonnonvarasuunnittelu. [http://www.metsa.fi/luonnonvarasuunnittelu] (29.4.2019) Metsäkeskus: -Alueelliset metsäohjelmat. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/alueelliset-metsaohjelmat] (15.8.2019) -Maakunnalliset metsäneuvostot. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/maakunnalliset-metsaneuvostot] (25.9.2019) -Vesiensuojelu turvemaiden uudistamisessa. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/ kuormitus-kuriin] (3.8.2019)
Suomen ympäristökeskus: -Iijoella saatu iso työ päätökseen
  • Metsäkeskus -Tapio
Metsäkeskus -Tapio: Yhteenveto luonnonhoidon alueellisista toteutusohjelmista, 2017. [https://www.metsakeskus.fi/sites/default/files/totelmat-yhteenveto.pdf] (15.8.2019) PEFC: -Kansainvälisesti. [https://pefc.fi/pefc/kansainvalisesti/] (13.9.2019) -PEFC-numeroina. [https://pefc.fi/pefc-numeroina/] (13.9.2019) Suomen ympäristökeskus: -Iijoella saatu iso työ päätökseen. Uutinen 15.10.2018. [https://www.syke.fi/ fi-FI/Ajankohtaista/Uutiskirjeet/Vesistokunnostusverkosto/Iijoella_saatu_ iso_tyo_paatokseen(48204)] (24.9.2019) -Luontotyyppien uhanalaisuus 2018. Erityisen uhanalaisia ovat vanhat ja karujen kasvupaikkojen kangasmetsät. Tiedote 18.12.2018. [https://www.ymparisto.fi/fi-FI/Luonto/Luontotyypit/Luontotyyppien_uhanalaisuus/Luonto-tyyppien_uhanalaisuus_2018/Luontotyyppien_uhanalaisuus_2018_materi-aalit] (15.8.2019)
Kaakkois-Suomi) 5.3.2019. Wik-Portin, Karen (Uusimaa) 27.3
  • Jouni Väkevä
Väkevä, Jouni (Kaakkois-Suomi) 5.3.2019. Wik-Portin, Karen (Uusimaa) 27.3.2019.