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Abstract

In this study, the effects of organic powder of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on the development of Botrytis cinerea and its influence on tomato plants were evaluated. The cinnamon bark powder and its water suspensions and filtrates were used at 0.5 and 1% rates. After 6 days of the start of an in vitro experiment the mycelium growth was inhibited by both 0.5 and 1% cinnamon water filtrates - to a greater degree in the case of the higher concentration, by 54.4 and 81.4%, respectively. Spraying with cinnamon water filtrates positively influenced the growth of plants both in the greenhouse and the field. Antifungal activity of cinnamon was proved in the greenhouse tests - the disease symptoms of grey mould on infected tomato plants decreased. The fresh weight of non-inoculated tomato plants treated with cinnamon filtrates was significantly higher than control plants (17.17 g compared to 12.83 g) showing a stimulating effect of cinnamon filtrates. In the case of inoculated plants due to treatment, their weight increased from 7.83 to 10.50 g. In the field experiment, tomato plants sprayed six times with cinnamon were better developed than the control plants. The most significant effect was observed for Hamlet variety - the mean number of leaves was higher by 27.3% and the mean number of branches by 19.7% compared to the untreated control plants. Thus it was proved that cinnamon powder has potential to inhibit B. cinerea growth and also has a stimulating effect for tomato plants.
Cinnamon powder: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation
of antifungal and plant growth promoting activity
Jolanta Kowalska &Józef Tyburski &
Joanna Krzymińska &Magdalena Jakubowska
Accepted: 18 October 2019
#The Author(s) 2019
Abstract In this study, the effects of organic powder of
Cinnamomum zeylanicum on the development of Botry-
tis cinerea and its influence on tomato plants were
evaluated. The cinnamon bark powder and its water
suspensions and filtrates were used at 0.5 and 1% rates.
After 6 days of the start of an in vitro experiment the
mycelium growth was inhibited by both 0.5 and 1%
cinnamon water filtrates - to a greater degree in the case
of the higher concentration, by 54.4 and 81.4%, respec-
tively. Spraying with cinnamon water filtrates positively
influenced the growth of plants both in the greenhouse
and the field. Antifungal activity of cinnamon was
proved in the greenhouse tests - the disease symptoms
of grey mould on infected tomato plants decreased. The
fresh weight of non-inoculated tomato plants treated
with cinnamon filtrates was significantly higher than
control plants (17.17 g compared to 12.83 g) showing
a stimulating effect of cinnamon filtrates. In the case of
inoculated plants due to treatment, their weight in-
creased from 7.83 to 10.50 g. In the field experiment,
tomato plants sprayed six times with cinnamon were
better developed than the control plants. The most sig-
nificant effect was observed for Hamlet variety - the
mean number of leaves was higher by 27.3% and the
mean number of branches by 19.7% compared to the
untreated control plants. Thus it was proved that cinna-
mon powder has potential to inhibit B. cinerea growth
and also has a stimulating effect for tomato plants.
Keywords Botrytis cinerea .Basic substance .
Mycelium growth inhibition .Grey mould symptoms
inhibition .Tomato vegetative development
Introduction
There is a worldwide trend to explore new alternatives
to control plant diseases, giving priority to methods that
reduce disease symptoms and avoid negative side ef-
fects on human health resulting from excessive applica-
tion of synthetic fungicides. The use of food substances,
which are also classified as basic substances, demon-
strating a protective action in growing crops, is an
alternative method for organic farmers or sustainable
agriculture farms.
The possibility of limiting the development of path-
ogenic fungi by applying agents, which are natural and
alternative to pesticides, is a popular research direction.
But also the use of plants or plant products as fungicides
has been of a great importance for some time and needs
more attention (Zaker 2016). New pesticides, including
natural product-based pesticides are being discovered
and developed to replace the compounds lost due to
the new registration requirements (Regulation (EC)
No1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of
Eur J Plant Pathol
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-019-01882-0
J. Kowalska :J. Krzymińska (*):M. Jakubowska
Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute, 20
Władysława Węgorka Street, 60-318 Poznań,Poland
e-mail: j.krzyminska@iorpib.poznan.pl
J. Tyburski
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 2 Michała
Oczapowskiego Street, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
plant protection products on the market and repealing
council directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EE2009).
The use of natural products is one of biological control
methods in fungal disease control. The method is still
not common and investigations are required to find
suitable plants that can be used to control pathogenic
fungi (El-Mougy Nehal and Abdel-Kader Mokhtar
2007; Kowalska 2011; Remlein-Starosta et al. 2016).
Antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) such as
cinnamon, marigold, basil and spearmint was assessed
against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusar-
ium gramineraum Corda,FusariumoxysporumSchltdl.
and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary (Kocic-
Tanackov et al. 2011; Al-Taisan et al. 2014; Ghalem
2016). The use of EOs and various plant extracts is
aligned with current thinking on the future of agriculture
in the EU, and with consumer preference for natural
products (Brenes and Roura 2010). The antimicrobial
properties of EOs have been widely reported (Dorman
and Deans 2000; Mourey and Canillac 2002;Rotaetal.
2004). Besides antibacterial properties, EOs or their
components have exhibited anti-parasitic (Pandey et al.
2000;Pessoaetal.2002), and insecticidal
(Konstantopoulou et al. 1992; Karpouhtsis et al. 1998)
properties. EOs are widely used in various fields, in-
cluding the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and food indus-
tries (Harkat-Madouri et al. 2015). The constituents of
these compounds have antibacterial, viricidal, fungicid-
al, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and medicinal properties
which are considered to be plants protectants (Bakkali
et al. 2008).
Cinnamon oils and extracts showed good antifungal
properties against important plant diseases. Wilson et al.
(1997) found that among 49 essential oils tested,
Cinnamomum zeylanicum J. Presl demonstrated a great
antifungal activity against B. cinerea.Cinnamomum
zeylanicum commonly known as cinnamon,refers to a
tropical evergreen tree as well as a bark that is extracted
from the plant. Substances such as cinnamon have been
known to the mankind for a very long time. They are
universally recognized as harmless and safe for human
consumption. Cinnamon powder is considered to have
high potential as a biological control agent (Sikes et al.
2005; Xing et al. 2010; Kocić-Tanackov and Dimić
2013).
B. cinerea Pers. Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia
fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) is an economically im-
portant phytopathogenic fungus and a cause for a broad
spectrum of plants diseases (van Kan 2006; Bolton et al.
2006;Deanetal.2012). It can cause serious damage in
over 200 plant species both in pre- and post-harvest
stages and is difficult to control due to various modes
of attack and many hosts (Williamson et al. 2007). Very
few reports concerning the use of commercially avail-
able powdered cinnamon can be found in the literature.
Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the
potential of commercially available cinnamon powder
originating from organic crops used in the liquid form in
different concentrations as a control agent against
B. cinerea andgrowthstimulatorinbothinvitroand
in vivo conditions.
Materials and methods
Plant pathogenic fungus preparation
For all tests B. cinerea strain 2235 (plant source: tomato
stem) from the Bank of Plant Pathogens in the Institute
of Plant Protection, Poland, collection was used. Pure
cultures were maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar,
Sigma-Aldrich (PDA) media at 4 °C and sub-cultured
at monthly intervals. Ten days old cultures were used for
the in vitro experiment.
For the greenhouse and field experiments conidia
were harvested from ten days old cultures. The concen-
tration was determined using the Thoma slide and ad-
justed to 3.1 × 10
5
ml
1
. The resulting suspension was
used to inoculate the plants.
Cinnamon suspensions and filtrates preparation
The preparation method was developed by the authors.
Commercially available organic cinnamon
(C. zeylanicum) powder (manufactured by Dary Natury,
Grodzisk Poland and certified by Ekogwarancja PTRE
sp. z o.o.) was used to obtain water suspensions and
filtrates. For the in vitro experiment modified PDA
media was used. The cinnamon suspensions were pre-
pared using warm sterile distilled water (26 °C) and
added to PDA media to obtain 0.5 and 1% cinnamon
PDA suspensions (0.5 and 1 g of cinnamon added to
20 ml of water and 80 ml of the PDA media, respec-
tively). Later cinnamon water suspensions were filtered
through a nylon flour mesh (150 μm) and added to PDA
to obtain 0.5 and 1% cinnamon filtrates PDA suspen-
sions (0.5 and 1 g of cinnamon powder added to 20 ml
of water, filtrated; 20 ml of the filtrate added to 80 ml of
Eur J Plant Pathol
the PDA media). For the greenhouse and field experi-
ments 0.5% water filtrate was used. Five grams of
cinnamon was added to 1 l of warm tap water (26 °C)
and filtered through a flour mesh. The filtrate was pre-
pared shortly before spraying. Water suspensions and
filtrates were chosen due to their practical application
mode. The filtrates are clearer and do not cause prob-
lems with the foliar spraying using a sprayer with a
nozzle, while in the case of a suspension containing
powder particles, it is necessary to strain the suspension
twice before using a fine mesh and to apply with a
coarse nozzle.
In vitro biological control activity evaluation
The evaluation of biocontrol activity of cinnamon water
suspensions and filtrates against the growth of
B. cinerea mycelium was done (El-Mougy Nehal et al.
2004). Disks (0.5 cm diameter each) from pure cultures
of the pathogenic fungus were placed in the middle of a
90 mm Petri dish containing PDA with or without the
addition of cinnamon water suspensions and filtrates in
five replications. Fungi were grown at 23 °C. Mean
colony diameter (mm) was measured after 3 and 6 days
(i.e. until a control Petri dish was fully covered by the
mycelium; the maximum growth was 85 mm the
diameter of the dish excluding the diameter of the initial
culture).
Plant development evaluation in greenhouse conditions
Experiments were performed in pots according to
methods developed by the authors. Ten tomato plants
(Ozarowska variety) in the 34 leaf phase were planted
into each pot. Each repetition consisted of five pots.
Altogether five repetitions were made. Later, plants
were inoculated by foliar spray with a water suspension
of B. cinerea spores (3.1 × 10
5
ml
1
), 1 ml per plant.
Three and six days after inoculation water filtrates of
cinnamon at 0.5% was sprayed on the plants surface.
The control plants were: a) in the first control group,
inoculated with B. cinerea and sprayed with water; and
b) in the second control group, not inoculated and
sprayed with cinnamon water filtrates. After an addi-
tional 5 days, the foliage lesions were assessed (the
presence of B. cinerea was verified microscopically).
Theimpactofsprayingwithcinnamononplantswas
evaluated as the above ground fresh weight of plants
collected after 3 and 6 weeks of cultivation.
Plant development evaluation in field conditions
The field trial was carried out on a certified organic farm
according to methods developed by the authors. Three
field tomato varieties (Agro, Country and Hamlet) were
used. Seedlings were planted into soil in June, at the 5-
leaf phase, with five plants from each cultivar used in
each repetition. Altogether four repetitions were made
for each cultivar. Six sprayings of water cinnamon fil-
trates (0.5%) were performed at 45 day intervals. The
controls were not treated with cinnamon filtrates. The
number of leaves and branches was assessed after one
and three months of planting to evaluate plants
development.
Statistical analysis
A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
test significance with Tukey-Kramers post hoc test for
multiple comparisons. A pvalue <0.05 was accepted as
statistically significant.
Results and discussion
In the laboratory experiment, the potential of cinnamon
water suspensions vs. cinnamon filtrates in reducing
B. cinerea growth on PDA medium was evaluated.
Three days after PDA inoculation the highest inhibition
effect of mycelial growth was obtained while using 1%
of cinnamon water suspensions and 1% of cinnamon
filtrates, which reduced the fungus lesion by 64 and
47.8%, respectively (Table 1). Taking into account all
the treatments (with water suspension and filtrate and
the two concentrations 0.5 and 1%), prolongation of
the experiment from 3 to 6 days resulted in an average
increase of the mycelium lesions diameter from 10.8 to
60.3 mm. In the same time the changes in the effective-
ness of the two cinnamon formulations were observed.
After 6 days the effect of cinnamon suspensions (both
0.5 and 1%) was very weak to none - in fact the statis-
tical analysis proved no curative effect. The positive
effect was found using cinnamon filtrates 0.5% filtrate
concentration decreased B. cinerea mycelium growth by
54.4% and 1% filtrate gave a lesions reduction by 81.4%
(Table 1). In other words, the best inhibitory effect in an
in vitro study was obtained while using 1% filtrate of
cinnamon powder.
Eur J Plant Pathol
In the greenhouse conditions the disease symptoms
decreased on the plants treated with cinnamon water
filtrates compared to the control plants which were
inoculated and sprayed only with water. On average
1.75% of the plants treated with cinnamon were infected
compared to 2.28% of control plants. Additionally,
spraying with cinnamon water filtrates influenced posi-
tively the growth of plants. After six weeks of the
application the fresh weight of plants treated with cin-
namon was significantly higher than the control. Non-
inoculated plants treated with cinnamon weighed on
average 17.17 g compared to 12.83 g for the non-
inoculated control treated with water (33.8% increase
of mass). Plants inoculated with B. cinerea and treated
with cinnamon weighed on average 10.50 g compared
to 7.83 g for the inoculated control treated with water
(34.1% increase of plant weight) (Table 2).
In the field experiment the number of leaves on tomato
plants counted one month after planting showed a differ-
ent pattern of development in the grown varieties. Variety
Agro decreased number of leaves by 10.3% showing an
inhibitory effect, while varieties Country and Hamlet
increased number of leaves by 5.2 and 27.3%, respec-
tively, showing stimulating effect (Table 3). After two
months of growth the number of branches on the plants
was counted. The varieties Agro and Hamlet showed a
positive reaction to cinnamon water suspension spraying
and increased number of branches by 15.3 and 19.7%,
respectively. In the same time variety Country did not
respondtocinnamonsprayingthe cinnamon spraying
did not affect the number of branches. The vegetative
growth response of tomato plants to cinnamon water
suspension spraying depended on the phase of plants
development and variety.
According to other studies, both in vitro and in
planta, essential oils derived from cinnamon proved to
have bio-control properties against many pathogens
(Siripornvisal et al. 2009; Hyldgaard et al. 2012).
Shabana et al. (2015) tested cinnamon essential oil
against B. cinerea in vitro and noted a significant sup-
pression of the pathogen growth up to 7 days, compa-
rable to the chemical fungicide Topsin M70-WP. Allam
et al. (2017) noted that higher concentration of cinna-
mon completely inhibited the mycelial growth of
Tabl e 1 The influence of cinnamon water suspensions and filtrates on an average lesion diameter [mm] of B. cinerea measured on day 3 and
6 after beginning of in vitro tests
Treatment (cinnamon formulation) 3 days after beginning of test 6 days after beginning of test
Lesion diameter, mm Reduction of lesion, % Lesion diameter, mm Reduction of lesion, %
Control 16.10 ± 1.29a 0.0 85.00 ± 0.00a 0.0
0.5% water suspension 10.10 ± 1.43a 37.3 76.90 ± 18.11a 9.5
1% water suspension 5.80 ± 0.84b 64.0 85.00 ± 0.00a 0.0
0.5% water filtrate 13.70 ± 3.63a 14.9 38.80 ± 8.06b 54.4
1% water filtrate 8.40 ± 0.65b 47.8 15.80 ± 2.02c 81.4
Averaged data 10.8 40.9 60.3 36.3
Values in each column followed by the same letter are not statistically different P=0.05
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
Tabl e 2 The average fresh weight (g) of tomato plant inoculated with B. cinerea and treated with 0.5% cinnamon water filtrates in the pot
experiment
Number of weeks of tomato
cultivation in pots
Control
(water spraying)
Non-inoculated plants sprayed
with cinnamon filtrate
Inoculated plants
sprayed with tap water
Inoculated plants sprayed
with cinnamon filtrate
Tomato fresh weight after
3 weeks,
2,14 ± 0.17a 2,09 ± 0.11a 1,71 ±0.14a 1,85 ± 0.14a
Tomato fresh weight after
6 weeks
12.83 ± 0.87b 17.17 ± 1.07a 7.83 ± 0.62c 10.50 ± 1.12b
Values in each row followed by the same letter are not statistically different P=0.05
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
Eur J Plant Pathol
B. cinerea in vitro. The antifungal potential of cinnamon
was confirmed for others pathogens by other authors
(Barrera-Necha et al. 2009;Xingetal.2014;Sarkhosh
et al. 2018). The significant antifungal activity of cinna-
mon oil (both in vitro and in vivo) against various
Fusarium species which was proportional to its concen-
tration was shown. In the study by Horváth et al. (2013)
the cinnamon oil effectively inhibited mycelial growth
of Fusarium head blight of winter wheat in vitro. Jiang
et al. (2013), Al-Taisan et al. (2014) and Moraes et al.
(2018) examined the inhibitory effects of cinnamon
against S. sclerotiorum among other essential oils and
microelements in in vitro experiments and as soil
application. All concentrations of cinnamon
completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the
fungus. According to Moraes et al. (2018) the result
was comparable to a commercial fungicide
(thiophanate-methyl +chlorothalonil). Ojaghian et al.
(2014) proved that crude extracts of cinnamon are able
to reduce in vitro mycelial growth, sclerotial
myceliogenic and carpogenic germination of
S. sclerotiorum. In other studies, during the liquid bio-
assay,C.zeylanicumwas fungicidal against pathogens
isolated from banana, including Colletotrichum musae
(Berk. & M.A. Curtis), Lasiodiplodia thebromae (Pat.)
Griffon & Maubl., and Fusarium proliferatum
(Matsush.) Nirenberg ex Gerlach & Nirenberg
(Ranasinghe et al. 2002); exerted antifungal activity
towards Oidium murrayae Hosag.,U.Braun&
Rabindran (Chu et al. 2006) and inhibited conidial ger-
mination of Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz.) Penz.
& Sacc. (Barrera-Necha et al. 2008). In in vitro exper-
iments it was found to have a good mycelial inhibition
of the corn rot F. oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey)
(Barrera-Necha et al. 2009) and to be highly effective
against the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Nguyen
et al. 2009), as well as to have excellent antifungal
activity against early blight of tomato Alternaria solani
Sorauer (Yeole et al. 2014). The investigations of Wang
et al. (2014) showed that cinnamon microemulsions had
a high in vivo control activity against gray mould of
pears B. cinerea. The results obtained by the authors
also confirmed activity of cinnamon towards control of
grey mould in all experimental areas. In presented re-
search water filtrates of cinnamon were more efficient
than water suspensions, this fact has two implications, i)
it is more applicable to use and, ii) water filtrates should
be used in future tests including also chemical analysis
of compounds. So far in planta studies on cinnamon as a
bio-control agent against B. cinerea mainly reported its
effectiveness on post-harvest products. It applied to such
plants as pears (Wang et al. 2014), citrus fruit (Bouchra
et al. 2003), peppers and tomatoes (Kong et al. 2016). In
most cases cinnamon oil was used. It had no significant
negative effect on plant product qualities such as firm-
ness and colour. The control for decay incidence and
lesion diameter was reported to be promising.
While existing literature focuses on antifungal prop-
erties of cinnamon, the authors have noticed a signifi-
cant positive effect of cinnamon filtrate spraying on
plant branching in the field experiment. In addition to
the fact that the antifungal, antibacterial and pest deter-
ring properties of cinnamon improved the general well-
being of plants and thus enabled improved growth and
branching, there might be another process undergoing
on a different level. Therefore, further studies are needed
to determine the cause.
To conclude, in laboratory conditions cinnamon wa-
ter filtrates were more effective against B. cinerea than
water suspensions and based on literature it seems to be
as effective as cinnamon oil. Further studies are required
to recognise the mechanisms of cinnamon improving
plants growth and development. Cinnamon water fil-
trates have also proven to be effective in in planta
experiments, including both greenhouse and field toma-
toes, where the stimulating effect on plant development
Tabl e 3 The influence of cinnamon water filtrate (0.5%) on vegetative development of tomato plants after 1 month (July) and 3 months
(September) of application under field conditions
Combination Control (water spraying) Cinnamon water suspension spraying
Variety Agro Country Hamlet Agro Country Hamlet
Number of leaves 12.6 ± 0.58a 11.6 ± 0.08b 11.0 ± 0.71b 11.3 ± 0.55b 12.2 ± 0.50a 14.0 ± 0.71a
Number of branches 14.3 ± 0.58 17.8 ± 1.62a 12.7 ± 1.10b 16.5 ± 0.55a 18.0 ± 1.65a 15.2 ± 0.82a
Values in each row followed by the same letter are not statistically different P=0.05
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
Eur J Plant Pathol
and plant health was confirmed. Formulation of water
suspensions and its water filtrates were chosen because
of its practical application of being used by growers,
while the use of cinnamon oil can be difficult in practise.
The inhibitory effect of cinnamon water filtrates may be
used for practical application provided the treatments
are carried out several times at 45 day intervals. This
frequency of treatments is sufficient to maintain the
inhibitory effect on the developing pathogen. This con-
clusion has practical implications especially for organic
growers who have less plant protection products to use
than the farmers growing crops the conventional way.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no con-
flict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals N/A
Informed consent N/A
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestrict-
ed use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source,
provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if
changes were made.
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... Various studies reported the antifungal activity of PEOs against the phytopathogenic fungi (Božik et al. 2017;Xie et al. 2017a;Sarkhosh et al. 2018). Based on the previous studies, cinnamon oil indicated the antifungal activity against several genera of fungi (Jham et al. 2005;Brnawi et al. 2018;Kowalska et al. 2020). Moreover, thyme oil showed the inhibitory effect on fruit rot, toxigenic and wood-rot fungi including Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Botryosphaeria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trametes and Laetiporus (Xie et al. 2017b;Sarkhosh et al. 2018;Wang et al. 2018). ...
... Different studies showed the antifungal activity of cinnamon oil (in vitro and in vivo) against the various fungal species, which was proportional to its concentration. Jiang et al. (2013) Kowalska et al. (2020) reported that the cinnamon powder had the inhibitory effect on B. cinerea growth in vitro and in vivo and the stimulating effect on tomato plants growth, which are in line with the results of the present study. Shahriari et al. (2017) evaluated the effects of the essential oils of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and ajwain on the growth of R. solani, which is the causal agent of potato stem canker in vitro and in vivo. ...
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Ten plant essential oils (PEOs) were used for evaluating the antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea through the volatile and contact methods. Moreover, six essential oils of the six plants including cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, ajwain, cumin, and garlic at concentration of 25 μL/mL, which showed the higher inhibition of the mycelia growth of the pathogen were selected for further experiments. Contact and volatile phase effects of these six PEOs at the concentrations of 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 μL/mL were evaluated on mycelia growth and spore germination of the pathogen in vitro. The essential oils of cinnamon, ajwain, cumin, and garlic (concentrations higher than 20 μL/mL), which indicated the highest inhibition of pathogen isolates growth were selected for further studies in the greenhouse. Volatile phase effects of the PEOs were consistently found to be more effective on the fungal growth than the contact phase. The four used PEOs inhibited the growth of pathogen and the development of grey mould on the tomato plants under the greenhouse conditions. However, none of the treatments affected the plants height and fresh and dry weights. This study aims to indicate the PEOs can be considered as an alternative to fungicides for protecting the tomato plants against B. cinerea.
... It is reported that the antifungal extract from Toddalia asiatica seems to posses growth promoting ability as it increased the germination and seedling vigour of maize plants (Aiyaz et al. 2015). Besides fungicidal activity, growth stimulating ability of Cinnamomum zeylanicum powder suspension was also observed in tomatoes as the treated plants showed increments in number leaves and branches (Kowalska et al. 2020). In a study done by Luh Suriani et al. (2020), combined mixture of Piper caninum and P. betle var. ...
... The antifungal properties of cinnamon EOs have been reported as effective against pathogenic Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium verticillioides [22], Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme [41], and Villosiclava virens. Additionally, cinnamon water filtrate has been tested as an antifungal Botrytis cinerea agent [42], and cinnamon oil nanoemulsion has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger [43]. Lemon verbena is a perennial flowering plant of the verbena family (Verbenaceae). ...
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The presence of Fusarium fungi and their toxic metabolites in agricultural crops contributes to significant quantitative and qualitative losses of crops, causing a direct threat to human and animal health and life. Modern strategies for reducing the level of fungi and mycotoxins in the food chain tend to rely on natural methods, including plant substances. Essential oils (EOs), due to their complex chemical composition, show high biological activity, including fungistatic properties, which means that they exhibit high potential as a biological plant protection factor. The aim of this study was to determine the fungistatic activity of three EOs against F. graminearum, and the reduction of mycotoxin biosynthesis in corn and wheat grain. All tested EOs effectively suppressed the growth of F. graminearum in concentrations of 5% and 10%. Cinnamon and verbena EOs also effectively reduced the ergosterol (ERG) content in both grains at the concentration of 1%, while at the 0.1% EO concentration, the reduction in the ERG amount depended on the EO type as well as on the grain. The degree of zearalenone (ZEA) reduction was consistent with the inhibition of ERG biosynthesis, while the reduction in deoxynivalenol (DON) was not consistent with this parameter.
... A recent report has documented the antifungal efficacy of C. zeylanicum bark powder, its water suspensions, and its essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum. [20]. The C. zeylanicum methanol, nhexane, and aqueous extracts are also reported to exhibit inhibitory effects against Alternaria solani [21]. ...
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A worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections, emergence of new fungal strains, and antifungal resistance to commercially available antibiotics indicate the need to investigate new treatment options for fungal diseases. Therefore, the interest in exploring the antifungal activity of medicinal plants has now been increased to discover phyto-therapeutics in replacement to conventional antifungal drugs. The study was conducted to explore and identify the mechanism of action of antifungal agents of edible plants, including Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum tamala, Amomum subulatum, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Mentha piperita, Coriandrum sativum, Lactuca sativa, and Brassica oleraceae var. italica. The antifungal potential was assessed via the disc diffusion method and, subsequently, the extracts were assessed for phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity. Potent polyphenols were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antifungal mechanism of action was evaluated in silico. Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains while all plant extracts showed antifungal activity against Fusarium solani. Rutin, kaempferol, and quercetin were identified as common polyphenols. In silico studies showed that rutin displayed the greatest affinity with binding pocket of fungal 14-alpha demethylase and nucleoside diphosphokinase with the binding affinity (Kd, −9.4 and −8.9, respectively), as compared to terbinafine. Results indicated that Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum tamala exert their antifungal effect possibly due to kaempferol and rutin, respectively, or possibly by inhibition of nucleoside diphosphokinase (NDK) and 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51), while Amomum subulatum and Trigonella foenum graecum might exhibit antifungal potential due to quercetin. Overall, the study demonstrates that plant-derived products have a high potential to control fungal infections.
... Maqbool et al.(2010) reported the suppressing of mycelial growth and conidial germination inhibition (83.3%) when cinnamon oil is applied at concentration 0.4%. Kowalska et al. (2020) also reported the antifungal property of cinnamon water filtrates against Botrytis cinerea and inhibit the mycelium growth (81.4%) at 1% concentration. The cinnamon oil results 100% antifungal activities against different postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis viticola (Sukatta et al., 2008). ...
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different essential oils on the management of postharvest fruit rot of banana caused by Colletotrichum spp. It was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications and six treatments at Nepal Plant Diseases and Agro Associates (NPDA). Each of the treatments: cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum verum), mustard oil (Brassica oleracea), castor oil (Ricinus communis), neem oil (Azadirachta indica), coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) and control were used at concentrations 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm. The radial growth of mycelium (mm) and percent growth inhibition (%) of Colletotrichum spp. was recorded. The decrease in the radial growth and increase in the percent growth inhibition was found in all the treatments except control as their concentration increased, in which the lowest radial growth and the highest percent growth inhibition was found at 1000 ppm concentration. At 1000 ppm concentration, cinnamon oil shows the lowest radial growth and the highest percent growth inhibition (1.67mm and 98.15%) followed by mustard oil (54.00mm and 40.00%), neem oil (55.17mm and 38.70%), castor oil (55.83mm and 37.96%), coconut oil (61.17mm and 32.04%) and control (90mm and 0.00%) respectively. Thus, cinnamon oil is considered as a good essential oil in regards to the management of postharvest disease of banana
... In a 2019 study, Kowalska et al. demonstrated the antifungal properties of 1% (v/w) aqueous C. verum bark after a 6-day treatment against Botrytis cinerea, the mycelium responsible for the grey mold disease in tomato plants [165]. Furthermore, cinnamon seems to inhibit the growth of the microorganisms of the Candida family, which are responsible for most of the fungal diseases in humans. ...
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Phytonutrients are plant foods that contain many natural bioactive compounds, called phytochemicals, which show specific biological activities. These phytonutrients and their phytochemicals may play an important role in health care maintaining normal organism functions (as preventives) and fighting against diseases (as therapeutics). Phytonutrients’ components are the primary metabolites (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and phytochemicals or secondary metabolites (i.e., phenolics, alkaloids, organosulfides, and terpenes). For years, several phytonutrients and their phytochemicals have demonstrated specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects in human health such as anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and immune response. This review summarizes the effects of the most studied or the most popular phytonutrients (i.e., turmeric, garlic, cinnamon, graviola, and oregano) and any reported contraindications. This article also presents the calculated physicochemical properties of the main phytochemicals in the selected phytonutrients using Lipinski’s, Veber’s, and Ghose’s rules. Based on our revisions for this article, all these phytonutrients have consistently shown great potential as preventives and therapeutics on many diseases in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies.
... The influence of C. zeylanicum organic powder on the growth of B. cinerea and its effect on tomato plants have also been assessed. Cinnamon bark powder and also its water suspensions and filtrates controlled B. cinerea; moreover, tomato plants sprayed with cinnamon developed better than the control plants [35]. ...
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Cinnamon is widely used as a food spice, but due to its antibacterial and pharmacological properties, it can also be used in processing, medicine and agriculture. The word “Cinnamon” can refer to the plant, processed material, or an extract. It is sometimes used as a substance, and sometimes used as a mixture or as compounds or a group. This article reviews research into the effectiveness of various forms of cinnamon for the control of plant diseases and pests in crops and during storage of fruit and vegetables. Cinnamon acts on pests mainly as a repellent, although in higher doses it has a biocidal effect and prevents egg-laying. Cinnamon and its compounds effectively hinder bacterial and fungal growth, and the phytotoxic effects of cinnamon make it a possible herbicide. This article presents the wide practical use of cinnamon for various purposes, mainly in agriculture. Cinnamon is a candidate for approval as a basic substance with protective potential. In particular, it can be used in organic farming as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for use in plant protection, especially in preventive treatments. The use of natural products is in line with the restriction of the use of chemical pesticides and the principles of the EU’s Green Deal.
... In a 2019 study, Kowalska et. al., demonstrated the antifungal properties of 1 % (v/w) aqueous C. verum bark after a 6-day treatment against Botrytis cinerea, the mycelium responsible for the grey mold disease in tomato plants [165]. Furthermore, cinnamon seems to inhibit the growth of the microorganisms of the Candida family, which are responsible for most of the fungal diseases in humans. ...
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Full-text available
Phytonutrients are plant foods that contain many natural bioactive compounds, called phytochemicals, which expose specific biological activities. These phytonutrients and their phytochemicals may play an important role in health care maintaining normal organism functions (as preventives) and fighting against diseases (as therapeutics). Phytonutrient’s components are the primary metabolites (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and phytochemicals or secondary metabolites (i.e., phenolics, alkaloids, organosulfides, and terpenes). For years, several phytonutrients and their phytochemicals have demonstrated specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects in human health such as anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and immune response. This review summarizes the effects of the most studied or the most popular phytonutrients (i.e., turmeric, garlic, cinnamon, graviola, and oregano), and any contraindication found. This article also calculated the physicochemical properties of the main phytochemicals in the selected phytonutrients using Lipinski’s, Veber’s and Ghose’s rules. Based on our revisions for this article, all these phytonutrients have consistently shown several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies with great potential as preventives and therapeutics on many diseases.
This study aimed to compare nematode-controlling effectiveness of lipid-based nanoemulsions (LNs) encapsulating 10 different common essential oils (EOs). These 10 EO-LNs were successfully prepared by a combined method of homogenization and sonication with a small particle size (less than 150 nm), a small PDI, a high zeta potential and a high storage stability. The results indicated that all the 10 EO-LNs, while showing no phytotoxicity, exhibited high nematode-controlling effectiveness of 2 to 5 times higher compared to that of their corresponding native EO (oil form). In addition, LNs encapsulating mustard oil (NaMus), cinnamon oil (NaCin), garlic oil (NaGar), and Java lemongrass oil (NaJlg) gave the highest nematode-controlling effectiveness with C index value at 400 times dilution of 49.75%, 33.61%, 22.98% and 16.71%, respectively. Exhibiting such potential, alongside the affordable price of materials, NaMus, NaJlg and NaCin can be widely applied in sustainable horticulture to protect plants from nematodes.
This study aimed to find out the optimal formulation of essential oil-encapsulated lipid nanoemulsions (EO-LNs) by comparing antifungal activity against leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata on tomato plants of 10 different EO-LNs, followed by their binary and ternary combinations. Firstly, 10 EO-LNs and their combined formulations were prepared and their in-vitro antifungal activity was evaluated using petri dish bioassay. Next, ex-vitro disease-prevention and disease-treatment experiments of the optimal EO-LNs formulation were carried out in the greenhouse. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in in-vitro antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata among 10 EO-LNs and their combined formulations. Overall, NaChiGarCin (the ternary combination of chili oil-encapsulated LNs, garlic oil-encapsulated LNs, cinnamon oil-encapsulated LNs) exhibited the highest in-vitro antifungal activity. Under ex-vitro condition, NaChiGarCin at an EO-concentration of 200 ppm showed the highest disease-preventing and treating effectiveness (above 80%) and showed no negative effect on the plant growth. Supplemental data for this article is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2021.2015887 .
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In vitro efficacy of the essential oils extracted from eight plant species was tested at application rates of 100, 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 µl/l for controlling fruit rots. Results showed a 100% reduction of mycelium growth of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Botryosphaeria after applying thyme or savory oils at all concentrations tested. Mint and cinnamon oils inhibited mycelium growth of the five isolates at application rates of either 1000 or 2000 µl/l. Tea tree, lavender, myrtle, and eucalyptus oils were slightly effective at controlling mycelium growth of each fungus species tested. Savory oil with major constituent of carvacrol 71.2% and thyme oil with major constituent of thymol 73.3% showed the greatest potential of the essential oils tested for use as natural fungicides.
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p>The use of chemical pesticides for controlling various plant diseases is still a common practice especially in developing countries. Although with the application of chemical fungicides, plant diseases can be controlled but the hazardous impacts of such products in human health and environment are well known. Moreover, with their excess applications pest resistance may exist. Natural plant products have been found effective in plant disease managements and could be safely incorporated as suitable alternatives for synthetic fungicides. It is estimated that there are more than 250,000 higher plant species on earth that can be evaluated for their antimicrobial bioactive chemical compounds. During last several decades researchers have evaluated plant extracts and oils against plant pathogens, valuable results have been achieved and some commercially botanical formulations have been prepared and marketed. If we are supposed to move toward production of safer agricultural products, more attention and effort are still needed for production of more commercially botanical fungicides in the near future. The organic agriculture cannot rely on a limited number of commercially pesticides of natural origin, therefore it seems that more researches in formulating more commercially botanical products as fungicides are still needed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/agric.v14i1.29111 The Agriculturists 2016; 14(1) 134-141
Chapter
Plant diseases impact negatively on human well-being through agricultural and economic loss and also have consequences for biodiversity conservation. They are caused by some pathogens like bacteria, fungi, nematodes and viruses. Bacteria and fungi are the most common cause of many diseases of plants. The use of antibiotics for the control of plant diseases is limited due to the possibility to the production of some pathogen populations resistant to fungicides and pathogen populations resistant to antimicrobial agents and the ability to the transfer of responsible resistant genes to human and animal pathogenic microbes. In addition, these chemical compounds can cause undesirable effects on environment due to their slow biodegradation and several serious side effects on mammalian health associated to toxic residues in agricultural products. There is, therefore, a need to develop alternative control agents to pathogenic bacterial and fungal diseases in plants. Essential oils are a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds derived from the different parts of the plants. They were previously known to possess many biological activities such as antifungal and antibacterial properties. In addition, the potential effectiveness of essential oils against many plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi has been verified by many authors. This review discusses the susceptibility of most important ten bacterial and fungal plant pathogens towards different essential oils and their constituents, which have been reported in scientific references.
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To control the decay of fresh vegetables or fruits after harvest and overcome higher costs using a natural agent, synergistic antifungal effects were studied in tomatoes and their main decay fungi Fusarium solani and Rhizopus stolonifer. After screening 56 groups with a checkerboard method based on 11 natural agents, only one combination of thymol and salicylic acid (STSA) had a synergistic effect on both fungi. Their average minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values decreased significantly to 0.43 fold compared with the single agents tested. Their mycelial growth was completely inhibited; the inhibition rates of spore germination exceeded 96% at 0.5, 1, and 2 MIC. The protective and therapeutic effects were found to be dose-dependent during exposure; the former was always better than the latter against both fungi at any tested concentration in wound-inoculated tomatoes, and phytotoxicity occurred only when the concentration of STSA reached 2 MIC in naturally stored fruit. Consumer evaluation showed that the natural, non-inoculated tomatoes treated with 1 MIC and the wound-inoculated tomatoes treated with 2 MIC were both acceptable. The in vitro and in vivo results show that a combination of thymol and salicylic acid could be developed as a control measure and could reduce costs.
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Virginia mallow is a plant from the central and eastern states of North America. A large amount of high quality biomass obtained from V. mallow led to interest in this plant for bioenergy purposes. Unfortunately, high incidence of white rot disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum destroyed plantations of this plant. In previous attempts, various control strategies were not successful and all treatments failed (including the use of Coniothurium minitans). The aim of the study was to find and evaluate yeast-like fungi for biocontrol of S. sclerotiorum, evaluate the optimal thermal condition for biocontrol efficacy, and describe possible modes of action of potential biocontrol organisms. In dual bioassay test with 19 strains of yeast-like fungi with S. sclerotiorum, antagonistic potential were obtained. At different temperatures variations in antagonistic activity of yeast-like fungi were observed. At all tested temperatures (i.e., 4, 12, and 23°C), positive results were obtained. Extracellular enzymes were produced by the majority of antagonistic yeast, such as: amylases (the most frequent), chitinases, proteases, pectinases and xylanases. In this research, reduction in white rot symptoms on V. mallow stems was significant (P < 0.05). The highest inhibition of disease was observed after treatment with strains (114/64) Candida albidus and (117/10) Pichia anomala.
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In our study the application of mint species (spearmint, peppermint ‘Mitcham’ and peppermint ‘Mexian’) and cinnamon was investigated against Fusarium head blight of winter wheat in vitro and in vivo. The effect of crude drugs and the aqueous extract of mint, and the effect of essential oils of mint and cinnamon on mycelial growth were evaluated in lab. On artificial media the crude drug showed higher inhibition than aqueous plant extracts. Cinnamon and spearmint oils e.ectively inhibited mycelia growth. In field trial artificially inoculated winter wheat was treated with the in vitro effective oils under small-plot conditions. The disease incidence was most inhibited by cinnamon oil, applied curative. According to our results the essential oil of cinnamon can be an appropriate candidate for the research of alternative disease control.