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Students’ Conceptions of Role of Guidance and Counselling in Discipline Management in Secondary Schools in K1rinyaga County, Kenya

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Discipline is vital in the success of educational processes. Guidance and Counselling (GC) have been adopted as strategy to manage student discipline the world over including Kenyan schools. Though students form the major clientele of services provided in schools, studies regarding provision of counselling and guidance in relation to management of learners’ behaviour have largely ignored students’ conceptions. This study sought to establish students’ conceptions of the role of GC in managing discipline among learners in public secondary’ schools in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was used and a sample of 167 students was randomly taken from 13 secondary schools and questionnaires used to collect data. Results indicated that though students knew of availability of counselling services, they rarely sought them. The study further noted that students experienced punitive forms of punishment, including corporal punishment, despite availability of GC departments and government policies guiding the handling of learners’ discipline in Kenyan schools. The study concluded that secondary school students sampled have not fully embraced GC services. Therefore, the practice of GC as currently structured, may fail as a discipline management strategy. The recommendations based on findings are that the Education Ministry and School Boards of Management should not only enforce government policies on discipline management and explore ways of winning students’ confidence in the GC services.
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Students’ Conceptions of Role of Guidance and Counselling in Discipline Management in
Secondary Schools in K1rinyaga County, Kenya
Wamugunda Magdalene*, Gachahi Michael and Kimosop Maurice
School of Education and Social Sciences, Karatina University, Kenya
Corresponding author: Wamugunda Magdalene, E-mail: wangariwamugunda@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Discipline is vital in the success of educational processes. Guidance and Counselling (GC) have
been adopted as strategy to manage student discipline the world over including Kenyan schools.
Though students form the major clientele of services provided in schools, studies regarding
provision of counselling and guidance in relation to management of learners’ behaviour have
largely ignored students’ conceptions. This study sought to establish students’ conceptions of
the role of GC in managing discipline among learners in public secondary’ schools in Kirinyaga
County, Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was used and a sample of 167 students
was randomly taken from 13 secondary schools and questionnaires used to collect data. Results
indicated that though students knew of availability of counselling services, they rarely sought
them. The study further noted that students experienced punitive forms of punishment, including
corporal punishment, despite availability of GC departments and government policies guiding
the handling of learners’ discipline in Kenyan schools. The study concluded that secondary
school students sampled have not fully embraced GC services. Therefore, the practice of GC as
currently structured, may fail as a discipline management strategy. The recommendations based
on ndings are that the Education Ministry and School Boards of Management should not only
enforce government policies on discipline management and explore ways of winning students’
condence in the GC services.
Key words: Counseling, Discipline, Expulsion, Guidance, Punishments, Suspension
INTRODUCTION
The centrality of discipline in education and the moral
growth of children cannot be gainsaid (Nanyiri, 2014).
Okumbe (1998) argues that in the endeavor to achieve the
vision and mission of a learning institution, all members of
the institution ought to strictly observe behaviour patterns
necessary for maximum output. Similarly, Nelson (2002)
posits that maintenance of high level of discipline by stu-
dents is important in their efforts to achieve high educational
standards successful education According to Nanyiri (2014),
therefore, teaching and learning cannot go on well without
a disciplined atmosphere. Despite the crucial role of disci-
pline in academic pursuit, there are concerns in many parts
of the world in as far as secondary school students’ discipline
is concerned (Lam & Hui, 2010; Nanviri, 2014; Wambui,
2015; Wango, 2006). Lam and Hui (2010) argue that stu-
dents in many secondary schools across the globe exhibit
signs of struggling with problems associated with growing
up as evidenced by the growing cases of suicide, violence,
emotional hardships, behavioral problems, family problems
and drugs, teenage issues revolving around self-esteem, in-
ter-personal relationships, and sexuality challenges. Further,
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Nanyiri (2014) asserts that unwanted behaviour on the part
of the students which is on the increase implied a scenar-
io where GC services offered in Kenyan secondary schools
could not match the expectations of educational stakeholders.
Although GC has been adopted as an appropriate method
of promoting positive discipline in educational institutions
in different parts of the world, research ndings present wor-
rying results on the success of GC in schools. With regard
to the African setting, Maluwa-banda (1997) studied percep-
tion held by Malawi’s Secondary school counsellors’. The
research noted that school counselors were regular teachers
with no formal preparation to offer guidance and counsel-
ling. These ndings pointed to challenges bedeviling pro-
vision of these helping services in educational institutions.
Mlalazi, Rembe and Shumba (2016) establish that though
there were few areas of successful institutionalization of the
programmes, there were serious drawbacks which included
lack of facilities.
In Nigeria, Egbochuku, 2008, as cited in Mlalazi et al.
2016) indicate that GC programmes were availed to stu-
dents after punishments and this discouraged learners from
voluntarily seeking the services. In a study which surveyed
International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies
ISSN: 2202-9478
www.ijels.aiac.org.au
ARTICLE INFO
Article history
Received: May 10, 2019
Accepted: October 23, 2019
Published: October 31, 2019
Volume: 7 Issue: 4
Conicts of interest: None
Funding: None
164 IJELS 7(4):163-168
execution of counselling and guidance in Chinhoyi Urban
schools, Gudyanga, Wadesango, Manzira, and Gudyan-
ga (2015) noted that only a single school in the study area
sampled had a functional GC programme. Further, Khansa
(2015) (as cited in Mlalazi et al. (2016), reported that in Leb-
anon, counsellors were poorly equipped to provide GC ser-
vices in their schools. Similarly, Kok Low and Lee (2012)
noted that there were misconceptions on the GC services in
secondary schools amongst different educational players,
In the Kenyan context, the contribution GC services in
maintenance and control of students’ discipline has been
underscored by many government circulars on the subject
(Wambui, 2015), In spite of the policy support accorded
to GC, ndings paint a gloomy picture on the success of
guiding and counseling of student. Wango’s (2006) study
on effects of policy and practice of GC in secondary schools
in Kenya, established that despite the insistence on this ap-
proach, the setting up of GC services to learners was frag-
mented in scope, highly variable and largely dependent on
individual schools. Wango (2006) research presented a sce-
nario where the quality of GC services offered in Kenyan
secondary schools failed to meet the expectations of edu-
cational stakeholders. These ndings concurred with Wam-
bui (2015) who emphasized on importance of having GC
services educational institutions in Kenya. Wambui further
observed that teacher counselors were few and thus over-
whelmed by the high number of secondary’ school students.
Consequently, these counselors ended up being ineffec-
tive in their GC duties. The views held by Wambui (2015)
and Wango (2006) were supported by Ajowi and Simatwa
(2010) who noted that GC services were rarely used in the
promotion of discipline among learners’ in the study region.
Further, Ajowi and Simatwa established that corporal pun-
ishment was commonly used to solve cases of discipline.
These practices contradicted the Ministry of Education
guidelines on discipline management among secondary
school learners. Interestingly, it was later conrmed by Si-
matwa (2012) that students disregarded GC as an option for
improving positive behaviour in the schools. In Simatwa’s
study, 50% of the sampled respondents indicated that GC
was for individuals who lacked the capacity to solve their
own problems and those who exhibited signs of behavioral
and emotional problems.
The challenges bedeviling the use of GC in schools in
Kenya are endless; majority of teacher counsellors lacked
the requisite competencies and training in handling school
discipline issues (Kamore & Tiego, (2015). According to
Ngumi (2003), even teachers who were said to be trained
in guidance and counselling were found to have covered in-
sufcient number of courses. They were thus not fully pre-
pared for guiding and counselling students in a manner that
could satisfy educational stakeholders and promote positive
discipline among students. In addition to these challenges,
Wango (2006) notes that though teachers are ideally placed
to provide information and offer help, the priorities in school
might be different. Lam and Hui (2010) study conrmed
these observations and added that teacher counsellors have
to overcome obstacles arising from varied students’ needs.
It has been observed that despite the emphasis given to
GC in supervision of discipline among learners, in Kenyan
secondary schools, the success of this approach has not
yet satised educational stakeholders. Students’ discipline
in many parts of this country continues to be an issue of
concern. Studies on guidance and counselling have largely
concentrated on teachers and school administrators. Thus,
students’ conceptions of guidance and counselling have not
been completely investigated.
Despite the Ministry of Education adopting guidance
and counselling as a strategy to promote positive discipline,
Kenya’s education system has witnessed a worrying upsurge
of indiscipline among students. Incidences of bullying, ar-
son, unrest, destruction of property, truancy, drug and sub-
stance abuse, among others, have been increasing tremen-
dously among secondary school students in different parts of
Kenya. Educational stakeholders are getting worried about
students’ aggression directed towards their own teachers.
The disturbing question has been: what is ailing learners’
discipline in educational institutions in Kenya?
Available literature conrms gaps in the effective use of GC
as an approach to maintenance of student discipline in education-
al institutions. Further, studies on GC with regard to discipline
management have not been exhaustive and have largely ignored
students’ conceptions. Students experience myriad discipline is-
sues and they are the major clients of GC services in secondary
school. This study, therefore, sought to explore students’ concep-
tions on how this approach has been used in promoting student
discipline in secondary schools in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.
Conceptions in this context relate to how students think about
or perceive the nature and purpose of guidance and counselling.
Objective
This study set out to establish students’ conceptions on the
role on GC in discipline management in secondary schools
in Kirinyaga County, Kenya,
Theoretical Framework
This research was informed by the Bandura (1982) Self-ef-
cacy theory. This theory postulates that an individual’s belief
in their intrinsic capacity to accomplish objectives and adapt
to difculties. According to Bandura, individuals with high
levels of self-efcacy have a lot of determination to suc-
cessfully accomplish a task whereas people with low levels
of self-efcacy are more likely to give up when confronted
by challenges, thus leading to failure. Students in second-
ary schools from all over the world face myriad challeng-
es which may impede the achievement of their academic
goals. Success of guidance and counselling as a strategy to
address students’ challenges and indiscipline issues seems
unguaranteed (Ajowi & Simatwa (2010): Lui & Hui (2010);
Simatwa (2012): Wambui (2015); Wango (2006). Although
Lam and Hui (2010) stressed the importance of teachers
buy-in and participation in the success of GC programmes,
learners’ readiness to seek services is indispensable in the
success of the programme in promoting positive behaviour
among students in secondary school. Students’ participation
Students’ Conceptions of Role of Guidance and Counselling in Discipline
Management in Secondary Schools in K1rinyaga County, Kenya 165
in guidance and counselling activities may largely depend
on their beliefs and conceptions of the GC services available
in schools.
METHODOLOGY
The design of this study was essentially a descriptive survey
research. Descriptive designs are suitable for this investiga-
tion which sought to establish conceptions held by secondary
school students on GC as a mechanism for discipline man-
agement. The research involved a sample of 167 students
randomly selected from 13 secondary schools in Kirinyaga
County, Kenya. The sample comprised 38% male and 62%
female drawn from forms one to four. Most of these students
(85%) were in Forms two, three and four. Majority of them
(71%) were in the age bracket of 15 and 18 years. With this
background the researcher assumed that the responses ob-
tained gave an accurate reection of the GC practice in the
region and that their responses represented their conceptions
on this approach as used in discipline management in the
schools.
Validated questionnaires were used in the data collec-
tion exercise. Items in these instruments were framed in a
simple and straight-forward language due to the fact that the
study targeted secondary school students with varying aca-
demic backgrounds. The instruments had both open-ended
and close-ended items specically designed to collect data
on learners’ conceptions of GC in relation to management of
discipline in the secondary schools.
Data was collected through students’ questionnaires. This
instrument had 2 items that sought students’ views on the
availability of GC departments in their schools. There were
another 2 items that required students to indicate the effec-
tiveness of GC services in their schools. There were three
items that sought students’ views on forms of punishment
meted on students who broke school rules. Before proceed-
ing to the sampled schools to collect data, the instrument
was subjected to a panel of experts’ scrutiny to ensure con-
tent validity. A pilot study was also conducted in ten schools
in Nyeri County. To test the reliability of the instruments,
Cronbach’s Alpha was used and a reliability measure of 0.7
was obtained indicating that the tool was reliable. Analysis
of qualitative data involved organizing the responses into
themes as per the objective of the study. This facilitated the
analysis of the trends by use of descriptive statistics aided by
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Means,
frequencies and percentages showed the trends.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
To achieve the research objective, information was sought
from students in respect of their conceptions of GC services
offered in schools, punishments administered to instill disci-
pline among students and other discipline procedures used
in the school. Students’ responses were analyzed along the
study themes giving results of the conceptions held by stu-
dents with regard to GC and management of discipline.
Availability and Effectiveness of GC Services in the
Schools
Students were requested to indicate whether GC departments
were present in their schools. GC departments are anticipat-
ed to provide values to learners. This item was meant to
assess whether students were aware of the existence of GC
services in schools. Table 1 presents the ndings.
Table 1 shows that majority of the learners (98%) indicat-
ed that GC departments were present in their schools. Only
2% failed to give information on existence of guidance and
counselling departments in schools. These ndings showed
that most of the targeted institutions had the departments and
most of the students had information about the existence of
GC services. These ndings concur with Simatwa’s (2012)
study which established that public secondary schools in
Kenya had GC services. The presence of GC departments in
schools could be attributed to the Ministry of Education pol-
icy that required all schools to establish these departments.
The challenge was whether or not the departments were per-
forming their roles effectively as expected.
The success of GC programmes, largely depends on
learners volunteering to seek the services. Consequently, an
item to probe whether students sought GC services was in-
corporated in the data collection instrument. Responses to
this item are summarized in Table 2.
Results in Table 2 indicate that more than half of the stu-
dents (55%) indicated that they did not seek any services
from the guidance and counselling department. Only 45%
of students indicated that they sought the services. These re-
sults imply that though students had awareness pertaining to
the availability of GC services, more than half of the sam-
pled students did not seek those services. Thus, despite avail-
ability of these critical services, majority of the students are
not beneting from them. These observations agreed with
the ndings of Wango (2006) who noted that though teach-
ers are ideally placed to offer help as specialized counsel-
lors, they do not often have the rapport with the pupils and
students leading to students failing to seek their help. The
ndings further agree with Simatwas (2012) study which
established that students in the sampled schools disregarded
GC services thus, hampering the implementation of the gov-
ernment policy. In Simatwa’s study, 50% of the prefects said
Table 1. Presence of guidance and counseling
departments
Departments Frequency Percentage
Yes 160 98
No 7 2
Total 167 100
Table 2. Visits to department for service
Visits by students Frequency Percentage
Yes 72 45
No 88 55
Total 160 100
166 IJELS 7(4):163-168
that guidance and counselling was for those students who
could not solve their own problems and those who showed
behavioral and emotional difculties. These notions would
hinder students voluntarily seeking guidance and counsel-
ling services to avoid stigmatization. Consequently, students
may continue suffering with unresolved issues which may
later escalate to serious discipline matters.
The results obtained in this study further concurred with
the ndings of the Presidential Committee on Students’ Un-
rest and Indiscipline in Kenyan Secondary Schools (Republic
of Kenya, 2001). This committee asserted that the GC policy
had not been fully implemented in most schools portending
failure in the adoption of this approach as a tool for man-
agement of students’ discipline. The results obtained in this
study bolster Wango’s (2006) assertion that in most Kenyan
secondary schools, the running of GC services was somewhat
fragmented and highly variable. The same ndings were re-
corded by Maluwa-banda (1997) and Mlalazi et al. (2016)
who alluded to drawbacks that hindered effective execution
of GC programmes in their study regions.
If GC is to succeed, school administrators and teacher
counselors should explore ways of encouraging learners to
willingly seek GC services. This can happen if teacher coun-
selors reconsider the approaches used in the implementation
of this programme. Lam and Hui (2010) discussed approach-
es that may be applied in availing guidance and counselling
services in schools. Though the most preferred and highly
effective approach is the individualized form of counselling,
Lam and Hui (2010) and Auni (2010 as cited in Mlalazi et
al., 2016) recommended the whole-school approach as op-
posed to individualized counselling. These authors argue
that the whole-school approach may avail GC services to a
big number of students at any one sitting. Thus, schools can
adopt the whole- school approach as a starting point to win
students’ condence in guidance and counselling services.
Students may later personally seek the services from the
departments. However, the danger in this approach is that
its effectiveness may not be guaranteed. On the other hand,
Auni (2010, as cited in Mlalazi et al., 2016) supported the
peer- counselling approach in which students seek help from
fellow learners as an endeavour to bring counselling services
closer to the students.
Punishment of Students
Information relating to students’ conceptions on forms of
punishment in the schools was sought. An item designed to
establish students conceptions of the use of physical pun-
ishment in their schools was included in the data collection
instrument. Table 3 summarizes the results.
Analysis of the prevalence of corporal punishment showed
that 98% of students had been caned in the school and only 2%
had not. These ndings indicated high prevalence of corporal
punishment in total disregard of the various Ministry of Educa-
tion policies banning corporal punishment in Kenyan schools.
The high prevalence of caning established in this study support
Simatwa and Ajowi’s (2010) ndings that caning was com-
monly used to solve discipline cases in the schools sampled for
their study. These ndings are worrying considering the pres-
ence of GC departments in schools (Simatwa, 2012).
Students were further asked to indicate other forms of
punishment experienced in their schools. Students indicated
that other forms of punishments included students being sent
out of class, kneeling down, doing manual work, being sus-
pended and expelled from school as shown in Table 4 below:
Analysis of these forms of punishments showed that 12%
of students indicated that they were at one time excluded
from class, 11% made to kneel down, eight percent suspend-
ed. 18% given manual work and four percent were given
other punishments. It was established that in all these forms
of punishments, students missed learning time. This was
conrmed by the fact that 53% of the students indicated that
all forms of punishment meted on students resulted in loss
of learning time. This study noted that punishments admin-
istered to students in the study region were not only punitive
but made students miss classes and this has dire implications
on students’ academic performance and character formation.
The above results agree with the ndings of studies done
by Muthoga (as cited in Nanyiri, 2014). Muthoga asserted
that some forms of punishments in schools ended up con-
tradicting efforts towards improvement of academic perfor-
mance. Muthoga noted that in some cases, students feared
going to school. Further, Wango (2006) noted that school
administrators sometimes deal with indiscipline cases puni-
tively rather than referring the cases to teacher counsellors.
It is worrying that school administrators and teachers contin-
ue using out-dated forms of punishments when GC services
are available right inside their schools. Perhaps this is the
reason why students fail to seek GC services. Students’ fail-
ure to seek such services could be complicated by instances
where students are referred for guidance and counselling af-
ter punishments as noted by Mlalazi et al. (2016). According
to these authors, in such situations, only very few learners
would seek GC services from their teachers in schools.
The research also sought information on the prevalence of
suspensions and expulsions as forms of punishments in the
Table 3. Prevalence of corporal punishment in schools
Have you ever been
caned in school?
Frequency Percentage
Yes 140 98
No 3 2
I don’t know 0 0
Total 143 100
Table 4. Action taken for students’ minor offences
Action taken against minor
offenders
Frequency Percentage
Exclusion from class 20 12
Kneeling down 18 11
Caned 78 47
Suspended 13 8
Do manual work 30 18
Others 7 4
Total 167 100
Students’ Conceptions of Role of Guidance and Counselling in Discipline
Management in Secondary Schools in K1rinyaga County, Kenya 167
sampled schools. Results showed that 69% of the students
indicated that students were suspended when they commit-
ted major offences while 28% indicated that students are ex-
pelled. This analysis shows that suspensions and expulsions
were prevalent in schools. These ndings conrm Nanyiri’s
(2014) argument that some forms of punishments in schools
ended up contradicting efforts directed towards improvement
of academic performance. It is worth noting that discipline
procedures applied in some of the Kenyan schools may work
against the government’s efforts not only to improve the stu-
dent retention rates but also realization of one hundred per
cent student transition from primary to secondary schools. If
Kenya is to become a globally competitive country offering
high quality life to its citizenry as envisaged by Kenya Vision
2030 development blueprint, guidance and counselling ought
to be fully embraced as a discipline management strategy in
Kenyan schools. Punishments that lead to learners missing
learning opportunities should be discouraged.
CONCLUSIONS
This study concluded that though guidance and counselling
departments are present in most of the sampled schools and
learners are aware of their existence, less than half of stu-
dents sought services from those departments. It was also
concluded that guidance and counselling has not fully been
adopted as an approach to manage discipline in the schools.
This is conrmed by the fact that corporal punishment and
other inhuman forms of punishment still thrived in schools,
contrary to the Ministry of Education policy guidelines.
Lastly, most punishments meted out on students in second-
ary schools in Kirinyaga County resulted in students missing
learning time.
This study makes a number of recommendations. First-
ly, the study recommends that secondary schools in Ken-
ya should sensitize students on the services offered by GC
departments and also improve the capacity of GC teachers
through training and provision of the necessary resources.
Secondly, the study recommends that schools should han-
dle students’ discipline issues professionally and adhere to
the government policy that banned of corporal punishment.
Lastly, the Ministry of Education, school Boards of Manage-
ment (BOMs) and principals should enforce this regulation
and sanction those teachers who contravene the ban on cor-
poral punishment.
Since this study looked at students’ conceptions of the
role of GC in discipline management in schools, studies
should be conducted to establish disparities in discipline is-
sues between day and boarding schools. Further, studies may
be conducted to establish the relationship between qualica-
tions of GC teachers and the effectiveness of GC services in
their schools.
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The purpose of the current study is to investigate teachers’ perceptions toward school counselors in Lebanon. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 100 teachers from 13 private schools in Lebanon. The interview questions were adapted from Amatea and Clark (2004), and Beesley (2005), who interviewed teachers concerning their perceptions toward counselors in their schools. The interviews were analyzed mainly using descriptive qualitative grounded theory in order to identify how teachers perceive counselors and the various rationales behind their perceptions. The sampled teachers held varied perceptions, some negative and some positive, depending on their personal experiences with counseling.
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The paper examined how secondary schools implemented a guidance and counseling strategy to maintain positive discipline. It adopted a qualitative approach and employed a case study design. Purposive sampling was used to select four secondary schools and participants that comprised two education officers, four school heads, four school counselors, twenty members of the disciplinary committee, forty prefects and four School Development Committee chairpersons. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews, and analyzed thematically. The study established that guidance and counseling services were offered through lessons and counseling sessions, schools referred serious cases to experts for professional counseling, and secondary schools experienced challenges in implementing guidance and counseling. The paper concluded that pockets of good practices were evident in the implementation of the guidance and counseling. It recommends that the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education should create a substantive post of a non-teaching school counselor in every school.
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This study examined the role of guidance and counseling in promoting student discipline in secondary schools in Kisumu, District, Kenya. The study population comprised 4,570 students, 65 head teachers, 65 deputy head teachers, and 65 heads of Guidance and Counseling Department from all the 65 secondary schools in the District. Out of this, a sample of 22 head teachers, 22 deputy head teachers, 22 heads of Guidance and Counseling and 916 students from 22 secondary schools was selected through the simple random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study. These were interview schedule and a questionnaire. The data collected through questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequencies and percentages. While data collected using interview schedule were audio taped and transcribed into themes, categories and sub-categories as they emerged from the data. They were analyzed using summary Tables for the purpose of data presentation and interpretation. The findings show that guidance and counseling was minimally used to promote student discipline in secondary schools in Kisumu District. Punishments especially corporal punishment was widely used to solve disciplinary cases in all schools. It was however; found that there were no policy guidelines from the Ministry of Education on how the schools could use guidance and counseling to manage the student disciplinary cases. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Ministry of Education should provide policy guidelines on the use of guidance and counseling for the management of discipline in secondary schools. Increased efforts should also be made by the Ministry of Education, Department of Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards to regularly supervise and monitor the schools which were not adhering to the ban on corporal punishment and were violating the child rights.
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This study explores factors affecting the involvement of regular secondary school teachers in the whole-school approach to guidance and counselling by interviewing 12 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Emerging themes include teachers' ownership of their role in student guidance and counselling, the alignment of their disposition with education policies, school missions and culture, and their philosophy in education. Findings of what these teachers are actually doing in guidance and counselling are presented. Implications for policy-makers, administrators and leaders for comprehensive guidance and counselling programmes are drawn from constraints that limit interviewees' full potential in assisting students.
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The need for guidance and counselling in Malawi's secondary education is being recognised more now than ever before. A description is provided of what and how guidance and counselling services are being utilised in the secondary schools. A survey was conducted of 20 school counsellors from the southern and central regions of Malawi. Data were collected through the use of a semi-structured questionnaire and an oral interview with each counsellor. The school counsellors were full-time classroom teachers and had no formal training in guidance or counselling. The services offered to students varied from school to school. The main problems encountered by these counsellors are examined. It is evident that school guidance and counselling in Malawi is in its infancy. There is a strong need for the Ministry of Education and Culture to give a clear rationale and guidelines for the programme. Furthermore, the role of the counsellor should be clearly defined to administration, counsellors, other teachers and students.
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Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to account for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pursuits. The influential role of perceived collective efficacy in social change and the social conditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy are analyzed. (21/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1982 American Psychological Association.
Article
The influence of communication on student discipline in secondary schools is an issue of continued debate in Kenya. This study was necessitated by the growing concern by education stakeholders in Kenya over the rising reports of student indiscipline in secondary schools. The study utilized qualitative approach with questionnaires, interviews and documentation as instruments of collecting data. Purposive sampling was used to identify Naivasha district as the location of the study. Stratified and simple random sampling was used to identify 8 secondary schools and 200 respondents from these schools. 20 students and 4 teachers in each sampled school were given the self administered questionnaires while all the 8 head teachers were interviewed. The data collected was analyzed descriptively. The findings of this study shows that the level of discipline in secondary schools in Kenya is very low, schools administration rarely discussed implementation of rules and regulations to students hence there are poor channels of communication. Ineffective communication results in conflict, chaos, misunderstanding and lack of confidence in school administration. Factors such as individual communication skills promoted effective communication whereas barriers to interpersonal communication hindered effective communication. This study recommends that the school administration should initiate dialogue when dealing with students to discuss discipline matters, rules and regulations. Regular meetings and morning assemblies should be used as main channels of communication. Schools should avoid ineffective channels of communication which result in conflict, chaos, misunderstanding and lack of confidence in school administration. Guidance and counselling were seen to be effective ways of communication to overcome barriers of communication.
Assessment of the quality of guidance and counseling services to students' adjustments in secondary schools in Edu State of Nigeria. Research journal of international studies
  • E Ebochuku
Ebochuku,E.O(2008). Assessment of the quality of guidance and counseling services to students' adjustments in secondary schools in Edu State of Nigeria. Research journal of international studies, 8, 42-50.