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Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the gamification elements currently applied by three popular social media platforms: Snapchat, Instagram and Facebook. Their gamified ele- ments are analysed within the framework of motivational psychology theories and persuasive design. The question is then addressed if through social media’s extensive use of gamifica- tion elements, it has been turning into a game. Finally, the ethical implications of gamification’s use are discussed. The focus thereby lies on social comparison, surveillance, the intransparent application of psychological models and the “obligation” to have fun.

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... The ubiquitous use of gamification in social media including elements like Point counters, Badges and Rewards (Hristova, Göbl, Jovicic, & Slunecko, 2021) has been framing interactions among users around the globe. In this paper, we thus analyze a series of prominent gamification elements implemented on four of the main platforms currently shaping the face of social media: Facebook (FB), Instagram (owned by Facebook) (IG), Snapchat (SC) and Twitter (TW). ...
... Though gamified social media features like Likes, Streaks or Badges do not look like a "proper game" (Lieberoth, 2015), their use shares psychological and phenomenological properties with gaming (e.g. and can, hence, be defined as gamification (Hristova et al., 2021). Previous research finds a wide variety of game-like elements in social media context (Pellikka, 2014;Hristova et al., 2021) acting as "microsuasion" elements (Fogg, 2003) persuading users to spend more time on an SNS (Lampe, 2014;Hristova et al., 2021) or otherwise adapt human behaviors to the needs of company business models (Zuboff, 2019). ...
... Though gamified social media features like Likes, Streaks or Badges do not look like a "proper game" (Lieberoth, 2015), their use shares psychological and phenomenological properties with gaming (e.g. and can, hence, be defined as gamification (Hristova et al., 2021). Previous research finds a wide variety of game-like elements in social media context (Pellikka, 2014;Hristova et al., 2021) acting as "microsuasion" elements (Fogg, 2003) persuading users to spend more time on an SNS (Lampe, 2014;Hristova et al., 2021) or otherwise adapt human behaviors to the needs of company business models (Zuboff, 2019). Following the definition that social sustainability involves not merely maintenance but also growth of value within a community (McKenzie, 2004), SNS social spaces also continually evolve, for example, when providers change aspects of an app while preserving its "core loop" (Elias et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents the results of the interdisciplinary and international project aimed in designing the educational informational materials for COVID-19 transmission prevention. The design was developed in cooperation with the indigenous communities and considering their cultural traditions and beliefs. Unstructured interviews and observations of six indigenous communities in Choco region, Colombia, were employed for collecting data about their perception of and behavior during COVID-19 pandemic as an integral part of the design intervention.
Chapter
Nowadays, most social media platforms apply some form of game-like elements intended to attract, retain and shape human interaction. It hence becomes vital to investigate gamification with regard to its social sustainability—a concept describing conditions fostering the well-being and development of communities. This chapter critically assesses the impact of gamification used in Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram with regard to aspects such as relatedness and reciprocity, status signaling, community responsibility and future focus. Our analysis calls attention to business practices including efforts by social media services to use gamification capabilities to support social sustainability outcomes, but we also raise a critique of instances where gamification seems to override the core social offerings of personal exchange and sharing of meaningful content.
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Game design offers a powerful pedagogical paradigm for engaging students in thinking and researching sociotechnical systems. Using the example of designing a game around fracking, this paper describes how game design grapples with emergent dynamic processes, and how students are drawn into becoming STS researchers.
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With the wide use of the Internet and digital data sources, there has been a recent emergence of easy access to student data within learning management systems (LMS), grade data through student information systems (SIS) and broader sector data through benchmarking metrics and standards. Learning analytics on top of this data has introduced greater capabilities for improving student performance through immediate feedback. Current literature considers the role of dashboards for student performance and feedback, but few papers consider the efficacy of fast feedback to students or other ways that information can be fed back to learners. In this paper, we consider the work done by three leading groups addressing the impact of gamification in university education, with a specific focus on how data is presented to the learner, that is using elements such as points, levelling up, narrative and progression to scaffold learning. Results indicate increases in student motivation, engagement, satisfaction, retention and performance enhancements.
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Gamification approaches in the workplace are encountering strong and passionate critics as well as dedicated proponents as the very notions of games, play, and work are being reconsidered and reframed. Workplaces are incorporating increasing varieties of concurrent and emerging games; some of these games are directly linked to how employees are projected to produce value for an organization and are paid and promoted, while others can be recreational, educational, or even medical (involving health diagnosis or treatment). In effect, many workplace settings have become the platforms for multiple, sometimes interlocking sets of rules, enforcement mechanisms, and related gaming structures. “Multigamification” approaches explicitly recognize game-related complexities and interactions, and provide means for mitigating cognitive overload, character conflicts, and other concerns. Participants can be immersed in technology-enhanced games that infuse social, medical, and economic themes either as a part of strategic initiatives in gamification (and multigamification, as described in this paper) or through emergent and less-tightly structured efforts. The overall wellbeings of organizational participants may relate in some way in how they engage in specific games as well as to how they deal with multiple games either in sequence or simultaneously; one or more games can be designated as “work” and others as “play,” sometimes reflecting traditional narratives that contrast labor deemed as “productive” with recreation. Developers can become active in exploring and tailoring games for specific workplace contexts, addressing issues of intergame compatibility, theme interaction, and synergy as well as participant overload. Multigamification can involve forms of competition among the games themselves as they compete for the limited attention of participants. This paper also addresses the challenging policy and design issues related to workplace games’ effects on participant wellbeing. Emergence of nested and overlapping gaming spheres can increase the complexity of organizational life as well as expand its ludic dimensions. © 2007-2015 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace.
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While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done behind the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing with and through mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective ethnography, works to fill a paucity of literature by examining how one youth participant, Ben, uses the digital mobile application Snapchat to create and compose a myriad of phenomenological experiences. By partnering approaches from queer phenomenology and multimodal (inter)action analysis, this paper illuminates how the affective intensities and push-and-pull of orientations deliver a narrative that is enfolded by several felt moments. By illuminating the rich processes of embodied composing with mobile media and accounting for the spatio-temporal scales and traversals that Ben navigates to architect his experience, this article works to spotlight how youth composers tell spatial stories and map nomadic narratives to explore their own embodied experiences with and through mobile media.
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Gamification is an innovative approach to foster motivation. It refers to the use of game elements in non-game contexts. This article adopts a differentiated view on the topic of gamification and investigates, how and why different game elements can address different motivational mechanisms. At first, the concept of gamification and specific game elements characteristic of gamification are described. After that, different motivational perspectives were analyzed and motivational mechanisms in form of effect hypotheses were derived from these perspectives. To investigate the motivational pull of gamification, game elements are matched with motivational mechanisms. Our theoretical inquiry shows that gamification potentially addresses motivational mechanisms and thereby fosters motivation. These theoretical results can be used for the effective design of gamification environments and represent a basis for empirical research. Further research is required to confirm these theoretical findings.
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Social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, provide abundant social comparison opportunities. Given the widespread use of SNSs, the purpose of the present set of studies was to examine the impact of chronic and temporary exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. Using a correlational approach, Study 1 examined whether frequent Facebook use is associated with lower trait self-esteem. Indeed, the results showed that participants who used Facebook most often had poorer trait self-esteem, and this was mediated by greater exposure to upward social comparisons on social media. Using an experimental approach, Study 2 examined the impact of temporary exposure to social media profiles on state self-esteem and relative self-evaluations. The results revealed that participants’ state self-esteem and relative self-evaluations were lower when the target person’s profile contained upward comparison information (e.g., a high activity social network, healthy habits) than when the target person’s profile contained downward comparison information (e.g., a low activity social network, unhealthy habits). Results are discussed in terms of extant research and their implications for the role of social media in well-being.
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In recent years, technology has been increasingly harnessed for motivating and supporting people toward various individually and collectively beneficial behaviors. One of the most popular developments in this field has been titled gamification. Gamification refers to technologies that attempt to promote intrinsic motivations toward various activities, commonly, by employing design characteristic to games. However, a dearth of empirical evidence still exists regarding why people want to use gamification services. Based on survey data gathered from the users of a gamification service, we examine the relationship between utilitarian, hedonic and social motivations and continued use intention as well as attitude toward gamification. The results suggest that the relationship between utilitarian benefits and use is mediated by the attitude toward the use of gamification, while hedonic aspects have a direct positive relationship with use. Social factors are strongly associated with attitude, but show only a weak further association with the intentions to continue the use of a gamification service.
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Recent news in the media has suggested that younger people are using popular social media such as Facebook less and are quickly adopting newer media, such as the self-destructing app Snapchat. Snapchat is unique in that it erases messages several seconds after they have been sent, affording its users a higher level of privacy. Yet, little research exists on Snapchat use in general, let alone its broader psychological implications. This article offers a preliminary comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use and psychological effects on romantic jealousy. General motives for using Snapchat and Facebook are examined, as well as the nature of the content that Snapchat users most frequently share. Further, because of the differences in privacy and persistence of information, potential psychological effects in the domain of romantic jealousy are also examined, which has been widely studied on Facebook in the last few years. Findings show that the main difference in motives were that Snapchat was used more for flirting and finding new love interests, whereas Facebook was still the main social networking site used for keeping in touch with friends. Further, when presenting users with a series of potentially jealousy provoking scenarios, Snapchat elicited higher levels of jealousy than did Facebook. These findings are explained based on an affordance approach.
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Am Beispiel von fünf Forschungsperspektiven der Motivationspsychologie wird gezeigt, daß neue Theorien jeweils durch kritische Auseinandersetzung mit vorausgegangenen Forschungsansätzen entstanden sind. Dabei wurde häufig die Forschungsperspektive gewechselt, so daß die Ergebnisse der Forschung aus den verschiedenen Perspektiven nicht im Widerspruch zueinander stehen, sondern sich gegenseitig ergänzen. Das wird anhand eines Rahmenmodells zur Differenzierung und Strukturierung pädagogisch relevanter Aspekte der Lernmotivation näher erläutert. Auf Konsequenzen, die sich für die Rezeption psychologischer Forschung in der Pädagogik ergeben, wird hingewiesen.
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This paper reviews peer-reviewed empirical studies on gamification. We create a framework for examining the effects of gamification by drawing from the definitions of gamification and the discussion on motivational affordances. The literature review covers results, independent variables (examined motivational affordances), dependent variables (examined psychological/behavioral outcomes from gamification), the contexts of gamification, and types of studies performed on the gamified systems. The paper examines the state of current research on the topic and points out gaps in existing literature. The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, the effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it. The findings of the review provide insight for further studies as well as for the design of gamified systems.
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This paper presents a novel multimodal virtual rehabilitation environment. Its design and implementation are based on principles related to intrinsic motivation and game design. The system consists of visual, acoustic, and haptic modalities. Elements contributing to intrinsic motivation are carefully joined in the three modalities to increase patients' motivation during the long process of rehabilitation. The message in a bottle (MIB) virtual scenario is designed to allow interplay between motor and cognitive challenges in the exercising patient. The user first needs to perform a motor action to receive a cognitive challenge that is finally solved by a second motor action. Visual feedback provides the most relevant information related to the task. Acoustic feedback consists of environmental sounds, music, and spoken instructions or encouraging statements for the patient. The haptic modality generates tactile information related to the environment and provides various modes of assistance for the patient's arm movements. The MIB scenario was evaluated with 16 stroke patients, who rated it positively using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire. Additionally, the MIB scenario seems to elicit higher motivation than a simpler pick-and-place training task.
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This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful, amusing, enjoyable practice. A number of recent trends suggest that there is a potential for unmistakable entertainment in the operation of a number of contemporary surveillance practices that merit further empirical and theoretical study. The paper discusses several examples that are illustrative of these trends, such as computer games and artistic presentations. Although this analysis does not downplay the problematic and negative features of current surveillance practices, it aims to accentuate some of the ways in which surveillance-enabling technologies are able to perform entertainment functions.
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Four studies apply self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) in investigating motivation for computer game play, and the effects of game play on well-being. Studies 1–3 examine individuals playing 1, 2 and 4 games, respectively and show that perceived in-game autonomy and competence are associated with game enjoyment, preferences, and changes in well-being pre- to post-play. Competence and autonomy perceptions are also related to the intuitive nature of game controls, and the sense of presence or immersion in participants’ game play experiences. Study 4 surveys an on-line community with experience in multi-player games. Results show that SDT’s theorized needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness independently predict enjoyment and future game play. The SDT model is also compared with Yee’s (2005) motivation taxonomy of game play motivations. Results are discussed in terms of the relatively unexplored landscape of human motivation within virtual worlds.
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"Gamification" is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement. The recent introduction of 'gamified' applications to large audiences promises new additions to the existing rich and diverse research on the heuristics, design patterns and dynamics of games and the positive UX they provide. However, what is lacking for a next step forward is the integration of this precise diversity of research endeavors. Therefore, this workshop brings together practitioners and researchers to develop a shared understanding of existing approaches and findings around the gamification of information systems, and identify key synergies, opportunities, and questions for future research.
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Millions play Farmville, Scrabble, and countless other games, generating billions in sales each year. The careful and skillful construction of these games is built on decades of research into human motivation and psychology: A well-designed game goes right to the motivational heart of the human psyche. In For the Win, Kevin Werbach and Dan Hunter argue persuasively that game-makers need not be the only ones benefiting from game design. Werbach and Hunter, lawyers and World of Warcraft players, created the world's first course on gamification at the Wharton School. In their book, they reveal how game thinking--addressing problems like a game designer--can motivate employees and customers and create engaging experiences that can transform your business. For the Win reveals how a wide range of companies are successfully using game thinking. It also offers an explanation of when gamifying makes the most sense and a 6-step framework for using games for marketing, productivity enhancement, innovation, employee motivation, customer engagement, and more.
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Recent attention has focused on the tendency for social media, namely Facebook and its News Feed, to promote unfavorable social comparisons, or envy. We extend this work in a survey that looks at three main questions. First, are people who exhibit lower well-being more vulnerable to unfavorable social comparisons in social media? Second, how do Facebook and Twitter differ in their tendencies to promote unfavorable social comparisons? And third, what structural factors in each platform might explain differences? We find substantial evidence that, indeed, low well-being individuals are more vulnerable to unfavorable social comparisons in social media and that across the board, users are more prone to envy on Facebook than Twitter. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that greater references to the self on Facebook and a larger presence of public figures and organizations on Twitter help account for the difference.
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Can computers change what you think and do? Can they motivate you to stop smoking, persuade you to buy insurance, or convince you to join the Army? "Yes, they can," says Dr. B.J. Fogg, director of the Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford University. Fogg has coined the phrase "Captology"(an acronym for computers as persuasive technologies) to capture the domain of research, design, and applications of persuasive computers.In this thought-provoking book, based on nine years of research in captology, Dr. Fogg reveals how Web sites, software applications, and mobile devices can be used to change peoples attitudes and behavior. Technology designers, marketers, researchers, consumers-anyone who wants to leverage or simply understand the persuasive power of interactive technology-will appreciate the compelling insights and illuminating examples found inside. Persuasive technology can be controversial-and it should be. Who will wield this power of digital influence? And to what end? Now is the time to survey the issues and explore the principles of persuasive technology, and B.J. Fogg has written this book to be your guide.
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This article presents an aspect of systematicinstructional design which has received relativelylittle attention so far: strategies for makinginstruction more emotionally sound. The roles ofemotions in cognitive instructional design, inmotivational design of instruction, in affectiveeducation, and in emotional education are brieflyoutlined. All these approaches do not consider how anyinstruction should be designed to become emotionallypositive for students. Within the presented frameworkof Emotional Design of Instruction (EDI) a set ofprescriptive propositions is obtained from a review ofconcepts, theories, and empirical findings in thefield of research on emotion. Five major dimensions ofinstructional relevant emotions are identified: feararising from judging a situation as threatening, envyresulting from the desire to get or not to losesomething, anger coming from being hindered to reacha goal, sympathy as an experience in relation to otherpeople who are in the need of help, and pleasure basedon mastering a situation with a deep devotion. Theauthor describes twenty instructional strategies thatcan be used to decrease negative feelings (fear, envy,and anger) and to increase positive feelings (sympathyand pleasure) during instruction. The article closeswith a discussion of theoretical shortcomings and openquestions concerning research and practicalapplications.
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