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In this study, the effects of organic powder of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on the development of Botrytis cinerea and its influence on tomato plants were evaluated. The cinnamon bark powder and its water suspensions and filtrates were used at 0.5 and 1% rates. After 6 days of the start of an in vitro experiment the mycelium growth was inhibited by both 0.5 and 1% cinnamon water filtrates - to a greater degree in the case of the higher concentration, by 54.4 and 81.4%, respectively. Spraying with cinnamon water filtrates positively influenced the growth of plants both in the greenhouse and the field. Antifungal activity of cinnamon was proved in the greenhouse tests - the disease symptoms of grey mould on infected tomato plants decreased. The fresh weight of non-inoculated tomato plants treated with cinnamon filtrates was significantly higher than control plants (17.17 g compared to 12.83 g) showing a stimulating effect of cinnamon filtrates. In the case of inoculated plants due to treatment, their weight increased from 7.83 to 10.50 g. In the field experiment, tomato plants sprayed six times with cinnamon were better developed than the control plants. The most significant effect was observed for Hamlet variety - the mean number of leaves was higher by 27.3% and the mean number of branches by 19.7% compared to the untreated control plants. Thus it was proved that cinnamon powder has potential to inhibit B. cinerea growth and also has a stimulating effect for tomato plants.
Cinnamon powder: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation
of antifungal and plant growth promoting activity
Jolanta Kowalska &Józef Tyburski &
Joanna Krzymińska &Magdalena Jakubowska
Accepted: 18 October 2019
#The Author(s) 2019
Abstract In this study, the effects of organic powder of
Cinnamomum zeylanicum on the development of Botry-
tis cinerea and its influence on tomato plants were
evaluated. The cinnamon bark powder and its water
suspensions and filtrates were used at 0.5 and 1% rates.
After 6 days of the start of an in vitro experiment the
mycelium growth was inhibited by both 0.5 and 1%
cinnamon water filtrates - to a greater degree in the case
of the higher concentration, by 54.4 and 81.4%, respec-
tively. Spraying with cinnamon water filtrates positively
influenced the growth of plants both in the greenhouse
and the field. Antifungal activity of cinnamon was
proved in the greenhouse tests - the disease symptoms
of grey mould on infected tomato plants decreased. The
fresh weight of non-inoculated tomato plants treated
with cinnamon filtrates was significantly higher than
control plants (17.17 g compared to 12.83 g) showing
a stimulating effect of cinnamon filtrates. In the case of
inoculated plants due to treatment, their weight in-
creased from 7.83 to 10.50 g. In the field experiment,
tomato plants sprayed six times with cinnamon were
better developed than the control plants. The most sig-
nificant effect was observed for Hamlet variety - the
mean number of leaves was higher by 27.3% and the
mean number of branches by 19.7% compared to the
untreated control plants. Thus it was proved that cinna-
mon powder has potential to inhibit B. cinerea growth
and also has a stimulating effect for tomato plants.
Keywords Botrytis cinerea .Basic substance .
Mycelium growth inhibition .Grey mould symptoms
inhibition .Tomato vegetative development
There is a worldwide trend to explore new alternatives
to control plant diseases, giving priority to methods that
reduce disease symptoms and avoid negative side ef-
fects on human health resulting from excessive applica-
tion of synthetic fungicides. The use of food substances,
which are also classified as basic substances, demon-
strating a protective action in growing crops, is an
alternative method for organic farmers or sustainable
agriculture farms.
The possibility of limiting the development of path-
ogenic fungi by applying agents, which are natural and
alternative to pesticides, is a popular research direction.
But also the use of plants or plant products as fungicides
has been of a great importance for some time and needs
more attention (Zaker 2016). New pesticides, including
natural product-based pesticides are being discovered
and developed to replace the compounds lost due to
the new registration requirements (Regulation (EC)
No1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of
Eur J Plant Pathol
J. Kowalska :J. Krzymińska (*):M. Jakubowska
Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute, 20
Władysława Węgorka Street, 60-318 Poznań,Poland
J. Tyburski
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 2 Michała
Oczapowskiego Street, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
plant protection products on the market and repealing
council directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EE2009).
The use of natural products is one of biological control
methods in fungal disease control. The method is still
not common and investigations are required to find
suitable plants that can be used to control pathogenic
fungi (El-Mougy Nehal and Abdel-Kader Mokhtar
2007; Kowalska 2011; Remlein-Starosta et al. 2016).
Antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) such as
cinnamon, marigold, basil and spearmint was assessed
against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusar-
ium gramineraum Corda,FusariumoxysporumSchltdl.
and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary (Kocic-
Tanackov et al. 2011; Al-Taisan et al. 2014; Ghalem
2016). The use of EOs and various plant extracts is
aligned with current thinking on the future of agriculture
in the EU, and with consumer preference for natural
products (Brenes and Roura 2010). The antimicrobial
properties of EOs have been widely reported (Dorman
and Deans 2000; Mourey and Canillac 2002;Rotaetal.
2004). Besides antibacterial properties, EOs or their
components have exhibited anti-parasitic (Pandey et al.
2000;Pessoaetal.2002), and insecticidal
(Konstantopoulou et al. 1992; Karpouhtsis et al. 1998)
properties. EOs are widely used in various fields, in-
cluding the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and food indus-
tries (Harkat-Madouri et al. 2015). The constituents of
these compounds have antibacterial, viricidal, fungicid-
al, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and medicinal properties
which are considered to be plants protectants (Bakkali
et al. 2008).
Cinnamon oils and extracts showed good antifungal
properties against important plant diseases. Wilson et al.
(1997) found that among 49 essential oils tested,
Cinnamomum zeylanicum J. Presl demonstrated a great
antifungal activity against B. cinerea.Cinnamomum
zeylanicum commonly known as cinnamon,refers to a
tropical evergreen tree as well as a bark that is extracted
from the plant. Substances such as cinnamon have been
known to the mankind for a very long time. They are
universally recognized as harmless and safe for human
consumption. Cinnamon powder is considered to have
high potential as a biological control agent (Sikes et al.
2005; Xing et al. 2010; Kocić-Tanackov and Dimić
B. cinerea Pers. Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia
fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) is an economically im-
portant phytopathogenic fungus and a cause for a broad
spectrum of plants diseases (van Kan 2006; Bolton et al.
2006;Deanetal.2012). It can cause serious damage in
over 200 plant species both in pre- and post-harvest
stages and is difficult to control due to various modes
of attack and many hosts (Williamson et al. 2007). Very
few reports concerning the use of commercially avail-
able powdered cinnamon can be found in the literature.
Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the
potential of commercially available cinnamon powder
originating from organic crops used in the liquid form in
different concentrations as a control agent against
B. cinerea andgrowthstimulatorinbothinvitroand
in vivo conditions.
Materials and methods
Plant pathogenic fungus preparation
For all tests B. cinerea strain 2235 (plant source: tomato
stem) from the Bank of Plant Pathogens in the Institute
of Plant Protection, Poland, collection was used. Pure
cultures were maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar,
Sigma-Aldrich (PDA) media at 4 °C and sub-cultured
at monthly intervals. Ten days old cultures were used for
the in vitro experiment.
For the greenhouse and field experiments conidia
were harvested from ten days old cultures. The concen-
tration was determined using the Thoma slide and ad-
justed to 3.1 × 10
. The resulting suspension was
used to inoculate the plants.
Cinnamon suspensions and filtrates preparation
The preparation method was developed by the authors.
Commercially available organic cinnamon
(C. zeylanicum) powder (manufactured by Dary Natury,
Grodzisk Poland and certified by Ekogwarancja PTRE
sp. z o.o.) was used to obtain water suspensions and
filtrates. For the in vitro experiment modified PDA
media was used. The cinnamon suspensions were pre-
pared using warm sterile distilled water (26 °C) and
added to PDA media to obtain 0.5 and 1% cinnamon
PDA suspensions (0.5 and 1 g of cinnamon added to
20 ml of water and 80 ml of the PDA media, respec-
tively). Later cinnamon water suspensions were filtered
through a nylon flour mesh (150 μm) and added to PDA
to obtain 0.5 and 1% cinnamon filtrates PDA suspen-
sions (0.5 and 1 g of cinnamon powder added to 20 ml
of water, filtrated; 20 ml of the filtrate added to 80 ml of
Eur J Plant Pathol
the PDA media). For the greenhouse and field experi-
ments 0.5% water filtrate was used. Five grams of
cinnamon was added to 1 l of warm tap water (26 °C)
and filtered through a flour mesh. The filtrate was pre-
pared shortly before spraying. Water suspensions and
filtrates were chosen due to their practical application
mode. The filtrates are clearer and do not cause prob-
lems with the foliar spraying using a sprayer with a
nozzle, while in the case of a suspension containing
powder particles, it is necessary to strain the suspension
twice before using a fine mesh and to apply with a
coarse nozzle.
In vitro biological control activity evaluation
The evaluation of biocontrol activity of cinnamon water
suspensions and filtrates against the growth of
B. cinerea mycelium was done (El-Mougy Nehal et al.
2004). Disks (0.5 cm diameter each) from pure cultures
of the pathogenic fungus were placed in the middle of a
90 mm Petri dish containing PDA with or without the
addition of cinnamon water suspensions and filtrates in
five replications. Fungi were grown at 23 °C. Mean
colony diameter (mm) was measured after 3 and 6 days
(i.e. until a control Petri dish was fully covered by the
mycelium; the maximum growth was 85 mm the
diameter of the dish excluding the diameter of the initial
Plant development evaluation in greenhouse conditions
Experiments were performed in pots according to
methods developed by the authors. Ten tomato plants
(Ozarowska variety) in the 34 leaf phase were planted
into each pot. Each repetition consisted of five pots.
Altogether five repetitions were made. Later, plants
were inoculated by foliar spray with a water suspension
of B. cinerea spores (3.1 × 10
), 1 ml per plant.
Three and six days after inoculation water filtrates of
cinnamon at 0.5% was sprayed on the plants surface.
The control plants were: a) in the first control group,
inoculated with B. cinerea and sprayed with water; and
b) in the second control group, not inoculated and
sprayed with cinnamon water filtrates. After an addi-
tional 5 days, the foliage lesions were assessed (the
presence of B. cinerea was verified microscopically).
evaluated as the above ground fresh weight of plants
collected after 3 and 6 weeks of cultivation.
Plant development evaluation in field conditions
The field trial was carried out on a certified organic farm
according to methods developed by the authors. Three
field tomato varieties (Agro, Country and Hamlet) were
used. Seedlings were planted into soil in June, at the 5-
leaf phase, with five plants from each cultivar used in
each repetition. Altogether four repetitions were made
for each cultivar. Six sprayings of water cinnamon fil-
trates (0.5%) were performed at 45 day intervals. The
controls were not treated with cinnamon filtrates. The
number of leaves and branches was assessed after one
and three months of planting to evaluate plants
Statistical analysis
A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
test significance with Tukey-Kramers post hoc test for
multiple comparisons. A pvalue <0.05 was accepted as
statistically significant.
Results and discussion
In the laboratory experiment, the potential of cinnamon
water suspensions vs. cinnamon filtrates in reducing
B. cinerea growth on PDA medium was evaluated.
Three days after PDA inoculation the highest inhibition
effect of mycelial growth was obtained while using 1%
of cinnamon water suspensions and 1% of cinnamon
filtrates, which reduced the fungus lesion by 64 and
47.8%, respectively (Table 1). Taking into account all
the treatments (with water suspension and filtrate and
the two concentrations 0.5 and 1%), prolongation of
the experiment from 3 to 6 days resulted in an average
increase of the mycelium lesions diameter from 10.8 to
60.3 mm. In the same time the changes in the effective-
ness of the two cinnamon formulations were observed.
After 6 days the effect of cinnamon suspensions (both
0.5 and 1%) was very weak to none - in fact the statis-
tical analysis proved no curative effect. The positive
effect was found using cinnamon filtrates 0.5% filtrate
concentration decreased B. cinerea mycelium growth by
54.4% and 1% filtrate gave a lesions reduction by 81.4%
(Table 1). In other words, the best inhibitory effect in an
in vitro study was obtained while using 1% filtrate of
cinnamon powder.
Eur J Plant Pathol
In the greenhouse conditions the disease symptoms
decreased on the plants treated with cinnamon water
filtrates compared to the control plants which were
inoculated and sprayed only with water. On average
1.75% of the plants treated with cinnamon were infected
compared to 2.28% of control plants. Additionally,
spraying with cinnamon water filtrates influenced posi-
tively the growth of plants. After six weeks of the
application the fresh weight of plants treated with cin-
namon was significantly higher than the control. Non-
inoculated plants treated with cinnamon weighed on
average 17.17 g compared to 12.83 g for the non-
inoculated control treated with water (33.8% increase
of mass). Plants inoculated with B. cinerea and treated
with cinnamon weighed on average 10.50 g compared
to 7.83 g for the inoculated control treated with water
(34.1% increase of plant weight) (Table 2).
In the field experiment the number of leaves on tomato
plants counted one month after planting showed a differ-
ent pattern of development in the grown varieties. Variety
Agro decreased number of leaves by 10.3% showing an
inhibitory effect, while varieties Country and Hamlet
increased number of leaves by 5.2 and 27.3%, respec-
tively, showing stimulating effect (Table 3). After two
months of growth the number of branches on the plants
was counted. The varieties Agro and Hamlet showed a
positive reaction to cinnamon water suspension spraying
and increased number of branches by 15.3 and 19.7%,
respectively. In the same time variety Country did not
respondtocinnamonsprayingthe cinnamon spraying
did not affect the number of branches. The vegetative
growth response of tomato plants to cinnamon water
suspension spraying depended on the phase of plants
development and variety.
According to other studies, both in vitro and in
planta, essential oils derived from cinnamon proved to
have bio-control properties against many pathogens
(Siripornvisal et al. 2009; Hyldgaard et al. 2012).
Shabana et al. (2015) tested cinnamon essential oil
against B. cinerea in vitro and noted a significant sup-
pression of the pathogen growth up to 7 days, compa-
rable to the chemical fungicide Topsin M70-WP. Allam
et al. (2017) noted that higher concentration of cinna-
mon completely inhibited the mycelial growth of
Tabl e 1 The influence of cinnamon water suspensions and filtrates on an average lesion diameter [mm] of B. cinerea measured on day 3 and
6 after beginning of in vitro tests
Treatment (cinnamon formulation) 3 days after beginning of test 6 days after beginning of test
Lesion diameter, mm Reduction of lesion, % Lesion diameter, mm Reduction of lesion, %
Control 16.10 ± 1.29a 0.0 85.00 ± 0.00a 0.0
0.5% water suspension 10.10 ± 1.43a 37.3 76.90 ± 18.11a 9.5
1% water suspension 5.80 ± 0.84b 64.0 85.00 ± 0.00a 0.0
0.5% water filtrate 13.70 ± 3.63a 14.9 38.80 ± 8.06b 54.4
1% water filtrate 8.40 ± 0.65b 47.8 15.80 ± 2.02c 81.4
Averaged data 10.8 40.9 60.3 36.3
Values in each column followed by the same letter are not statistically different P=0.05
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
Tabl e 2 The average fresh weight (g) of tomato plant inoculated with B. cinerea and treated with 0.5% cinnamon water filtrates in the pot
Number of weeks of tomato
cultivation in pots
(water spraying)
Non-inoculated plants sprayed
with cinnamon filtrate
Inoculated plants
sprayed with tap water
Inoculated plants sprayed
with cinnamon filtrate
Tomato fresh weight after
3 weeks,
2,14 ± 0.17a 2,09 ± 0.11a 1,71 ±0.14a 1,85 ± 0.14a
Tomato fresh weight after
6 weeks
12.83 ± 0.87b 17.17 ± 1.07a 7.83 ± 0.62c 10.50 ± 1.12b
Values in each row followed by the same letter are not statistically different P=0.05
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
Eur J Plant Pathol
B. cinerea in vitro. The antifungal potential of cinnamon
was confirmed for others pathogens by other authors
(Barrera-Necha et al. 2009;Xingetal.2014;Sarkhosh
et al. 2018). The significant antifungal activity of cinna-
mon oil (both in vitro and in vivo) against various
Fusarium species which was proportional to its concen-
tration was shown. In the study by Horváth et al. (2013)
the cinnamon oil effectively inhibited mycelial growth
of Fusarium head blight of winter wheat in vitro. Jiang
et al. (2013), Al-Taisan et al. (2014) and Moraes et al.
(2018) examined the inhibitory effects of cinnamon
against S. sclerotiorum among other essential oils and
microelements in in vitro experiments and as soil
application. All concentrations of cinnamon
completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the
fungus. According to Moraes et al. (2018) the result
was comparable to a commercial fungicide
(thiophanate-methyl +chlorothalonil). Ojaghian et al.
(2014) proved that crude extracts of cinnamon are able
to reduce in vitro mycelial growth, sclerotial
myceliogenic and carpogenic germination of
S. sclerotiorum. In other studies, during the liquid bio-
assay,C.zeylanicumwas fungicidal against pathogens
isolated from banana, including Colletotrichum musae
(Berk. & M.A. Curtis), Lasiodiplodia thebromae (Pat.)
Griffon & Maubl., and Fusarium proliferatum
(Matsush.) Nirenberg ex Gerlach & Nirenberg
(Ranasinghe et al. 2002); exerted antifungal activity
towards Oidium murrayae Hosag.,U.Braun&
Rabindran (Chu et al. 2006) and inhibited conidial ger-
mination of Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz.) Penz.
& Sacc. (Barrera-Necha et al. 2008). In in vitro exper-
iments it was found to have a good mycelial inhibition
of the corn rot F. oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey)
(Barrera-Necha et al. 2009) and to be highly effective
against the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Nguyen
et al. 2009), as well as to have excellent antifungal
activity against early blight of tomato Alternaria solani
Sorauer (Yeole et al. 2014). The investigations of Wang
et al. (2014) showed that cinnamon microemulsions had
a high in vivo control activity against gray mould of
pears B. cinerea. The results obtained by the authors
also confirmed activity of cinnamon towards control of
grey mould in all experimental areas. In presented re-
search water filtrates of cinnamon were more efficient
than water suspensions, this fact has two implications, i)
it is more applicable to use and, ii) water filtrates should
be used in future tests including also chemical analysis
of compounds. So far in planta studies on cinnamon as a
bio-control agent against B. cinerea mainly reported its
effectiveness on post-harvest products. It applied to such
plants as pears (Wang et al. 2014), citrus fruit (Bouchra
et al. 2003), peppers and tomatoes (Kong et al. 2016). In
most cases cinnamon oil was used. It had no significant
negative effect on plant product qualities such as firm-
ness and colour. The control for decay incidence and
lesion diameter was reported to be promising.
While existing literature focuses on antifungal prop-
erties of cinnamon, the authors have noticed a signifi-
cant positive effect of cinnamon filtrate spraying on
plant branching in the field experiment. In addition to
the fact that the antifungal, antibacterial and pest deter-
ring properties of cinnamon improved the general well-
being of plants and thus enabled improved growth and
branching, there might be another process undergoing
on a different level. Therefore, further studies are needed
to determine the cause.
To conclude, in laboratory conditions cinnamon wa-
ter filtrates were more effective against B. cinerea than
water suspensions and based on literature it seems to be
as effective as cinnamon oil. Further studies are required
to recognise the mechanisms of cinnamon improving
plants growth and development. Cinnamon water fil-
trates have also proven to be effective in in planta
experiments, including both greenhouse and field toma-
toes, where the stimulating effect on plant development
Tabl e 3 The influence of cinnamon water filtrate (0.5%) on vegetative development of tomato plants after 1 month (July) and 3 months
(September) of application under field conditions
Combination Control (water spraying) Cinnamon water suspension spraying
Variety Agro Country Hamlet Agro Country Hamlet
Number of leaves 12.6 ± 0.58a 11.6 ± 0.08b 11.0 ± 0.71b 11.3 ± 0.55b 12.2 ± 0.50a 14.0 ± 0.71a
Number of branches 14.3 ± 0.58 17.8 ± 1.62a 12.7 ± 1.10b 16.5 ± 0.55a 18.0 ± 1.65a 15.2 ± 0.82a
Values in each row followed by the same letter are not statistically different P=0.05
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
Eur J Plant Pathol
and plant health was confirmed. Formulation of water
suspensions and its water filtrates were chosen because
of its practical application of being used by growers,
while the use of cinnamon oil can be difficult in practise.
The inhibitory effect of cinnamon water filtrates may be
used for practical application provided the treatments
are carried out several times at 45 day intervals. This
frequency of treatments is sufficient to maintain the
inhibitory effect on the developing pathogen. This con-
clusion has practical implications especially for organic
growers who have less plant protection products to use
than the farmers growing crops the conventional way.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no con-
flict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals N/A
Informed consent N/A
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provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if
changes were made.
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Eur J Plant Pathol
... In the germination experiment of the present study, the cinnamon powder solution inhibited the germination rate and length of seedlings, which is in line with Cavalieri and Caporali [66], who reported the same inhibition via cinnamon essential oil on Mediterranean weeds seeds in controlled laboratory conditions. However, this inhibition was not observed in some other experiments [67]; Kowalska et al. [68] achieved positive results on inoculated tomato plants with a cinnamon powder filtrate at the same time. ...
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Seed treatments have a potential to improve seed performance traits and consequently optimize crop establishment. However, there is a lack of systematic research for these techniques in lucerne, especially under field conditions. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of various seed treatments on the improvement of lucerne germination and emergence under lab conditions and early seedling growth in the field. Compared treatments were heat treatment; seed priming with water, potassium permanganate, chitosan, vermitea, or bokashi juice; and seed coating with cinnamon, gypsum, wood ash, tannin quebracho, and cocoa powder. Among the seed priming methods, potassium permanganate and chitosan provided the best results in the improvement of seedling length or emergence dynamics, whilst coating with bentonite and gypsum could be recommended for having a positive impact on root development. Cinnamon powder significantly improved the emergence dynamics, seedling, and shoot length. The combination of priming and coating methods seems to be the most effective when assessed under the field conditions, where some positive response in root traits can be evaluated.
... Pazmiño-Miranda et al. [22] demonstrated the effectiveness of a hydroethanolic cinnamon extract at a concentration of 15 mL L −1 against Botrytis cinerea, reducing the incidence and severity of gray rot in strawberries. Similarly, Kowalska et al. [23] were able to inhibit gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) in tomato plants by 81.4% with an aqueous extract of cinnamon at 1% (w/v); additionally, the extract stimulated plant growth. ...
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The use of agrochemicals has caused environmental problems and toxicity to humans, so natural alternatives for disease control during harvest and postharvest have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate cinnamon essential oil, neem oil, and black sapote fruit extract for in vitro inhibition of fungi isolated from chayote fruit. The extracts were applied at 300, 350, and 400 ppm in Petri dishes and the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Goetrichum sp., and Phytophthora capsici was evaluated for 7 days, and the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition per day was calculated. Cinnamon oil showed a fungicidal effect at all concentrations. Neem oil at 400 ppm showed a 42.3% reduction in the growth of F. solani and 27.8% reduction in the growth of F. oxysporum, while at 350 ppm it inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici by 53.3% and of Goetrichum sp. by 20.9%; finally, the black sapote extract at 400 ppm inhibited 21.9–28.6% of the growth of all fungi. The growth of postharvest fungi on chayote fruit could be prevented or reduced by applying the plant extracts evaluated at adequate concentrations.
... Potassium deficiency, which causes leaves with brown spots, brown or yellow veins, or yellow edges, could be defeated with banana peels and calcium deficiency by using crushed eggs. Other substances, like cinnamon, can act as a natural insect repellent and be anti-fungal (Kowalska et al., 2020). In addition, it promotes root growth and overall plant health. ...
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The paper changes the focus of the design debate from a human-centered design methodology to a posthuman design that takes both human and nonhuman agents into account. It examines how designers might use a multispecies perspective to produce projects with distinguished intelligence and performance. To illustrate this, we describe a project of structures for plants that started on a course in an academic setting. The project methodology begins with “Thing Ethnography”, investigating the movement of a water bottle inside a house and its interaction with other objects. The correlation between water and plants was decided to be further expanded, considering how water might enhance the environmental humidity and create a cooler microclimate for indoor plants. According to their effectiveness, 3D-printed biomimetic structures were designed and manufactured as water droplet supports considering different materials, and positioned in various configurations around a plant. Humidity levels and temperature of the structures were measured. As a result, this created a novel method for mass customization and working with plants. The paper discusses the resultant evidence-based design and the environmental values related to it.
... The first one is a product that has been registered and authorised as a fungicide for many horticultural crops to control powdery mildews. In this regard, our results are consistent with the results reported in several studies previously reporting the antifungal properties of potassium bicarbonate [37][38][39] and cinnamon [40][41][42][43][44] when tested in vitro against B. cinerea. In the case of cinnamon, not only has fungicidal activity been reported, but bactericidal, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities have been reported, as well [45]. ...
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Grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea is an endemic disease in greenhouse tomato crops in the Mediterranean Basin, where the scarcity of heating systems together with the winter weather conditions makes the use of fungicides necessary. The availability of fungicides for organic tomato production is limited, and traditionally, farmers have used copper-based formulations. In the present work, in vitro tests with twelve commercial formulations resulted in cinnamon extract and potassium hydrogen carbonate (PHC) showing high efficacy in the inhibition of B. cinerea growth. Both formulations were evaluated in on-farm greenhouse trials conducted for two seasons (2019/2020 and 2020/2021) in three greenhouses located in Almería, Spain. In terms of controlling Botrytis, PHC showed efficacy results comparable to or even better than those that have been obtained for copper oxychloride. Weather conditions outside and inside the greenhouse were conducive to the onset and development of the disease. Tomato variety selection and pruning practices (flush cuttings) were the main factors that reduced the use of copper-based formulations or any other fungicide to prevent grey mould infection. Smart and integrated management of the mentioned factors could lead to the substitution of copper to control Botrytis in the crop system studied here.
... However, some EOs probably have further activities that those here reported from VOSviewer. For instance, Cinnamon emerged only for antibacterial activity (Fig. 10), but it is recognized in literature even as active EO against phytopathogenic fungi (Kowalska et al., 2020;Bisht et al., 2021) and insects (Liu et al., 2014). Thymus, which appeared able to contrast bacteria and fungi, is also proven to be effective against insects (Pavela and Sedlák, 2018;Selçuk et al., 2020), in addition to their antibacterial and insecticidal activities, Lavandula and Mentha exploit fungicidal action (Yakhlef et al., 2020;El Abdali et al., 2022). ...
In agriculture, more attention has been paid to limit the amount of chemical plant protection products. A potential alternative solution has been found in essential oils (EOs), which appear as promising candidates for their properties (safe, bioactive, biodegradable products) in managing plant diseases in agriculture. Therefore, a co-occurrence analysis was carried out on the available literature on Scopus database, through network maps created by VOSviewer software in order to identify the EOs used in agriculture, agricultural products and their target application. USA and India appeared as the most productive countries in terms of documents and citations followed by Iran and Italy. The co-occurrence analysis revealed eight, more frequently used, EOs in agriculture, in particular, they found more applications as antibacterial and insecticidal agents. On the contrary, any specific EO for nematicidal and acaricidal activity emerged from the analysis. The EOs with the largest applicability were Thymus (mainly T. vulgaris), Citrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum, Lavandula, Mentha, Ocimum (mainly O. basilicum). Thanks to EOs main features, is possible to invest more in the research, as demonstrated by the increasing trend of documents published in the last decades and the list of high-quality journals interested in this topic. An easier interpretation of the great amount of data enables to identify what has been investigated till nowadays to shape the potential future progression and prospective in this research field.
... In this study, the term 'biostimulants' refers to natural substances that can induce root organogenesis on stem cuttings. Studies have reported that natural ingredients, such as coconut water (Baque et al., 2011) and cinnamon (Kowalska et al., 2020), promote and enhance plant growth and are suitable substitutes for synthetic RH. Presently, many horticulturists use fresh Aloe vera gel to induce root growth in stem cuttings and air layering of plants (Fernando & Mirihagalla, 2021). ...
Plant organogenesis induction is a vital method to regenerate explants and produce complete organisms. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of three different root biostimulants and a commercially available synthetic rooting hormone (RH) for root organogenesis induction in Epipremnum aureum stem cuttings. The biostimulants used were Aloe vera gel (AV1), and garlic (GR2) and turmeric extracts (TM3), and the synthetic RH (TakeRoot®) used contained an active ingredient, indole butyric acid (0.01%). The E. aureum stem cuttings were placed in hydroponic pots and root development rates were monitored for up to 30 days. Recorded data from five parameters were analyzed: (1) number of rooted cuttings, (2) number of roots per stem cutting, (3) length of the longest and (4) shortest roots of the cuttings, and (5) rooting time. Stem cuttings were quantified using ImageJ software. The results showed that compared to the application of TakeRoot®, treatment with the biostimulant AV1 produced the longest roots, whereas stem cuttings treated with GR2 and TM3 did not produce significant results. Moreover, AV1 induced root organogenesis 16.67% faster than did TakeRoot® but no significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the case of number of roots promoted per cutting. This study provides scientific evidence for the application of naturally derived RHs in the propagation of stem cuttings. Furthermore, Aloe vera gel, known for plant growth benefits, is the best choice for plant root propagation.
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Due to safety concerns for both humans and the environment, it is essential that all crops be grown and consumed without the use of any synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. In order to prevent the devastating effects of chemicals and guarantee food safety, biofungicides have been identified as a viable substitute for synthetic chemicals. Sustainable plant disease management is possible with the use of biofungicides since they are non-toxic, cheap, environmentally friendly and commercially feasible. Produced from microorganisms (such as fungi and bacteria) and plants (such as algae, lichen and higher plants) and their metabolites, biofungicides are employed primarily for the control of harmful fungal infections in agricultural crops. It is important to identify microorganisms and plant extracts that have an antagonistic action against phytopathogens prior to formulating biofungicides due to their potential widespread use. Direct mechanisms offered by biocontrol microbes such as Trichoderma, Pseudomonas PGPRs, etc., include nutrition and space competition, mycoparasitism and antibiosis. In contrast, immune plants employ indirect ways to combat fungal infections by eliciting induced and systemic defense responses. Phytoextracts are an alternative to biocontrol agents since they work by altering the plant’s own biochemical and physiological processes to ward off disease. In this chapter, many kinds of biofungicides, how to pick biological materials with antifungal potential, how to synthesize biofungicides and how they work to combat phytopathogens are examined. As a means of increasing the biofungicides’ widespread application in agricultural systems worldwide, one needs to describe their commercialization and registration.
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The use of synthetic pesticides is limited due to increasing environmental pollution and developing pest resistance, as well as the increasingly confirmed negative impact of these compounds on human health. At the same time, the demand for food grown in the spirit of organic farming is increasing. Therefore, as part of Integrated Plant Protection (IPM), biopesticides are used, i.e., substances of natural origin that are characterized by low toxicity to non-target species and easy availability. Such substances include, among others, compounds found in the bark of the Ceylon cinnamon tree ( Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), such as eugenol, trans -cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. However, the mechanism of their action has not been sufficiently researched. Therefore, this study presents the results of the impact of these compounds on the important pest of cereal crops and food stores, and - at the same time - a model organism - Tenebrio molitor beetle. The tested compounds were administered by injection, inhalation, with food or one of two contact routes: by immersing the tested larvae or by contacting them with substratum soaked in an appropriate solution of the tested compound. The results allowed us to determine the LT 50 parameter, and the probit analysis carried out the LC 20/30/50/95 values. The obtained results also allowed to conclude that the most effective route of administering cinnamon bark compounds is contact and injection, and the most effective is eugenol. The impact of the tested compounds on the morphological malformations of T. molitor larvae was also documented and discussed.
Tomato grey mould has been a great concern during tomato production. The in vitro antifungal activity of vapours emitted from four plant essential oils (EOs) (cinnamon oil, fennel oil, origanum oil, and thyme oil) were evaluated during in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. Cinnamon oil vapour was the most effective in suppressing conidial germination, whereas the four EOs showed similar activities regarding inhibiting mycelial growth in dose-dependent manners. The in planta protection effect of the four EO vapours was also investigated by measuring necrotic lesions on tomato leaves inoculated by B. cinerea. Grey mould lesions on the inoculated leaves were reduced by the vapours from cinnamon oil, origanum oil and thyme oil at different levels, but fennel oil did not limit the spread of the necrotic lesions. Decreases in cuticle defect, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production in the B. cinerea-inoculated leaves were correlated with reduced lesions by the cinnamon oil vapours. The reduced lesions by the cinnamon oil vapour were well matched with arrested fungal proliferation on the inoculated leaves. The cinnamon oil vapour regulated tomato defence-related gene expression in the leaves with or without fungal inoculation. These results suggest that the plant essential oil vapours, notably cinnamon oil vapour, can provide eco-friendly alternatives to manage grey mould during tomato production.
Botanical fungicides are an interesting alternative for pathogen control and plant protection in sustainable production systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of cinnamon for use in inhibiting pathogens in tomato crop. Three main strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and a strain of Alternaria alternata were grown in in vitro conditions, and later used for tests of antifungal effect of cinnamon extract, compared to sodium hypochlorite. As a result, complete growth inhibition of the three strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria alternata were achieved only when using sodium hypochlorite from a concentration of 3%, and a partial inhibition with the use of cinnamon extract. Both, cinnamon extract and sodium hypochlorite solution, at concentrations above 2%, reduced Mycelial Growth Speed Index values. Cinnamon extract demonstrated its antifungal potential, indicating the possibility of its use in the in vitro control of phytopathogenic fungi in tomato crops. In addition, this study also showed the main effects of cinnamon extract on hyphae and conidia of these phytopathogens. [Correction added on 01 November 2022, after first online publication: The full form of 'MGRI' has been updated in the abstract of this version].
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In vitro efficacy of the essential oils extracted from eight plant species was tested at application rates of 100, 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 µl/l for controlling fruit rots. Results showed a 100% reduction of mycelium growth of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Botryosphaeria after applying thyme or savory oils at all concentrations tested. Mint and cinnamon oils inhibited mycelium growth of the five isolates at application rates of either 1000 or 2000 µl/l. Tea tree, lavender, myrtle, and eucalyptus oils were slightly effective at controlling mycelium growth of each fungus species tested. Savory oil with major constituent of carvacrol 71.2% and thyme oil with major constituent of thymol 73.3% showed the greatest potential of the essential oils tested for use as natural fungicides.
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p>The use of chemical pesticides for controlling various plant diseases is still a common practice especially in developing countries. Although with the application of chemical fungicides, plant diseases can be controlled but the hazardous impacts of such products in human health and environment are well known. Moreover, with their excess applications pest resistance may exist. Natural plant products have been found effective in plant disease managements and could be safely incorporated as suitable alternatives for synthetic fungicides. It is estimated that there are more than 250,000 higher plant species on earth that can be evaluated for their antimicrobial bioactive chemical compounds. During last several decades researchers have evaluated plant extracts and oils against plant pathogens, valuable results have been achieved and some commercially botanical formulations have been prepared and marketed. If we are supposed to move toward production of safer agricultural products, more attention and effort are still needed for production of more commercially botanical fungicides in the near future. The organic agriculture cannot rely on a limited number of commercially pesticides of natural origin, therefore it seems that more researches in formulating more commercially botanical products as fungicides are still needed. DOI: The Agriculturists 2016; 14(1) 134-141
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Virginia mallow is a plant from the central and eastern states of North America. A large amount of high quality biomass obtained from V. mallow led to interest in this plant for bioenergy purposes. Unfortunately, high incidence of white rot disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum destroyed plantations of this plant. In previous attempts, various control strategies were not successful and all treatments failed (including the use of Coniothurium minitans). The aim of the study was to find and evaluate yeast-like fungi for biocontrol of S. sclerotiorum, evaluate the optimal thermal condition for biocontrol efficacy, and describe possible modes of action of potential biocontrol organisms. In dual bioassay test with 19 strains of yeast-like fungi with S. sclerotiorum, antagonistic potential were obtained. At different temperatures variations in antagonistic activity of yeast-like fungi were observed. At all tested temperatures (i.e., 4, 12, and 23°C), positive results were obtained. Extracellular enzymes were produced by the majority of antagonistic yeast, such as: amylases (the most frequent), chitinases, proteases, pectinases and xylanases. In this research, reduction in white rot symptoms on V. mallow stems was significant (P < 0.05). The highest inhibition of disease was observed after treatment with strains (114/64) Candida albidus and (117/10) Pichia anomala.
Plant diseases impact negatively on human well-being through agricultural and economic loss and also have consequences for biodiversity conservation. They are caused by some pathogens like bacteria, fungi, nematodes and viruses. Bacteria and fungi are the most common cause of many diseases of plants. The use of antibiotics for the control of plant diseases is limited due to the possibility to the production of some pathogen populations resistant to fungicides and pathogen populations resistant to antimicrobial agents and the ability to the transfer of responsible resistant genes to human and animal pathogenic microbes. In addition, these chemical compounds can cause undesirable effects on environment due to their slow biodegradation and several serious side effects on mammalian health associated to toxic residues in agricultural products. There is, therefore, a need to develop alternative control agents to pathogenic bacterial and fungal diseases in plants. Essential oils are a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds derived from the different parts of the plants. They were previously known to possess many biological activities such as antifungal and antibacterial properties. In addition, the potential effectiveness of essential oils against many plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi has been verified by many authors. This review discusses the susceptibility of most important ten bacterial and fungal plant pathogens towards different essential oils and their constituents, which have been reported in scientific references.
To control the decay of fresh vegetables or fruits after harvest and overcome higher costs using a natural agent, synergistic antifungal effects were studied in tomatoes and their main decay fungi Fusarium solani and Rhizopus stolonifer. After screening 56 groups with a checkerboard method based on 11 natural agents, only one combination of thymol and salicylic acid (STSA) had a synergistic effect on both fungi. Their average minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values decreased significantly to 0.43 fold compared with the single agents tested. Their mycelial growth was completely inhibited; the inhibition rates of spore germination exceeded 96% at 0.5, 1, and 2 MIC. The protective and therapeutic effects were found to be dose-dependent during exposure; the former was always better than the latter against both fungi at any tested concentration in wound-inoculated tomatoes, and phytotoxicity occurred only when the concentration of STSA reached 2 MIC in naturally stored fruit. Consumer evaluation showed that the natural, non-inoculated tomatoes treated with 1 MIC and the wound-inoculated tomatoes treated with 2 MIC were both acceptable. The in vitro and in vivo results show that a combination of thymol and salicylic acid could be developed as a control measure and could reduce costs.
In our study the application of mint species (spearmint, peppermint ‘Mitcham’ and peppermint ‘Mexian’) and cinnamon was investigated against Fusarium head blight of winter wheat in vitro and in vivo. The effect of crude drugs and the aqueous extract of mint, and the effect of essential oils of mint and cinnamon on mycelial growth were evaluated in lab. On artificial media the crude drug showed higher inhibition than aqueous plant extracts. Cinnamon and spearmint oils e.ectively inhibited mycelia growth. In field trial artificially inoculated winter wheat was treated with the in vitro effective oils under small-plot conditions. The disease incidence was most inhibited by cinnamon oil, applied curative. According to our results the essential oil of cinnamon can be an appropriate candidate for the research of alternative disease control.