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Coordination Of Maritime assets for Persistent And Systematic Surveillance (COMPASS2020) is an EU H2020 project, which has as an overarching goal deployment of Unmanned Vehicles (UxV) - aerial, sea surface and underwater ones, in addition to manned offshore patrol vessels, to enhance current maritime border surveillance operations regarding detection of irregular migrants and narcotics smugglers. This paper gives an overview of several research projects on autonomous marine vehicles, as a key technological, organizational and legislative issue within the project scope: Kaisa , an autonomous vessel prototype built at SAMK Faculty of Logistics and Maritime Technology in Rauma (Finland). Autonomous Ships 101 from Solent University in Southampton (England). A review of other articles has served as a comparative analysis to the surveillance assets proposed by COMPASS2020.
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MTEC/ICMASS 2019
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1357 (2019) 012045
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1357/1/012045
1
Autonomous marine vehicles in sea surveillance as one of the
COMPASS2020 project concerns
Sanja Bauk1,2, Nexhat Kapidani3, Žarko Lukšić3, Filipe Rodrigues4, Luís Sousa4
1 Maritime Faculty Kotor, University of Montenegro, Montenegro
2 Dep. of Maritime Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban University of Technology, SA
3 Maritime Safety Department of Montenegro, Montenegro
4 TEKEVER ASDS, Portugal
E-mail: zarko.luksic@pomorstvo.me;
Abstract: Coordination Of Maritime assets for Persistent And Systematic Surveillance
(COMPASS2020) is an EU H2020 project, which has as an overarching goal deployment of
Unmanned Vehicles (UxV) - aerial, sea surface and underwater ones, in addition to manned
offshore patrol vessels, to enhance current maritime border surveillance operations regarding
detection of irregular migrants and narcotics smugglers. This paper gives an overview of several
research projects on autonomous marine vehicles, as a key technological, organizational and
legislative issue within the project scope: Kaisa, an autonomous vessel prototype built at SAMK
Faculty of Logistics and Maritime Technology in Rauma (Finland). Autonomous Ships 101 from
Solent University in Southampton (England). A review of other articles has served as a
comparative analysis to the surveillance assets proposed by COMPASS2020.
Key words: autonomous marine vehicles, taxonomy, state-of-the-art, concurrent activities in
enhancing security of borders at sea.
1. Introduction
In 2015 European Union (EU) has been faced with 1.8 million illegal border crossings. This is more than
six times the number of detected illegal migrations in 2014. It takes three years to change the situation
and to reduce by nearly 90% the illegal border crossings and reassure the security of EU borders.
However, there is still pressure on EU external borders, especially when it comes to the Western
Mediterranean route. Therefore, COMPASS2020 project has been conceived to reduce the number of
illegal border crossings through improving coordinated actions supported by manned and unmanned
(underwater, sea surface and air) vehicles (UxV). Besides struggling with illegal migrants, EU has a
problem related to narcotics trafficking. It is estimated that every year approximately 125 tones of
cocaine worth USD 33 billion are consumed, the majority coming from Latin America to Europe on
transatlantic routes. There are some new narcotics routes from Northern and Eastern Africa targeting
Spain and Portugal, while the most traditional routes target Belgium and the Netherlands, i.e., major
European shipping ports. Consequently, COMPASS2020 was also conceived to combat this issue. To
address these challenges, COMPASS2020 proposes the development of a unified system based on open
standards that will enable the combined operation of multiple unmanned assets (from distinct providers),
manned platforms currently used under marine surveillance context, and the future accommodation of
other platforms and services with minor integration efforts. The project contributes to improve the
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situational awareness beyond coastal waters through integration of multiple manned and UxVs operating
in different environmental conditions, ranges and altitudes. On the other hand, pollution monitoring is
also an increasingly important part of maritime safety, as global commerce increases from/to the EU,
leading to a growth of vessels and cargos crossing European waters. Higher maritime traffic results in a
higher probability of occurrence of pollution incidents, such as oil spills, as well as an increase in ships
sulfur emissions. Such incidents, especially the ones that occur due to severe weather conditions (strong
winds and high sea state) can lead to high negative impacts to the environment. In this context, the
solutions under development in the project represent safe alternatives to monitor such disasters, in
particular in remote areas where access through manned assets may represent life-threatening risks to the
operators. Therefore, the COMPASS2020 platform can be an answer to such situations, providing a cost-
effective solution based on UxVs that can be highly effective and, at the same time, reduce the risk to the
humans involved in the operation, with the ultimate goal of minimizing the impact of this kind of
incidents [1, p.3].
The paper is organized in a manner that its first part describes COMPASS2020 in some more detail;
the second one deals with terminology and different levels of autonomous marine vehicles self-managing
capacities; the third one gives literature review on several recent projects and achievements in the filed;
while the last one provides conclusion and highlights further research endeavors in achieving concurrent
command, control and tracking of multiple manned and unmanned air, sea surface and underwater
vehicles in the marine environments which are exposed to the risk of illegal border crossings and threats
of trafficking of narcotics, including consequent search and rescue activities.
2. The COMPASS2020 key roles
The COMPASS2020 project is expected to achieve a comprehensive solution for maritime surveillance,
based on the coordination of manned and unmanned assets with enhanced capabilities, which will allow
addressing many of the challenges currently faced by authorities and governmental organizations with
responsibilities in this domain. The ultimate goal of this solution is to help governments contain, control
and effectively respond to a growing number of diverse threats and incidents: from piracy and smuggling
of goods and narcotics, to irregular migration and maritime pollution, including Search and Rescue
operations. Due to the afore stated, the COMPASS2020 project proposes to demonstrate the benefits of
the developed solution by tackling two specific scenarios during the project’s lifetime: (i) Search and
Rescue mission derived from irregular migration and (ii) interception of narcotics smugglers. For these
purposes the following assets will be used: (1) the Oceanic Patrol Vessel (OPV) operated by the
Portuguese Maritime Authority designed as a multi-mission platform; (2) AR-3 Net Ray - a fully
autonomous small-UAV with an endurance of up to 10 hours and a range of up to 150 km, launched by
catapult and recovered by a net or parachute. It can serve maritime and coastal surveillance missions,
working as operational extender for vessels as well as a communications relay to other vehicles and
communications range extender; (3) AR-5 Life Ray - a medium-altitude and medium-endurance fixed-
wing UAV specifically designed for search and rescue, long range surveillance and maritime patrol (up
to 16 hours of endurance and a range of 1600 km); (4) Zephyr HAPS (UAV) - a high altitude pseudo-
satellite (HAPS) that fills the gap between satellites and UAVs (70000 ft). This platform is being
conceptually considered as part of the COMPASS2020 solution as it enables real-time mapping, internet
and a number of surveillance opportunities to meet a broader range of requirements; (5) the A18-M - an
autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that can be launched from OPV - it is capable of performing
autonomous missions up to 300 m depth and it is easily transportable by plane for overseas missions. Its
area of coverage is 2 km2 per hour and it is widely used for defense and security actions. The layout of
the main COMPASS2020 assets is shown in Figure 1.
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Figure 1. Scheme of COMPASS2020 four layered (un)manned architecture
(Source: Own)
In the case of search and rescue (SAR) mission derived from an irregular migration situationa
vessel carrying irregular migrants is in a distress situation beyond coastal waters, sending out EPIRB
(Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) signal in order to alert the European authorities. At the
first phase of the mission, three types of assets are in the area performing persistence surveillance: the
OPV, the Zephyr, and the A18-M. At the moment it receives the EPIRB alert, Zephyr immediately
communicates this information to the operational commander that is working from the Marine
Operations Center (MOC) through the COMPASS2020 Mission System (MS) replica onboard the OPV.
In the following phase, the OPV will launch an AR-3 capable to collect data regarding the vessel in
distress, thus enhancing the situational awareness of marine authorities concerning the risk level of the
situation and allowing them to act timely and properly [1, p.11]. This action/data flow is schematically
shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Action/information flow in the case of SAR mission derived from irregular migration
(Source: Own)
When it comes to interception of narcotics smugglers the OPV, the Zephyr and the A-18 M are in
action in the border area. The Mission System (MS) is running onboard the OPV and it is always
connected with its replica at MOC. Zephyr is launched from MOC and it has to collect an overall picture
of the area that is being surveyed. In addition, an AUV was previously deployed from the OPV into a
strategic location that is coincident to the traffickers’ typical routes. The AUV is programmed to follow
circular trajectories in the area of interest, navigating underwater at low depth in order to remain
undetected from the smugglers and staying closely enough to the surface in order to optimize the
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possibility of detecting the target. It carries a set of hydrophones that enable detecting speed boats. After
detection of the target, the AUV can communicate to the Zephyr, which is used as a communication relay
in the system. The Zephyr sends automatically an alert to MS onboard OPV and its replica in the MOC.
Once the MOC receives the alert, the officers proceed with the deployment of an AR-5 platform. The
AR-5 has to come close to the vessel and acquire more detailed information about it. In accordance to
this information, the officer onboard OPV can decide how to intercept the threat and act efficiently. If the
smugglers try to get rid of the cargo, the AUV has the capacity of searching for it by making use of side
scan sonar [1, p.10]. Data flow in this type of action is given in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Action/information flow in the case of interception of narcotics smugglers
(Source: Own)
3. Maritime autonomous vehicles taxonomy
The most advanced components of the surveillance and supplementing SAR actions proposed by
COMPASS2020 in order to address the challenges mentioned above are unmanned (air, sea, and
underwater) vehicles, or shortly UxVs. The operational coordination of thes kinds of assets is an under-
explored field and therefore below will be given some basic information concerning operation of marine
fully autonomous and unmanned vehicles.
The first implementation of unmanned vehicles took place in space transport. Then, commercial use
of rail unmanned transport devices was implemented to carry freight and people. Further applications
take place in air transport for both military and civil transport purposes. Commercial use of autonomous
cars and trucks on generally accessed roads are still at the phase of research. Similar situation is within
sea transport [2].
The implementation of autonomous and unmanned vehicles at sea has to be preceded by solving
numerous problems concerning legal, organizational and technological issues. When it comes to legal
issues, International Maritime Organization (IMO) is working on it [3]. Recently, Maritime Safety
Committee has been established as a working group dealing with safety issues at and in the vicinity of
places where tests over autonomous and unmanned vessels are done. Besides this, Loyd’s Register (LR)
produced a document entitled “Cyber-enabled ships: Ship Right procedure autonomous ships” (2016).
In 2017 it produced another document titled “LR Code for Unmanned Marine Systems”, which identifies
goals and objectives for different unmanned vehicles [4]. Also, it is important to mention that LR defines
seven autonomous levels of marine vehicles:
AL0: no autonomous functions; all operations are manual;
AL1: on-vessel decision support; data will be available to crew;
AL2: off-vessel decision support; shore monitoring;
AL4: human-on-the-loop; semi-autonomous vessel; crew can intervene;
AL5: fully autonomous vessel; there is a means of human control;
AL6: fully autonomous vessel that has no need for any human intervention.
On the latter ends of this scale one can see further class of vessels/ships called unmanned and this
refers to vessels that are operated remotely so there is no one on board. Today almost all vessels have a
certain level of autonomy, since numerous functions operate by themselves. So, the transition from
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“classical” to autonomous vehicles used at sea will be evolutionary rather than revolutionary. In other
words, the transition will be gradual, and it will last most probably several decades.
Different operational issues are still unsolved and under consideration. However, technological
solutions are already available to a large extent. Intensive research is done, including simulation tests,
experiments on physical models and construction of prototypes. Below are listed some of the relevant
projects in this domain [2]:
MUNN Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence in Networks;
AAWA Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative;
STM Validation Sea Traffic Management Validation Project
AVAL Autonomous Vessel with an Air Look, etc.
The basic information on these projects are available online. The COMPASS2020 is relying in terms
of technology, safety and security [5] on findings of these and several other projects in the field. They are
listed and shortly described in the COMPASS2020 proposal [1, p. 18-20]. It is realistic to expect that
research and development (R&D) activities will be continued in order to ensure successful
implementation and sustainability of COMPASS2020, including follow-up projects in the future.
4. Some R&D achievements
In attempt to support further activities within COMASS2020 project, we have made a search of similar
research endeavors when it comes to autonomous and unmanned maritime vehicles. Thanks to our
professional contacts we are introduced with the Faculty of Logistics and Maritime Technology of
Satakunta University of Applied Scieneces (SAMK) from Rauma (Finland) work on building and testing
of the autonomous ship technology on miniature training ship Kaisa (Figure 4). This work has been done
in collaboration with Rolls-Royce Ltd and WinNova Ltd, the institute for vocational training education in
Satakunta. Namely, the platform called ELSA utilized the miniature training ship Kaisa built in 1994,
which is a model of passenger cruise ship Society Adventurer built in 1991. The detail description of this
autonomous sea vehicle can be found in reference [6].
Figure 4. Kaisa prototype of an unmanned vessel
(Source: [6])
The model is remotely controlled from the control center. The center is located in the main building of
the Faculty of Logistics and Maritime Technology of SAMK. It is equipped with large LCD screens for
displaying the image provided by the onboard cameras, sensor data display and human machine
interaction panel for remote manual steering of Kaisa. The lidar and machine vision data are collected
onboard. The track control and DP computers for fully automated operation of the model are located in
the remote-control center. The data transmission link between the vessel and the control center is a
crucial part of the whole system and 4G network is used for this purpose. Kaisa is an objectified
experiment used for students training and as an experimental polygon for postgraduate students at SAMK
work on their master and doctoral thesis. It has certain advantages in comparison to simulation (more
realistic) and full-size testing (more cost-effective). Continuation of experiments over Kaisa should bring
new findings in the filed, which support (in)directly some challenges within the COMPASS2020
platform, particularly when it comes to data fusion and UxVs self-managing functions.
In addition to this experiment on a prototype in laboratory setting, numerous theoretical studies have
been recently conducted. Some of them will be mentioned here as kind of guidelines for further research
work within COMPASS. For instance, one research concerns Autonomic Computing (AC) as a potential
solution to implement efficient self-management (self-managing capacities as: self-healing, self-
protecting, self-organizing, self-optimizing and self-configuring) in autonomous maritime vehicles
(AMVs) [7]. The aim of this research work is to indicate that the advanced versions of AC with fully
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integrated approach to autonomous capacities for next generation of AMVs should be more similar to
human physiology and behavior.
There is also a comprehensive research work on AMVs in the domain of optimal path planning and
control methods with different sensor technology like sonar, laser, acoustic modems and stereo vision
systems for localization, navigation and mapping [7;8]. Also, it is important to mention that underwater
wireless communications have recently achieved development [9]. Communication links and data fusion
along with central control system and human-machine interface are among the key concerns within the
COMPASS2020 and its successful implementation, so that the above listed research studies and similar
ones might be use as referential at some point.
It is worth to mention in this context two extensive studies on autonomous/unmanned vehicles
perception [10;11]. The first study provides up-to-date information about the advantages, disadvantages;
limits and ideal applications of specific sensors. The second one deals with putting men back in the
headlines despite the rise of autoimmunization in marine and shipping industry. Namely, according to
this study “85% of those surveyed agreed that seafarer skills will remain an essential component in the
long-term future of the shipping sector” [11, p.4]. In other words, the findings of the study suggest that
the human will remain an essential component in the long-term future of shipping, even if that future is
autonomous.
5. Conclusion
The paper gives an overview of EU COMPASS2020 project developed for surveillance and SAR actions
at sea in situations of illegal migrations (border crossings) and narcotics trafficking (interception of
narcotics smugglers). The architecture at high level and core action/information flows of the system are
presented. Since the system deploys autonomous and unmanned (air, sea surface, and underwater)
vehicles, taxonomy dealing with these advanced and complex vehicles, including the degree of their
autonomy is given, as well. In order to support further R&D activities within the project, some recent
experimental and theoretical studies in the field are introduced. As next steps in our research work, we
plan to explore in some more detail technological performances of each asset within COMPASS
including communication channels and protocols [12], as well as data fusion and presentation on the
network application layer. This will be done in parallel with experiments in real setting, i.e., in maritime
environment under risk threats.
Acknowledgements
This work has been partially funded by the EU Research and Innovation program HORIZON 2020,
COMPASS2020 project - Grant Agreement No: 833650
References:
[1] COMPASS2020 Coordination of Maritime assets for Persistent And Systematic Surveillance,
Project documentation (Boosting the effectiveness of the Security Union, H2020-SU-SEC-
2018-2019-2020), pp. 1-70.
[2] Pietrzykowski Z., Hajduk J., Operations of Maritime Surface Ships, Proceedings of the 13th
TransNav Conference, June 12-14, 2019, Gdynia, Poland (to appear).
[3] MSC 98/20/2. Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships. Proposal for a regulatory scoping exercise.
Submitted by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the Republic of
Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. 27th February 2017.
[4] Meadow G.C., Cross J., Autonomous Ships 101, The Journal of Ocean Technology, Vol.12, No.3, pp.
23-27.
[5] Laurinen M., Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative AAWA Seminar Helsinki,
Finland. Available from Internet, Last acces on June 6, 2019).
[6] Ahvenjarvi S., Platform for Development of the Autonomous Ship Technology, in Marine Navigation
(Ed. A Weintrit), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Marine Navigation and
Safety of Sea Transportation (TransNav 2017), June 21-23, 2017, Gdynia, Poland, pages 5.
[7] Insaurralde C.C., Autonomic computing technology for autonomous marine vehicles, Ocean
Engineering 74 (2013) 233-246.
[8] Hinostroza M.A., Haitong Xu, Guedes Soares C., Cooperative operation of autonomous surface
vehicles for maintaining formation in complex marine environment, Ocean Engineering 183
(2019) 132-154.
[9] Sahoo A., Dwivedy S.K., Robi P.S., Advancements in the field of autonomous underwater vehicle,
Ocean Engineering 181 (2019) 145-160.
[10] Van Brummelen J. et al., Autonomous vehicle perception: The technology of today and tomorrow,
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Transport Research Part C 89 (2018) 384-406.
[11] Meadow G., Ridgwell D., Kelly D., Autonomous Shipping Putting the human back in the
headline, Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology IMAREST, Sigapore, April
2018, pp. 1-23.
[12] Bauk S., A Review of NAVDAT and VDES as Upgrade of Maritime Communication Systems,
Proceedings of the 13th TransNav Conference, June 12-14, 2019, Gdynia, Poland (to appear)
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The impact of ICT on professional practice has been mainly in making jobs easier for the professions, facilitating decision-making and savings in operating costs, among others. The inefficient national electric power supply system and the high cost of computer hardware and software in relation to the dwindling fortunes of the professions in Nigeria’s depressed economy are the key obstacles to increased investments in ICT. The aim of this study is to understand the extent of ICT applications by professionals in built environment related vocations, with a view to improving the level of ICT application and adoption in Nigeria. A sample size of 82 respondents were used in this study, with questionnaires distributed to construction professionals. Three methods of data analysis were employed for this research. The study assessed the level of ICT application by professionals in built environment related vocations, with a view to improving the level of ICT application in Nigeria via a questionnaire survey with its respondents comprising of Architects, Builders, Engineers, Surveyors, and Quantity Surveyors. It examined the current status of ICT use in the built environment. The study discovered that the most commonly used softwares are; Microsoft Excel (100.0%), Microsoft Word (98.8%) and Microsoft PowerPoint (93.8%). Whereas, AutoCAD is the most popular at 87.7% for Architectural/ Engineering design and drawing, QSCAD (21.0%) for quantity surveying, BIM 360 at 32.1% for project management and Co-Construct at 19.8% for Building Management. The top three benefits of ICT as perceived by the respondents include time saving, makes job easier, and enhances productivity. Three major challenges faced were erratic power supply, high cost of purchasing ICT related softwares and/ or hardwares, job size and fees. The study recommend the following based on research results; the government should enable provision of steady power supply, as well as each organization to also provide back up options for power in case of power failure.
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Nowadays, artificial intelligence is a tool widely used in several areas such as medicine, personal assistance, regular/special education, leisure, among many others. Additive manufacturing development allows designing and making innovative low-cost robotic assistants for educational inclusion processes in developing countries. There are not enough assistive technologies for special education centers in Ecuador due to the lack of resources. For these reasons, in this paper, we describe the robot AsiRo-μ (multi-purpose robotic assistant, for its Spanish name). AsiRo-μ is based on the open-source 3D printed robot Inmmov. It implements the following functionalities: hand gestures recognition, automatic speech recognition and text to speech function through the IBM Watson Cloud services, and gesture imitation. The robot aims to conduct a dialogue with the children, motivate them to carry out the exercises/rehabilitation activities, and motivate and engage them in the therapy sessions (for children with disabilities). To determine the children’s acceptance level, we carried out a pilot experiment with two groups of children. The first group consisted of 7 children with multiple disabilities (intellectual disability, Joubert syndrome, Down Syndrome, Autism, etc.), whereas in the second participated 30 children aged between 4 and 6 years (without disabilities). Each child interacted with the robot, and a group of experts evaluated the children’s perceptions.
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Over the past two decades the emergence of new threats in the Mediterranean Sea contributed to reshaping the definition of maritime security while also underlining the need to enhance maritime situational awareness for authorities and stakeholders involved in sea borders management within the European Union. Considering that more than 70% of the European Union’s external borders are maritime and that the Mediterranean represents a crossroad between continents, maintaining a high level of vigilance in this regional basin is of the utmost importance. Cross-border crimes in the Mediterranean such as terrorism, weapons smuggling, drug-trafficking and irregular migration have an intrinsic transnational nature and are detrimental to the European Union and its Member States’ economic interests. Therefore, collecting and providing solid intelligence at sea lies at the core of the European Union’s Maritime Security Strategy. This not only requires using state-of-the-art technologies in the maritime domain but also calls for a stronger regional and international cooperation between European Union Member States and other Mediterranean partners, as well as sharing real-time information. Against this background, this chapter focuses on the evolution of maritime surveillance strategies and technologies used in the Mediterranean and the array of assets employed in the governance of the external maritime borders of the European Union. Further, opportunities for combining conventional surveillance operations at sea with more sustainable approaches in the Mediterranean are also explored.
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Advancing technologies create unique opportunities for constructing autonomous ships, which, in turn, raise growing interest of the maritime industry, shipowners in particular. These authors have analyzed actions taken in this field and some aspects related to the operations of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS). The presented case study refers to a ship with a skeleton crew on a deep sea voyage, where the ship’s autonomy is narrowed to the fourth stage of transport task – sea voyage and its navigational aspect.
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Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are robotic devices with a propulsion system for navigation and an onboard computer for decision making. AUV research is gaining popularity because of its extensive applications in fields from military to science. Robotic systems are need of the hour for exploration and environmental safety of the vast and deep oceans and water bodies. This paper presents current research trends in the field of AUVs and highlights future research directions. Here localization and navigation techniques such as inertial navigation to simultaneous localization and mapping being used in current AUVs are discussed in detail. Different optimal path planning and control methods are highlighted. Use of different sensor technology like sonar, laser, acoustic modems and stereo vision systems for localization, navigation and mapping is presented. Recent developments in underwater wireless communication along with the commercially available devices are discussed.
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Autonomous Marine Vehicles (AMVs) are not only being required to carry out more complex tasks but also longer missions. This mainly requires effective resilient operation and efficient resource management to succeed in persistent presence at sea or ocean with minimal human interaction while maintaining seakeeping performance. Even though some of the current AMVs have a large degree of self-governance, most of them fail to support self-management (e.g. auto-maintenance during pre/in/post-mission phases). Autonomic Computing (AC) basically provides the following self-managing capabilities: self-healing, self-protecting, self-optimizing, and self-configuring. In addition, it provides systems with self-aware, self-adjusted, and self-situated abilities. AC comes from a biological metaphor based on the self-regulating capabilities of the autonomic nervous system in the human body. This paper introduces the AC concept to control architectures of AMVs to endow them with resilience and environmental efficiency. The above capabilities are to help persistent autonomy and automation endure over complex and long AMV operations. This paper presents the architectural aspects, and details of design and realization of this promising AC-based approach. It also discusses four key aspects from existing methodologies and technologies that are potential approaches to support the autonomic control architecture proposed for AMVs. Finally, future research directions are presented.
Operations of Maritime Surface Ships
  • Z Pietrzykowski
  • J Hajduk
Pietrzykowski Z., Hajduk J., Operations of Maritime Surface Ships, Proceedings of the 13th TransNav Conference, June 12-14, 2019, Gdynia, Poland (to appear).
Autonomous vehicle perception: The technology of today and tomorrow
  • J Van Brummelen
Van Brummelen J. et al., Autonomous vehicle perception: The technology of today and tomorrow, MTEC/ICMASS 2019 IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1357 (2019) 012045 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1357/1/012045
Autonomous Shipping -Putting the human back in the headline
  • G Meadow
  • D Ridgwell
  • D Kelly
Meadow G., Ridgwell D., Kelly D., Autonomous Shipping -Putting the human back in the headline, Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology -IMAREST, Sigapore, April 2018, pp. 1-23.