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In most studies on awe, the stimuli used to elicit the emotion involves nature, music, space, or grand theories – but awe elicited by the actions of other people has generally not been studied in depth. In the few cases in which the social component of awe has been acknowledged, the focus has been on charismatic leaders. The current study explores this social aspect of awe by asking whether awe can be elicited in close interpersonal relationships and how this experience may be distinct from awe elicited by other stimuli. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-methods study (N = 636), we found empirical support for the notion that awe is elicited in the context of close relationships. Awe was elicited by close others compared to a neutral control, although the interpersonal form of awe was less intense than awe caused by nature. Qualitative analyses revealed that awe triggered by nature was defined by themes of beauty, while interpersonal awe was defined by themes of virtue or excellence of character.
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Interpersonal awe: Exploring the social domain of
awe elicitors
Marianna Graziosi & David Yaden
To cite this article: Marianna Graziosi & David Yaden (2019): Interpersonal awe:
Exploring the social domain of awe elicitors, The Journal of Positive Psychology, DOI:
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Published online: 14 Nov 2019.
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Interpersonal awe: Exploring the social domain of awe elicitors
Marianna Graziosi and David Yaden
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
In most studies on awe, the stimuli used to elicit the emotion involves nature, music, space, or
grand theories but awe elicited by the actions of other people has generally not been studied in
depth. In the few cases in which the social component of awe has been acknowledged, the focus
has been on charismatic leaders. The current study explores this social aspect of awe by asking
whether awe can be elicited in close interpersonal relationships and how this experience may be
distinct from awe elicited by other stimuli. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches in
a mixed-methods study (N = 636), we found empirical support for the notion that awe is elicited in
the context of close relationships. Awe was elicited by close others compared to a neutral control,
although the interpersonal form of awe was less intense than awe caused by nature. Qualitative
analyses revealed that awe triggered by nature was dened by themes of beauty, while inter-
personal awe was dened by themes of virtue or excellence of character.
Received 7 September 2019
Accepted 8 October 2019
Awe; awe experience;
positive emotion;
relationships; well-being
Awe is the feeling that overtakes astronauts as they gaze
down on the earth from space, grips listeners as they
hear a beautiful symphony, or overwhelms one while
contemplating a truly brilliant idea. At least, these are
the kinds of triggers that we usually associate with awe.
But what about awe about and between people? This
study explores social, as opposed to solitary, triggers
of awe.
Keltner and Haidt (2003) describe awe as an emotion
that must involve an encounter with a perceptually vast
stimulus and that elicits a need for accommodation.
Subsequent work on awe since Keltner and Haidt
(2003) article has further unpacked the rst necessary
condition of awe, that of vastness. Research has shown
that awe can be elicited by literally vast objects, such as
nature or space (Joye & Bolderdijk, 2015; Rudd, Vohs, &
Aaker, 2012; Silvia, Fayn, Nusbaum, & Beaty, 2015), as
well as guratively vast objects, such as spiritual experi-
ences, and grand theories (Preston & Shin, 2016; Yaden
et al., 2016). The second necessary condition of awe (i.e.
accommodation) is that it compels one to alter some
aspect of their mental representation of the world.
Colloquially, it is said that awe is mind-blowingand
this an apt phrase to capture the cognitive component
that is purported to accompany an experience of awe.
There are other components of awe beyond the two
denitional features (i.e. vastness and accommodation).
Researchers have isolated some of these other qualities
of awe by creating a scale that measures the various
domains of awe experience, without using the word
awein any of its questions (Awe Experience Scale;
Yaden, Haidt, Hood, Vago, & Newberg, 2018). That awe
induction leads to a small sense of self (i.e. self-
diminishment) has been empirically demonstrated in
a wide variety of studies (Bai et al., 2017;Pi, Dietze,
Feinberg, Stancato, & Keltner, 2015; Preston & Shin,
2016; Stellar et al., 2018). More importantly, this small
sense of self was found to be signicantly higher for awe
when compared to the other positive emotions of amu-
sement, contentment, gratitude, interest, joy, love and
pride (Campos, Shiota, Keltner, Gonzaga, & Goetz, 2013).
Awe has also been found to alter perceptions in various
other ways. For instance, awe has been related to an
altered perception of time, where participants feel time
as taking on an expansiveness (Rudd et al., 2012)or
slowing down (Joye & Dewitte, 2016).
Awe has been found to lead to improvements in well-
being and prosocial behavior. One study found that
awe-induction increased perceived time-availability,
reduced impatience and led to increases in perceived
life-satisfaction (Rudd et al., 2012). In recent work by
Anderson, Monroy, and Keltner (2018), the awe experi-
enced by military veterans and underserved youth pre-
dicted these participantsincreased well-being scores
and decreased stress responses at a one-week follow-
up. Other work has found that awe-induction led to
positive eects on mood (Joye & Bolderdijk, 2015)as
well as serving as a buer against negative mood (Koh,
CONTACT Marianna Graziosi
© 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Tong, & Yuen, 2017). Awe induction has also been found
to relate to both prosocial values and behaviors (Joye &
Bolderdijk, 2015;Piet al., 2015; Prade & Saroglou, 2016;
Rudd et al., 2012).
In their foundational work on awe, Keltner and Haidt
(2003) discuss the potential for social elicitors of awe.
They suggest that this social domain of awe is one where
awe is a response to charismatic leaders, which can be
either positive or negative. Keltner and Haidt (2003) also
suggest, however, that the sort of awe experienced
interpersonally can be involve more than just social
dominance. For instance, their avorsof awe that
include beauty, virtue and ability seem to allude to an
interpersonal element (see Appendix A for the original
framework proposed by Keltner and Haidt in 2003).
While some beauty, virtue, and ability might be said to
be objectively vast, there are others experiences that
might be said to be relatively vast. Take the example of
watching ones child struggle for months to stand, they
nally take their rst steps. While this sight might seem
dull to a passer-by, this small step is an accomplishment
of enormous proportions for the proud parent.
There seem to be qualities of the experience of the
emotion elevation, that accompany (or overlap) with this
category of social awe elicitors. Elevation refers to our
emotional response to witnessing the virtuous acts of
others (Haidt, 2000). Elevation has been found to lead to
feelings of inspiration and uplift (Aquino, McFerran, &
Laven, 2011) Schall, Roper, and Fessler (2010); Silvers &
Haidt, 2008) and to have physiological qualities such as
tearing up and experiencing warm feelings in the chest
(Haidt, 2000). Furthermore, elevation (like awe) has been
found to elicit chills or goosebumps (Silvers & Haidt, 2008).
Additionally, like awe, elevation has been linked with pro-
social tendencies (Aquino et al., 2011; Schall et al., 2010;
Silvers & Haidt, 2008).
The current study seeks to determine whether awe
can be elicited by those closest to us in order to add to
the social domain of possible awe elicitors. This study rst
uses a mixed-method approach to determine if there are
dierences between recollections of awe elicited in nat-
ure versus awe elicited by other people. Second, this
study seeks to make use of qualitative data analysis in
order to better appreciate the thematic dierences
between these two categories of awe elicitors.
Study 1a quantitative analyses
A total of 893 participants were recruited and provided
consent using the online survey platform Amazon
Mechanical Turk. The Institutional Review Board at the
rst authors University approved this study.
Participant characteristics. Online research methods
are prone to a great deal of subject loss for this reason
the authors emphasized collecting a large sample.
A total of 893 participants originally responded to the
survey and began taking it. Of those, 235 participants
started the survey, but did not complete it and were
removed from analyses. Additionally, 22 participants n-
ished the survey, but did not respond to the recollection
task with a story instead they copied and pasted con-
tent from the internet, wrote a random string of letters
and numbers, or copied and pasted the question instruc-
tions from the prompt into the response box. Despite
losing these participants, a reasonably large sample size
(N= 636) remained, which is more than twice the sample
size of most past studies on awe research.
The mean age of the sample (N= 636) was 35.72
(SD = 10.76), 51.1% identied as male and 48.9% identi-
ed as female. 73% identied as Non-Hispanic white,
8.5% identied as Black or African American, 9.9% iden-
tied as Asian or Asian American, 0.2% identied as
American Indian or Alaska Native, 1.7% identied as
LatinX and 5.3% identied as Mixed Race or Biracial.
Recollection task prompts. The three emotion condi-
tions that represented the dierent awe elicitors targeted
by this study included: 1) interpersonal awe (awe elicited
by a close loved one) 2) awe in nature, and 3) general
positivity (targeting positive emotions of contentment or
joy). Emotional states were induced by asking participants
to write about a time when they had experienced awe in
either a natural or interpersonal setting or a positive emo-
tion in general. The recollection task prompts were
adapted from previous research by Rudd et al. (2012). The
writing prompt used for the interpersonal awe condition
Awe is our emotional response to things perceived to be
vast and astonishing that alters the way we understand
the world. Please describe a recent experience of awe
where one of your loved ones caused you to feel this
way. Try to tell the story exactly as you experienced, from
your point of view, in as much detail as possible. Feel free
to write as much as youd like.
The prompt used for the awe in nature condition was:
Awe is our emotional response to things perceived to be vast
and astonishing that alters the way we understand the
world. Please describe a recent experience of awe where
nature caused you to feel this way. Try to tell the story exactly
as you experienced, from your point of view, in as much
detail as possible. Feel free to write as much as youdlike.
The prompt used for the general positivity condi-
tion was:
Please describe a recent experience where you were happy
and remember feeling contentment or joy. Try to tell the
story exactly as you experienced, from your point of view,
in as much detail as possible. Feel free to write as much as
youd like.
Awe. The Awe Experience Scale (AWE-S) developed by
Yaden and colleagues (2018) was given in its entirety to
participants. This scale contains six subscales that target
the various qualities associated with awe experience,
they are: vastness, accommodation, self-diminishment,
, time alteration, and physiological
responses (Yaden et al., 2018). It is important to note
that this scale does not use the word awein the body of
any of its questions. Up until now, researchers have
relied on single-item self-report measures of awe nested
within a set of items drawn from the PANAS.
Participants were presented with statements and then
asked to evaluate the degree to which they agreed with the
given statement on a 7-point scale ranging from 1
(Strongly Disagree)to7(Strongly Agree). The subscales
were found to be reliable: vastness (α= .87), accommoda-
tion (α= .76), self-diminishment (α= .90), connectedness
(α= .88), time alteration (α= .89), physiological reactions
(α= .81). Additionally, the subscales of the AWE-S can be
summed and all 30 prompts can be scored together (30
items; α= .93).
Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three
recollection writing task conditions: the interpersonal
awe task, the awe in nature task, or the general positivity
task. Participants then completed the AWE-S. For the
quantitative component of the study, contrasts between
the conditions were planned to test for dierences
between conditions in AWE-S scores for the total scale,
as well as each of the six subscales.
Quantitative results
A three-way analysis of variance revealed signicant dif-
ferences in overall awe (the total of the AWE-S) between
all three conditions. Additionally, results from Levenes
test for homogeneity of variance were used to determine
whether to report interger or non-interger df when
reporting results. Participants reported feeling signi-
cantly more awe in the nature condition (M= 4.90,
SD = 0.90) than the interpersonal condition (M=4.40,
SD = 1.00) or general positivity condition (M=4.06,
SD =1.22),F(1, 633) = 34.398, p=.000,n
dierences in mean score for the overall AWE-S scale, as
well subscales, are illustrated in Figure 1. T-tests revealed
that participants reported feeling signicantly more awe
in the awe in nature condition (M= 4.90, SD = .90) than
the general positivity condition (M=4.06,SD = 1.22), t
(399.896) = 8.096, p= .002. Participants reported signi-
cantly more awe in the interpersonal awe condition
(M=4.40,SD = 1.00) than the general positivity condition
(M=4.06,SD = 1.22), t(412.834) = 3.166, p=.002.
Participants reported signicantly more awe in the awe
in nature condition (M= 4.90, SD = 0.90) than the inter-
personal awe condition (M=4.40,SD =1.00),t
(407.018) = 5.277, p= .000.
Planned contrasts revealed signicant dierences in all
of the other AWE-S sub-scales were reported between all
three conditions (Figure 1). The only exceptions were the
connectedness subscale where a three-way analysis of
variance revealed marginally signicant dierences
between all three conditions, F(1, 633) = 2.990, p=.051,
= .00. Furthermore, for the connectedness subscale,
dierences were not found between the interpersonal
awe and general positivity conditions, t(419.709) = .284,
p= .776. Lastly, for the time subscale, dierences between
the interpersonal awe (M= 4.38, SD = 1.41) and general
positivity (M=4.29,SD = 1.55) conditions were not found
to be signicant, t(633) = .694, p= .488. For details on
these planned contrasts, supplemental materials have
been hosted via Open Science Framework (OSF) at the
following link:
Discussion of quantitative results
The results of quantitative analysis revealed that the
quality of awe experience elicited by close others
(referred to as interpersonal awe) is distinct from
the quality of awe elicited by nature or general posi-
tivity in terms of overall awe (totaled AWE-S score). It
should be noted that interpersonal awe tends to t
between general positivity and awe from nature. This
suggests either that interpersonal awe is distinct form
of awe triggered by nature, or that awe is
a continuum and dierent triggers result in dierent
average intensities and qualities of awe (which seems
to align with the original framework proposed by
Keltner & Haidt, 2003).
The results of the planned contrasts help to make
sense of this dierence, suggesting rst that the awe
elicited by close others does, in fact, include both of the
necessary conditions of awe: vastness and accommoda-
tion. This indicates that those participants asked to write
about awe elicited by a close loved one, were indeed
feeling awe. Furthermore, the interpersonal type of awe
also elicits a greater degree of self-diminishment, and
increased likelihood of physiological eects (both of
which are other aspects of awe experience) than general
positivity. However, the interpersonal awe elicitor did
not seem to aect ones perception of time or sense of
connectedness (in the broad sense; see footnote 1) any
dierently than general positivity, whereas, awe elicited
by nature does have eects on these domains.
Study 1b qualitative analyses
In order to further explore the dierences between the
quality of awe elicited by nature and the quality of awe by
close interpersonal relationships, it was important to
explore the thematic aspects of these experiences. To
do this, a qualitative analysis was conducted which
looked further into the dierent themes between awe in
nature and interpersonal awe, making use of the content
of the excerpts written by participants. To the authors
knowledge, this is the rst study to attempt to empirically
evaluate the avors of awe outlined by Keltner and Haidt
(2003) in their landmark work, which serve as the founda-
tion for the qualitative coding frame used in this study.
The participants (N= 636) in the quantitative study
described above were asked to write about their awe
experiences as a way to prompt recollection of the target
emotional experience. This written data was then ana-
lyzed using qualitative methods.
Qualitative coding frame
Three independent coders used a coding frame devel-
oped for the purposes of this study to aid in qualitative
data analysis of the recollection task excerpts. This cod-
ing frame was based on the conceptual analysis of awe
conducted by Keltner and Haidt (2003) (see Appendix
Afor a visual representation of this conceptual analysis).
The coding frame developed for this study sought to
focus on the avors of awe proposed by Keltner and
Haidt (see Appendix B for the coding frame used in this
study). The descriptors in this coding framework aided
three independent members of the coding team (which
did not include the authors) in their coding of the qua-
litative excerpts.
Figure 1. Dierences in AWE-S overall scale scores and subscale scores for each of the three emotion induction tasks. Dotted lines
indicated ANOVA results, solid lines indicate results of planned contrast t-tests. A single asterisk denotes dierences found to be
statistically signicant at the .05 level, a double asterisk at the .01 level and a triple asterisk at the .001 level.
Independent coders were supplied with the written
excerpts in a randomized order and then asked to eval-
uate the degree to which these excerpts were indicative
of a given avor of awe (according to a coding frame
which can be seen in Appendix B). The coders received
only the excerpts and the coding frame, and were other-
wise kept blind to the details of the study. The excerpts
written by participants were manually coded by the
three independent coders. In order to evaluate how
the avors(or themes) of awe mapped onto each con-
dition (Interpersonal Awe, Awe in Nature, or General
Positivity), the coders evaluated each excerpt and either
assigned to it, one of the ve avors (ability, beauty,
threat, virtue/strength of character, or supernatural caus-
ality) or left the excerpt without a code if none of the
avors were captured by a given excerpt. Coders were
kept blind to the condition and prompt that the partici-
pantsexcerpts were responses too. Coders were also
kept blind to each othersresponses. After their codes
were applied, Interrater Reliability (IRR) was obtained by
calculating the percent agreement among multiple
coders. This was achieved by dividing all of the instances
where two or more coders agreed (i.e. coded the same
response) over the total number of possible instances.
The coders evaluations of the excerpts were found to be
highly reliable with percent agreement of 90.72%.
Awe in nature
Of the 213 excerpts in this condition, 61.2% were coded
as Beauty, followed by 8.5% coded as Threat, 3.3%
coded as Ability, 2.8% coded as Supernatural
Causality, and 0.5% coded as Virtue or Excellence of
Character. In this condition, 10.3% of excerpts were
left blank (i.e. coded as no avor), and for 12.7% of
excerpts coders could not agree. This distribution is
illustrated in Figure 2.
Qualitative analysis revealed that the code for the
Beauty avor of awe was used most in the Awe in
Nature Condition (132 excerpts), which corroborates
the predominance of words that suggest aesthetic plea-
sure in the Awe in Nature condition, which did not
appear in the Interpersonal Awe or General Positivity
conditions. For example:
I saw the super moon at the end of January. I never
noticed one before so seeing how big and close it
looked was astonishing. (116)
This quality is described again here, even from an indir-
ect experience with nature:
I saw pictures from the hubble telescope and was
amazed. I had no idea so many galaxies and space
could be so vast and beautiful. I was inspired. (341)
Figure 2. Number of excerpts in each condition coded for the avors of awe.
Interpersonal awe
Of the 204 excerpts in this condition, 35.8% were coded
as Virtue or Excellence of Character, followed by 11.8%
coded as Ability, 10.8% coded as Beauty, 2.9% coded as
Threat, and 1.5% coded as Supernatural Causality. In this
condition, 26.0% of excerpts were left blank (i.e. coded
as no avor), and for 11.3% of excerpts coders could not
agree (revisit Figure 2).
Qualitative analysis revealed that code for the Virtue
or Excellence of Character avor of awe was used most in
the Interpersonal Awe (73 excerpts). In the interpersonal
awe condition, the excerpts involved a sense of inspira-
tion, amazement or astonishment toward loved ones.
For instance:
I felt a sense of awe, among other emotions, when I saw
and heard my wife react to the diagnosis and prognosis
she was given recently by the oncologist at the hospital.
She was basically told, in so many words, that she was
going to die, how long it might take, and what they
could do to help limit her suering. Her comment was,
It is what it is. Thank you for all your help.She reacted
stronger than I did. (32)
Most unique to this condition and avor combination of
awe experience was that participantsviews of their
loved ones were changed by the experience. One parti-
cipant recalls:
A few weeks ago my mother came to visit us and we
were out to dinner. we were discussing our past relation-
ships and my mother went into detail about her past
and what she had gone through. Thing that i frankly
couldnt have imagined. She told it with such grace and
humility that it honestly surprised me and i respect her
for doing it. It felt like a woman I didnt know at all, but
felt good in that it was a stronger version rather than
weaker. (617)
General positivity
Of the 219 excerpts in this condition, 11.0% were coded
as Ability, followed by 10.5% coded as Beauty, 5.5%
coded as Virtue or Excellence of Character, 0.5% coded
as Threat, and 0.5% coded as Supernatural Causality. In
this condition 68.0% of excerpts were left blank (i.e.
coded as no avor), and for 4.1% of excerpts coders
could not agree (revisit Figure 2). Besides the excerpts
from this condition that were coded as No Flavor, the
remaining responses were likely to be coded as Ability
(24 excerpts) or beauty (23 excerpts).
Excerpts that were coded as expressing the Ability
Flavor in the General Positivity Condition were more
likely to be directed at a participantsown behavior.
There was a strong connection between participants
behavior and other positive emotions, such as accom-
plishment, pride, and happiness. For instance:
I won a trophy for being the best in my class. I was so
happy because I felt like my hard work paid o. (406)
Even in excerpts that involved the ability of other people,
there was a sense of accomplishment and pride. More
importantly, the excerpts from the General Positivity
condition regarding the ability of others lacked the qual-
ity of astonishment and amazement that was present in
the Interpersonal awe condition.
Discussion of qualitative study
The qualitative ndings were able to identify which
avorof awe participants were more likely to feel
when writing about their experiences. The excerpts
from the Interpersonal Awe condition (where awe was
elicited by writing about a close other) were coded most
for the Virtue or Excellence of Character Flavor of Awe
(i.e. an awe experience tinged with warm and pleasant
feelings of elevation; see Figure 2). The excerpts demon-
strate that interactions in close relationships can take on
a sense of gurative vastness in the face of magnani-
mous virtue or imposing excellence that rise to an awe
The qualitative results further elucidated the nuances
of the interpersonal type of awe elicitor. The excerpts
that were coded most for the Ability avor of awe (i.e.
awe experience that includes admiration at witnessing
great talent or skill) came from the Interpersonal Awe
condition (see Figure 2). When it came to Awe in Nature,
these ndings showed that excerpts were coded most
often as exhibiting the Beauty avor of Awe, which refers
to awe experiences that involve aesthetically pleasing
feelings (Keltner & Haidt, 2003) (see Appendix B).
Overall discussion
Across these two studies, ndings suggest that the
quality of awe elicited in the Interpersonal Awe condi-
tion was distinct from both general positivity and the
quality of awe elicited by nature. Overall, these ndings
suggest that there is a phenomenological experience
of awe, elicited by close loved ones, that meet the
widely accepted preconditions of awe experience,
namely vastness and a need for accommodation. The
vastness is relative and gurative, that is, it is a vastness
experienced by the subject in terms of their relation-
ship and the accommodation that occurs likely entails
their schemas of a close loved one. Additionally, this
experience of awe elicited by close others is similar to
awe elicited by nature in that it involves self-
diminishment and physiological eects, though with
a lesser degree of intensity. Finally, interpersonal awe
experiences tend not to alter perceptions of time or
increase feelings of connectedness any more than gen-
eral positivity.
The results of this study corroborate much of the past
research on awe, which has found that nature is
a powerful elicitor of awe (Chirico et al., 2017; Joye &
Bolderdijk, 2015; Rudd et al., 2012; Silvia et al., 2015;
Valdesolo & Graham, 2014; Van Cappellen & Saroglou,
2012). Participants scores were highest for overall awe,
as well as every single subscale on the AWE-S when
responding to the awe in nature task (see Figure 1). In
fact, given that scores were found to be signicantly
higher on each of these dimensions for the awe in nature
condition, it is likely that stimuli involving nature have
the ability to elicit awe to a greater degree of intensity
than social elicitors.
Limitations and directions for future research
Data were collected online using Amazon Mechanical
Turk (M-Turk). This method of data collection is not
without limitations and participants have been
known to rush through tasks or participants might
take surveys multiple times with dierent user names
(Johnson & Borden, 2012). M-Turk tries to minimize
these infractions through user limitations, and, in this
case, the survey contained attention checks.
Nevertheless, in this study, 257 participants still had
to be removed for various reasons, such as failing the
attention checks and for failing to submit a complete
One of the biggest limitations of the current study
is that it only asked participants to complete the
AWE-S and did not take any outcome measures.
Therefore, while interpersonal awe has been estab-
lished as distinct experience from that of Awe elicited
by nature or general positivity, the degree to which
this experience is related to other outcomes typical of
awe such as well-being (Rudd et al., 2015) and pro-
social behavior (Joye & Bolderdijk, 2015;Piet al.,
2015; Rudd et al., 2015) are viable directions for
future research.
Finally, recall that the experience of interpersonal
awe seems to be driven by a virtue or moral compo-
nent, as evidenced by the qualitative results (revisit
Figure 2). These data suggest that the emotion eleva-
tion may be closely related to (or even synonymous
with) interpersonal awe due to the overwhelming
endorsement of the moral component. Future research
might dig deeper into the comparisons between the
social domain of awe and its relationship with the
emotion of elevation.
This study explored the social domain of awe elicitors
by looking into aspects of the quality of awe experi-
ence elicited by close others (or interpersonal awe).
A quantitative study demonstrated that interpersonal
awe is a unique quality of awe experience that is less
intense than awe elicited by nature but distinct from
general positivity. Interpersonal awe shares the quali-
ties of Vastness, Accommodation, Self-Diminishment
and Physiological Eects with awe elicited by Nature,
but lacks the qualities of connectedness (i.e. a general
sense of feeling connected with nature or the uni-
verse) and altered time perception often attributed
to awe experience elicited by Nature. This was the
rst quantitative study to distinguish the quality of
awe experience elicited by a loved one or close
other (i.e. interpersonal awe). A qualitative study
helped to further distinguish interpersonal awe from
awe elicited by nature or general positivity. Awe that
was elicited by nature was dominated by the avors
of beauty and threat, while the interpersonal type of
awe was dominated by virtue/excellence of character,
which again indicates that it may be related to experi-
ence of elevation. These ndings illuminate the
degree to which awe can be elicited socially, even in
contexts close to home by those closest to us. This is
a crucial step in beginning to explore how to leverage
ordinary conditions as gateways into awe experience.
Perhaps awe, while an ordinary response to the extra-
ordinary, is also an extraordinary response to the
1. It is important to note that in terms of the AWE-S (Yaden
et al., 2018), the connectedness subscale is measuring
abroad sense of connectedness. In the context of the
paper, it may be confusing and one may get the sense
that connectedness refers to an intimate sense of con-
nectedness in close interpersonal relationships this is
not the case. Connectedness is taken to mean a sense of
relationship to the universe as a whole, often thought of
as oneness.
Disclosure statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.
Marianna Graziosi
David Yaden
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Appendix A.
Re-creation of Keltner and Haidt (2003) prototype approach: Social elicitors*
Appendix B.
Qualitative coding frame
Flavorsof the Awe Experience
This avor of awe describes experiences that include feelings of fear in response to threat or danger.
–‘As discussed by Burke, threat and danger cause an experience of awe to be avored by feelings of fear. Variation in whether an
entity is threatening or not might account for how charismatic leaders (e.g. Hitler vs. Gandhi) or natural scenes (e.g. an electrical
storm vs. a sunset) evoke awe- related experiences of dramatically dierent valence.(Keltner & Haidt, 2003, p. 304).
Aesthetically pleasing feelings that accompany an experience of awe in response to beautiful people, nature, art, etc.
–‘Beautiful people and scenes can produce awe-related experiences that are avored with aesthetic pleasure. We cannot give
here an account of what makes something beautiful, although we think it likely that there will be at least two sources of
intuitions about beauty, one stemming from ``biophilia’’ [love of nature] (Wilson, 1984), and the other from the evolution of
sexual desire and attraction (Buss, 1994).(Keltner & Haidt, 2003, p. 304)
Virtue/Strength of Character
Feelings of elevation that accompany an awe experience in response to witnessing great acts of virtue or strength of character in
other people.
–‘People who display virtues or strength of character often trigger in other people a state that has been called ``elevation’’ (Haidt,
2000). Elevation is an emotional response to ``moral beauty’’ or human goodness; it usually includes a warm and pleasant
feeling in the chest and a desire to become a better person, or to lead a better life. Elevation appears to be a member of the
family of awe-related states, but because experiences of elevation do not usually involve perceived vastness or power, they
should be labelled as ``elevation’’, not awe(Keltner & Haidt, 2003, p. 305).
Feelings of admiration that accompany an awe experience in response to witnessing exceptional ability, talent or skill.
–‘Perceptions of exceptional ability, talent, and skill will avor an experience with admiration in which the perceiver feels respect
for the other person that is not based on dominance and submission within a hierarchy. Exceptional ability may often trigger
a need for accommodation, but if there is no perception of vastness, then the experience should simply be labelled ``admira-
tion’’, not awe(Keltner & Haidt, 2003, p. 305).
Supernatural Causality
An awe experience accompanied the uncanny feeling that God or a supernatural entity is manifesting itself.
–‘The perception that God or some other supernatural entity is manifesting itself (e.g. seeing an angel or a ghost, or seeing an
object levitate) will avor an experience with an element of the uncanny. The uncanny is usually terrifying (Angyal, 1941), but it
can be glorious if the entity is perceived as benevolent(Keltner & Haidt, 2003, p. 306).
Eliciting Situations Vastness Accommodation Threat Beauty Ability Virtue Supernatural Causality
Prototype: Powerful Leader XX?
Encounter with God X?? XX
Great Skill (Admiration) XX X
Great Virtue (Elevation) XX
XDenotes the appraisal usually made in response to the elicitor
? Denotes the response to the elicitor that might be made, which would add the given avorto the awe experience
*Visit Keltner and Haidt (2003) landmark article for a full framework, which also includes physical and cognitive elicitors.
... Awe was introduced to mainstream emotion research by Keltner and Haidt (2003). Since then, awe has received increasing attention in the psychology and marketing literature (e.g., Graziosi and Yaden, 2021;Shiota et al., 2007). According to Keltner and Haidt (2003), awe is an emotional experience in response to something so vast that it requires one to adjust their mental schemas. ...
... There are also studies asking participants to recall and describe their experiences of awe (e.g., Graziosi and Yaden, 2021;Piff et al., 2015). However, few of them focused on exploring the elicitors of awe based on the instances provided by participants (see Graziosi and Yaden, 2021;Shiota et al., 2007 for exceptions). ...
... There are also studies asking participants to recall and describe their experiences of awe (e.g., Graziosi and Yaden, 2021;Piff et al., 2015). However, few of them focused on exploring the elicitors of awe based on the instances provided by participants (see Graziosi and Yaden, 2021;Shiota et al., 2007 for exceptions). As an exception, Shiota et al. (2007) asked participants to describe an event in which they felt awe. ...
Despite its practical importance, the emotion of awe has received scant research attention in the organizational literature. To facilitate future scholarship on this important topic, we explore and compare the elicitors of awe at work in three countries representing two culture clusters, including the U.S. and Canada (the Anglo cluster) and China (the Confucian Asia cluster). We gathered responses from 163 working adults from the U.S. and Canada and 126 working adults from China using open-response survey, and analyzed each response following the guidance of grounded theory. Across cultures, there are ten common elicitors of awe, including virtue of organization, ability and achievement of organization, beauty of workplace, virtue of colleagues, ability and achievement of colleagues, dedication of colleagues, charisma of colleagues, status and power of colleagues, personal growth and achievement, and perceived meaningfulness. Looking within cultures, we found two awe elicitors that are specific to China: status and power of organization, and work content. Organizations and supervisors wishing to induce the emotion of awe would be well-advised to pay attention to the design of their workplace, as well as their attitudes and behaviors toward employees, customers, and the general public. This study contributes to the emotion literature, organizational literature, and cross-cultural literature by demonstrating elicitors of awe in the workplace across the Anglo cluster and the Confucian Asia cluster.
... Awe increases feelings of being connected to others, community, and oneness Nelson-Coffey et al., 2019;Shiota et al., 2007;Stellar et al., 2017;van Cappellen & Saroglou, 2012), enhances feelings of oppression , involves psychophysiological responses (Chirico et al., 2017;Quesnel & Riecke, 2018;Schurtz et al., 2012), and inspires a sense of diminished self (Bai et al., , 2021Gordon et al., 2017;Piff et al., 2015;Shiota et al., 2007). Previous studies have often utilized questionnaire methods to briefly and comprehensively assess such psychological changes after awe experiences (Gabriel et al., 2020;Graziosi & Yaden, 2021;Krogh-Jespersen et al., 2020;Price et al., 2021). As previous research has reported on the culturally specified characteristics of awe experiences in Japan (Nakayama et al., 2020;Nomura et al. 2022), developing a Japanese version of a well-validated measure of a temporary awe experience would make a methodological contribution to awe research in Japan and improve cultural comparisons between awe experiences in Japan and Western countries. ...
... For example, awe experiences involving a supernatural entity may be more closely associated with feelings of connection than awe experiences involving other "flavoring" features (Krause & Hayward, 2015;van Cappellen & Saroglou, 2012). Hence, future studies should examine whether and how the SAS-J would measure non-natural experiences of awe and capture other "flavoring" features of awe, combined with the AWE-S which can distinguish between awe in nature and interpersonal awe (Graziosi & Yaden, 2021). ...
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The experience of awe, an emotional response to vast stimuli overwhelming ones’ current mental structure, has often been measured using a questionnaire method. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate the Japanese version of the Situational Awe Scale (SAS), which is a useful tool for measuring awe experiences from the perspective of the discriminability between positive- and threat-awe. The present study investigated the factor structure and validity of the Japanese version of the SAS (SAS-J) using awe-inducing video clips, through three online surveys (N = 1034; mean age = 38.74, SD = 10.95, range = 18–75). Results revealed that the SAS-J consisted of the same four factors as the original SAS (i.e., connection, oppression, chills, and diminished self) and had the convergent, criterion, and discriminative validity in measuring both positive- and threat-awe experiences. Additionally, results showed that the SAS-J could distinguish between positive- and threat-awe experiences. These results suggested that the SAS-J could measure both positive- and threat-awe experiences with validity. This study would make a methodological contribution to awe research.
... Učestalije ga izazivaju stimulusi koji su bogati informacijama, nego prilika za društveni angažman i nagradu koja je materijalna (Shiota et al., 2007). Interpesonalno divljenje je jedinstveni kvalitet iskustva divljenja koje je manje intenzivno od divljenja koje izaziva priroda (Graziosi & Yaden, 2019). Dok divljenje usmereno ka prirodi uključuje osećaj opšte povezanosti sa prirodom i izmenjenu percepciju vremena, te komponetne izostaju kada je u pitanju interpersonalno divljenje (Graziosi & Yaden, 2019). ...
... Interpesonalno divljenje je jedinstveni kvalitet iskustva divljenja koje je manje intenzivno od divljenja koje izaziva priroda (Graziosi & Yaden, 2019). Dok divljenje usmereno ka prirodi uključuje osećaj opšte povezanosti sa prirodom i izmenjenu percepciju vremena, te komponetne izostaju kada je u pitanju interpersonalno divljenje (Graziosi & Yaden, 2019). Divljenje izaziva osećaj poniznosti u susretu sa pojavom (Stellar et al., 2018). ...
The aim of the research was to examine whether the perceived artistic value of the paintings can be predicted by perfectionism and awe, as well as with the modes of aesthetic processing (H - harmony and R - redundancy). The convenience sample was used and it consisted of 92 respondents (Nmale = 10, Nfemale = 82), with average age of 24.65 years (SD = 6.89). Following instruments were used: Scale of Positive and Negative Perfectionism, Awe Experience Scale and semantic differential scales used to assess harmony, redundancy and distance, as well as the perceived artistic value. Stimuli were paintings from nine artistic movements: Renaissance, Romanticism, Impressionism, Expressionism, Post-impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Abstract Art and Surrealism. For each of these movements three paintings of one most prominent representative were chosen (omitting the most famous pieces) in order for the quality of artwork to be uniform. Hierarchical linear regression was used for data analysis. Predictors in the first step were modes of aesthetic processing (H and R), perfectionism in the second step, and subscales of awe were added in the third step. The criterion is artistic value. The model composed of H and R explains 26% of the total variance of artistic value (p < .01). The suscales of perfectionism and awe do not make a significant contribution to prediction. A statistically significant single predictor is R, redundancy (β = .39, t = 2.59, p = .01). The potential existence of mediation was also examined; however, the results of the analysis indicate that there is no statistically significant mediator effect. Keywords: perfectionism, awe, modes of aesthetic processing, Harmony, Redundancy
... Awe can be experienced in a variety of ways, including nature, space, art, music, religious and spiritual moments, another's or your own accomplishments, and social interactions (Shiota et al., 2007;Pilgrim et al., 2017;Allen, 2018;Anderson et al., 2018;Graziosi and Yaden, 2019). Awe has been elicited in various environments, including in person in settings such as nature , laboratory settings (Gallagher et al., 2014), and through virtual reality (Chirico et al., 2017). ...
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It is necessary to have available a variety of evidence-based resilience practices as we experience life’s stressors including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Evoking, experiencing, and reflecting on awe moments by developing and sharing an “awe narrative” are a type of mindfulness technique that can have the potential to help someone flourish, enhance their resilience, and have a positive impact on their overall wellbeing. This paper explores how constructing an awe narrative can assist the individual while also possibly having a positive impact on others.
... In psychology, linguistic methods of analysis in the study of emotions are often discarded on the assumption that "linguistic markers do not necessarily trace out the most important psychological boundaries" (Haidt & Keltner, 2003, p. 303). As a result, psychologists tend to be prescriptive when designing experimental studies and they often begin by prompting participants to think of awe experiences in a particular way (Graziosi & Yaden, 2019). This means that a whole range of emotional states that are typically described by native speakers of English as 'being in awe' are left out of psychological studies simply because they do not necessarily correspond to the scientific understanding of this emotion. ...
... For instance, customized self-selected awe-inspiring music (i.e., reflecting participants' preferences and personality) (Silvia et al., 2015) could be used in combination with visual techniques, such as images and VR, to enhance the personal relevance associated with an aweinspiring intervention while always using standardized materials. A growing body of evidence concerns the potential of naturalistic scenarios able to release the self-transcendent nature of awe (Bethelmy and Corraliza, 2019) and nature itself, as one of awe's key elicitors (Ballew and Omoto, 2018;Graziosi and Yaden, 2019;Yaden et al., 2019), resulting in a powerful way to contrast depressive symptoms (e.g., Reklaitiene et al., 2014;Lopes et al., 2020) in both real and digital formats (Browning et al., 2020). ...
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Recently, interest in the unique pathways linking discrete positive emotions to specific health outcomes has gained increasing attention, but the role of awe is yet to be elucidated. Awe is a complex and transformative emotion that can restructure individuals' mental frames so deeply that it could be considered a therapeutic asset for major mental health major issues, including depression. Despite sparse evidence showing a potential connection between depression and awe, this link has not been combined into a proposal resulting in specific intervention guidelines. The aim of this perspective was three-fold: (i) to provide a new unifying model of awe's functioning—the Matryoshka model; (ii) to show systematic and explicit connections between this emotion and depression; and (iii) to suggest specific guidelines of intervention utilizing the potential therapeutic role of awe for mental health, specifically for depression. This theoretical endeavor in its entirety has been framed within the health domain.
... Both the real natural scenery and the painting of it would likely display similar physical properties, such as apparent vastness, rarity, and novelty. These features are crucial for the emergence of a particular mental process traditionally called the sublime or (equivalently) sublimity [e.g., [1][2][3] or, in more recent years, awe [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. However, these scenes would differ, too, because one would know that one elicitor is real and the other is a representation. ...
Full-text available
The sublime-the mixed aesthetic experience of uplift and elevation in response to a powerful or vast object that otherwise is experienced as menacing-has nurtured philosophical discourse for centuries. One of the major philosophical issues concerns whether the sublime is best thought of as a subjective response or as a stimulus. Recently, psychology has conceived of the sublime as an emotion, often referred to as awe, arising from natural or artistic stimuli that are great, rare, and/or vast. However, it has not yet been empirically demonstrated whether two major elicitors of the sublime-nature and art-differ in inducing this state. In order to experimentally compare nature and art, we exposed 50 participants to sub-limity-inducing content in two different formats (nature-based and art-based) using 360˚vid-eos. We compared Vincent Van Gogh's The Starry Night with a photorealistic version of the actual place depicted in the painting, Saint-Ré my-de-Provence. We measured participants' emotional responses before and after each exposure, as well as the sense of presence. The nature-based format induced higher intensity emotional responses than the art-based format. This study compares different sublime stimuli (nature vs. art) for eliciting the sublime.
... Although findings of Graziosi and Yaden (2019) suggest that awe elicited by nature may be stronger than awe elicited in the social context, social elicitors of awe occupy a significant place in the discussion. Haidt and Keltner (2003) propose that social elicitors of awe include witnessing an individual exhibiting great skill or unusual virtue or an encounter with a powerful leader, including God. ...
Positive psychology is concerned with guiding individuals toward the good life. It does so by defining well-being and providing ways to both measure and increase it. Often this pursuit of well-being requires and results in transformation and growth. Although personal growth can occur in many different settings - nature, specifically the wilderness, provides a compelling environment for just such transformational change. There are two distinct components to a wilderness experience: physical and psychological. Unique factors of the physical wilderness setting contribute to the profound psychological experiences that happen there. Through the lens of positive psychology, this paper will explore the transformative nature of nature. Awe, personal growth and transformation, self-efficacy, resilience, and optimism will be discussed. The author will draw liberally upon her own and other's wilderness adventure experience in order to illustrate the concepts presented. Suggestions for future research will be made.
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ARCTT is a peer-reviewed all-purpose journal covering a wide variety of topics of interest to the mental health, neuroscience, and rehabilitation communities. The mission of ARCTT is to provide systematic, periodic examinations of scholarly advances in the field of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine through original investigations in the telemedicine and cybertherapy areas, novel experimental clinical studies, and critical authoritative reviews. It is directed to healthcare providers and researchers who are interested in the applications of advanced media for improving the delivery and efficacy of mental healthcare and rehabilitative services.
Previous studies address consumers' emotions as an endogenous consequence of the service experience and assume that consumers base their decisions to forgive on the service situation's features; however, they rarely mention the role of the emotions that people might be experiencing, for reasons unrelated to the service failure itself. The current study thus considers a foundational but rarely examined human experience in business settings, awe, as well as its prosocial effect in service encounters. Incidental awe might alleviate the negative impacts of a service failure and enhance consumer forgiveness, through self-diminishment processes. Using four scenario-based experiments, referring to four types of service failures (outcome, process, controllable, and uncontrollable failures), this study tests for the positive effect of awe on consumers' inclination to forgive service failures and the mediating role of the small self in this effect. The present research thus enriches understanding of consumer forgiveness due to incidental emotions, which offers marketers some insights into how they might leverage methods that affect consumers' incidental emotions to encourage consumer forgiveness in service failures.
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Awe is a complex emotion composed of an appraisal of vastness and a need for accommodation. The purpose of this study was to develop a robust state measure of awe, the Awe Experience Scale (AWE-S), based on the extant experimental literature. In study 1, participants (N = 501) wrote about an intense moment of awe that they had experienced and then completed a survey about their experience. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 6-factor structure, including: altered time perception (F1); self-diminishment (F2); connectedness (F3); perceived vastness (F4); physical sensations (F5); need for accommodation (F6). Internal consistency was strong for each factor (α ≥ .80). Study 2 confirmed the 6-factor structure (N = 636) using fit indices (CFI = .905; RMSEA = .054). Each factor of the AWES is significantly correlated with the awe items of the modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES) and Dispositional Positive Emotion Scale (D-PES). Triggers, valence, and themes associated with awe experiences are reported.
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Various forms of self-loss have been described as aspects of mental illness (e.g., depersonalization disorder), but might self-loss also be related to mental health? In this integrative review and proposed organizational framework, we focus on self-transcendent experiences (STEs)—transient mental states marked by decreased self-salience and increased feelings of connectedness. We first identify common psychological constructs that contain a self-transcendent aspect, including mindfulness, flow, peak experiences, mystical-type experiences, and certain positive emotions (e.g., love, awe). We then propose psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the effects of STEs based on a review of the extant literature from social psychology, clinical psychology, and affective neuroscience. We conclude with future directions for further empirical research on these experiences.
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Awe, a complex emotion composed by the appraisal components of vastness and need for accommodation, is a profound and often meaningful experience. Despite its importance, psychologists have only recently begun empirical study of awe. At the experimental level, a main issue concerns how to elicit high intensity awe experiences in the lab. To address this issue, Virtual Reality (VR) has been proposed as a potential solution. Here, we considered the highest realistic form of VR: immersive videos. 42 participants watched at immersive and normal 2D videos displaying an awe or a neutral content. After the experience, they rated their level of awe and sense of presence. Participants’ psychophysiological responses (BVP, SC, sEMG) were recorded during the whole video exposure. We hypothesized that the immersive video condition would increase the intensity of awe experienced compared to 2D screen videos. Results indicated that immersive videos significantly enhanced the self-reported intensity of awe as well as the sense of presence. Immersive videos displaying an awe content also led to higher parasympathetic activation. These findings indicate the advantages of using VR in the experimental study of awe, with methodological implications for the study of other emotions.
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Since the dawn of large-scale civilizations, humans have built exceptionally tall architectural structures. We tested whether exposing individuals to images of very tall buildings would produce feelings of awe in them, and would lead to a behavioral response frequently associated with this emotion, namely "freezing". Across four studies participants reported to feel more awestruck (Pilot 1a, Study 1a) and more bodily immobile after having seen pictures of high versus low buildings (Study 1b). In addition to perceived immobility, we also found that participants responded slower on a manual clicking task in the face of high as opposed to low buildings (Pilot 1b, Study 1b). This effect was mediated by perceived bodily immobility, suggesting that slow clicking after seeing high buildings indeed reflected behavioral freezing. Overall, our findings suggest that very tall buildings can be a trigger of awe, and that experiencing this emotion can involve a state of behavioral freezing.
The power of nature to both heal and inspire awe has been noted by many great thinkers. However, no study has examined how the impact of nature on well-being and stress-related symptoms is explained by experiences of awe. In the present investigation, we examine this process in studies of extraordinary and everyday nature experiences. In Study 1, awe experienced by military veterans and youth from underserved communities while whitewater rafting, above and beyond all the other positive emotions measured, predicted changes in well-being and stress-related symptoms one week later. In Study 2, the nature experiences that undergraduate students had during their everyday lives led to more awe, which mediated the effect of nature experience on improvements in well-being. We discuss how accounting for people’s emotional experiences during outdoors activities can increase our understanding of how nature impacts people’s well-being.
Although the positive emotion of awe is of growing interest, past research has not directly examined its buffering effect in negative circumstances. As awe has been theoretically linked to experiences of vastness and spirituality, the present study proposes that awe helps individuals alleviate their negative affect, in the context of possession loss. Study 1 manipulated awe and examined participants’ responses in an imagined situation in which they lost a cherished possession. Study 2 manipulated awe and happiness and compared their effects on participants’ response to an actual loss in the form of points obtained and deducted during a laboratory task. In Study 3, daily experiences of awe, other positive emotions, and affect in response to actual loss, were measured using event sampling. In all studies, awe predicted lower negative affect towards loss of possessions. Implications of the function of awe in coping with loss and other future directions are discussed.
Humility is a foundational virtue that counters selfish inclinations such as entitlement, arrogance, and narcissism (Tangney, 2000). We hypothesize that experiences of awe promote greater humility. Guided by an appraisal-tendency framework of emotion, we propose that when individuals encounter an entity that is vast and challenges their worldview, they feel awe, which leads to self-diminishment and subsequently humility. In support of these claims, awe-prone individuals were rated as more humble by friends (Study 1) and reported greater humility across a 2-week period (Study 2), controlling for other positive emotions. Inducing awe led participants to present a more balanced view of their strengths and weaknesses to others (Study 3) and acknowledge, to a greater degree, the contribution of outside forces in their own personal accomplishments (Study 4), compared with neutral and positive control conditions. Finally, an awe-inducing expansive view elicited greater reported humility than a neutral view (Study 5). We also elucidated the process by which awe leads to humility. Feelings of awe mediated the relationship between appraisals (perceptions of vastness and a challenge to one's world view) and humility (Study 4), and self-diminishment mediated the relationship between awe and humility (Study 5). Taken together, these results reveal that awe offers one path to greater humility. (PsycINFO Database Record
Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self. These findings were observed across collectivist and individualistic cultures, but also varied across cultures in magnitude and content. Evidence from the last 2 studies showed that the influence of awe upon the small self accounted for increases in collective engagement, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Discussion focused on how the small self might mediate the effects of awe on collective cognition and behavior, the need to study more negatively valenced varieties of awe, and other potential cultural variations of the small self.
Posted 3/2000. The previously unstudied emotion of elevation is described. Elevation appears to be the opposite of social disgust. It is triggered by witnessing acts of human moral beauty or virtue. Elevation involves a warm or glowing feeling in the chest, and it makes people want to become morally better themselves. Because elevation increases one's desire to affiliate with and help others, it provides a clear illustration of B. L. Fredrickson's (see record 2000-03082-001) broaden-and-build model of the positive emotions.
Spiritual experiences are profound moments of personal transcendence, connection, and wonder. Five studies (total N = 1064) investigate how spiritual experiences induce feelings of awe, in both religious and non-religious people, through a sense of small self. Recalling spiritual experiences increased feelings of Awe (Studies 1–5), Small Self (Studies 2, 4, & 5), and Spiritual Humility (Studies 3 & 4), but did not impact Intellectual Humility (Studies 3 & 4). We thus note a paradox – spirituality promotes humility toward the divine, but not humility about one's beliefs. Moreover, the effect of spiritual experiences on Awe was mediated by feelings of Small Self (Studies 2, 4 & 5) and Spirituality Humility (Studies 3 & 4). The effects of spiritual experiences on Awe and Small Self were found in both religious and non-religious individuals, but religious people recalled more explicit religious events and life and death events as sources of spirituality, whereas non-religious people were more likely to report experiences in nature, peak experiences, science, and yoga/ meditation as spiritual experiences. Though religious and non-religious people may generate different types of spiritual experiences, we conclude that spirituality induces awe through the feelings of small self that are shared by religious and non-religious individuals, and this may help us to understand the meaning of spirituality without religion.