Article

Sedentism, pottery and inland fishing in Late Glacial Japan: a reassessment of the Maedakochi site

Authors:
  • Tokyo Metropolitan Archaeological Center, Japan, Tokyo
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Abstract

The Palaeolithic–Neolithic transition in East Asia is characterised by the transformation of mobile hunter-gatherer groups into sedentary communities. The existence of ‘ice-age’ pottery in the Japanese archipelago, however, is inconsistent with claims that directly link climatic warming with sedentism and the development of ceramics. Here, the authors reconsider the chronology and palaeoenvironment of the Maedakochi site in Tokyo. New AMS dating and environmental data suggest that intensified inland fishing in cold environments, immediately prior to the Late Glacial warm period, created conditions conducive to sedentism and the development of subsistence-related pottery.

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... Жилища располагались рядом друг с другом и имели округленную форму площадью 10-13 кв. м [726]. ...
... Источник изображений: [726] Часть 4. Истоки неолита в Китае ются на возвышенностях, примыкающих к речным долинам. На одном поселении могут насчитываться десятки объектов разных типов, что может указывать на более долговременный характер обитания. ...
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В монографии представлены материалы, отражающие процесс формирования неолита и земледелия в Китае. В первой главе рассматриваются особенности эпохи, переходной от палеолита к неолиту, много внимания уделено проблемам, связанным с установлением хронологии древнейшей керамики Китая. В главе, посвященной раннему неолиту, дается обзор раннеземледельческих культур Китая, их жилищ, поселений, погребальных и иных обрядов, керамической посуды и прочего инвентаря. В отдельной главе подробно рассматриваются обстоятельства и особенности формирования земледелия в Китае, анализируются текущие источники, а также сложившиеся подходы к их пониманию и интерпретации. Наконец, в последней главе разбираются возможные связи раннеземледельческих культур Китая с ранними земледельцами Западной Евразии и культурой дземон Японских островов.
... It is presupposed that the hunting, gathering, and fishing lifeways had been equally critical since the preceding Upper Paleolithic, as evidenced by the continuous use of Upper Paleolithic lithic technologies, notably blade and biface technologies. On the other hand, some open-air sites, such as Sankakuyama I (Fujisaki and Nakamura, 2006), Maedakochi (Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education, 2002;Morisaki et al., 2019) and Saishikada-nakajima (Hagiya, 2017), where shallow pit houses have been identified, show traces of sedentary lifeway. However, the fraction of pit houses in features is smaller than those observed in the middle Holocene Jomon period (Koyama, 1978;Habu, 2004), suggesting that early pottery users persisted in nomadic lifeway with occasional sedentary behavior. ...
... The apparent change in diet breadth was correlated with changes in human behavioral organization and global climate that occurred during the transition from the terminal Pleistocene to the initial Holocene (e.g., Binford, 1968;Aikens and Akazawa, 1996). However, these changes were not clear-cut based on the Japanese terminal Pleistocene archaeological record, as variability in archaeological patterns has been identified with newly synthesized radiocarbon dates for the terminal Pleistocene with respect to early Jomon pottery (e.g., Taniguchi and Kawaguchi, 2001;Yasuda et al., 2004;Sato et al., 2011;Morisaki and Sato, 2014;Morisaki and Natsuki, 2017;Sato and Natsuki, 2017;Morisaki et al., 2019). For example, a pioneering study by Yoshinori Yasuda (1998, 2002, Yasuda et al., 2004 delivered the climate-driven cultural ecological explanation that the hunter-gatherers of the terminal Pleistocene employed a new adaptive strategy using pottery for the Late-Glacial ecosystem 15,000-14,000 years ago. ...
Article
Despite its long-standing assumption of the spread of early pottery innovated by the Late-Glacial hunter-gatherers in Japan, cultural diffusion as an explanatory model has not explicitly tested. This study addresses the question of the extent to which cultural diffusion played a role in proliferating the innovated early pottery technology across the Japanese Archipelago by employing the distance decay model of cultural diffusion. Based on the assembled dataset of the Late-Glacial assemblages with early pottery radiocarbon dates, distances between the presumed core where the earliest dates were obtained (i.e., Odaiyamamoto I) and the adopted sites do not exhibit the time-progressive pattern. In contrast, frequencies of potsherds relative to lithic artifacts increases as time progressed, implying that early pottery technology was gradually accumulated nearly by the end of the Younger Dryas, ca, 11,000 cal. BP. This study demonstrates that cultural diffusion does not fully explain the emergence and spread of early pottery in Japan, while the Late-Glacial travel and exchange networks enabled hunter-gatherers to transmit and accumulate knowledge of pottery use.
... The emergence of pottery in the Japanese archipelago occurred in the transitional Incipient Jomon period (c. 17,000-11,500 cal BP) as the highly mobile lifestyle of the Paleolithic changed to the sedentary lifestyle of the Jomon (Morisaki and Natsuki, 2017;Morisaki et al., 2019). Incipient Jomon archaeological components do not necessarily indicate a gradual transition to sedentary life but represent fluctuating relationships between environmental change and human behavior in the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene periods (Iizuka and Izuho, 2017;Morisaki and Natsuki, 2017;Morisaki and Sato, 2014). ...
... A recent study of the Maedakochi site provides direct evidence indicating a clear correlation between the appearance of dwelling features, the development of pottery, and inland fishing practices before to the LG warm period (before 15,000 cal BP) (Morisaki et al., 2019). Thus, pottery appeared on Honshu earlier than Hokkaido, and the subsistence strategy and settlement pattern began changing to a more sedentary lifestyle before the LG warm period. ...
Article
This study examined temporal changes in the archaeological records of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in Hokkaido, northern Japan, based on assemblage composition, radiocarbon ages, projectile point flaking pattern, and site distribution, with a particular focus on the lithic reduction technique. It explained the formation processes of Jomon society in response to climate change as follows. In Hokkaido, pottery emerged during the Late Glacial (LG) warm period (ca. 15,000–13,000 cal BP) because the Incipient Jomon people migrated from Honshu to the north. The Incipient Jomon communities coexisted with the Terminal Upper Paleolithic (TUP) people that had continued to occupy the region since the stage prior to the LG warm period, but the Incipient Jomon population was relatively small. During the LG cold period (ca. 13,000–11,500 cal BP), the subsistence and settlement strategies adopted by the Incipient Jomon people could not continue in Hokkaido. There is currently no reliable evidence of human activity during the LG cold period. Nevertheless, the analysis of stone tool-making patterns has revealed that stone tool making originating among the TUP people is found in an early Initial Jomon assemblage from the Taisho 6 site. It has an accepted date range of 11,000–10,000 cal BP. This indicates that TUP people's more mobile lifestyle might have enabled them to adapt to the LG cold environment. In the initial Holocene, there was a change in subsistence strategy evidenced in the increase in pottery vessels and the emergence of tools for processing of plant foods. The dramatic warming at the beginning of the Holocene is thought to have significantly changed the TUP people's subsistence strategies and lifestyles.
... Although microblades and stemmed bifacial points co-occur in most of these assemblages (e.g., Shirataki-Hattoridai, Inada 1; Aikens and Higuchi 1982), in a few only stemmed bifacial points are present (e.g., Kamishirataki 2; Naoe et al. 2016;Yamada 2008). Bifacial stemmed points continued to be produced in central and northern Japan through the Incipient Jomon period (which started as early as 15,500 cal yr BP and ended around 10,700 cal yr BP; Nagai 2007), alongside new technologies like pottery, for example, at sites like Taisho 3 and Maedakochi, a further indication of subsistence intensification and the addition of marine resources and salmon in the diet (Iizuka 2018;Morisaki et al. 2019;Nakazawa et al. 2011;Natsuki 2018). ...
... In northern Japan, pre-last glacial maximum stemmed points are likewise unifacial or backed, bifacial tools appear during the last glacial maximum, and bifacial stemmed points do not appear in the record until the late-late glacial, after 16,000 cal yr BP, in a microblade-rich context. In Honshu, pottery and evidence of sedentism emerged shortly thereafter (Morisaki et al. 2019). ...
Article
The Western Stemmed and Paleocoastal technocomplexes are prevalent in western North America. A working hypothesis states they are associated with the late-Pleistocene human migration into the Americas and derive from an antecedent located along the North Pacific Rim. Here, we review their records to create a techno-typological baseline, which we then compare to early archaeological records from the North Pacific Rim, Beringia, Siberia, and Russian Far East. Our results indicate stemmed points and related socket hafting were an important component of Upper Paleolithic technology across northeast Asia since at least the last glacial maximum. An associated diagnostic bifacial reduction strategy is present by the early part of the late glacial, and continues in younger technocomplexes. Future research should continue to focus on analyses of the chronological and technological relationships between different technocomplexes to uncover their evolutionary origins.
... This interval was likely less productive for maritime subsistence in Northern Honshu and Hokkaido. That might explain the absence of substantial maritime traditions (Morisaki et al., 2019) at a time when sea levels were approaching (and modestly exceeding) contemporary ones. Interestingly, archaeological settlements decline and distributions reorganize significantly in Hokkaido and Sakhalin in the early Holocene Vasilevski & Grischenko, Chapter Stone Age People in the Insular World: Stability and Migrations on Sakhalin, Hokkaido and the Kuril Islands). ...
Chapter
Drawing together evidence and insights from other chapters in this volume, this final chapter examines the archaeological history of Maritime Northeast Asia from Japan and Korea to the Bering Strait, as it unfolded over the past 17,000 years. With coasts and islands lining the Northwest Pacific and three marginal seas, from the subtropical Ryukyu Islands to the arctic latitudes of the Bering strait, the Northwest Pacific represents an environmentally unique context for the development and subsequent ‘evolution’ of maritime adaptations. This uniqueness is shaped by the interaction of weather and ocean currents that fueled high but variably productive near-shore ecosystems. Through the Holocene, these ecosystems drew people into complex relationships with the submarine world. Those relationships changed through time, as they were mediated by innovations in maritime technologies and the maturation of systems of traditional knowledge, social networks, and emergent complex societies and economies. Geographically, the chapters in the volume transect the gradient from temperate to polar environments and they bring forward evidence of the history of maritime developments, adjustments, and sometimes abandonments. The settled coastal life and intensified maritime economies of the early to mid-Holocene “Maritime Neolithic” and the eventual incorporation of coastal people into larger scale, late Holocene political economies developed in and affected the temperate latitudes communities sooner and more completely than they did subarctic and arctic ones before the entire region was absorbed into the global ‘world system’ of recent centuries. Even so, the broad scale consideration of Northeast Asian maritime developments, in connection to trends in adjacent terrestrial regions, reminds us that even residents at the Bering Strait (and into Alaska) were influenced by—and played a part in—the expanding social, material, economic and political processes of greater Northeast Asia. Archaeologists need to pay greater attention to these larger contexts when trying to understand the culture histories of the regions involved. Exploration of the long-term archaeological histories of the Northeast Asian maritime zone is of vital interest to Northeast Asian cultural history, our understanding of the ‘evolution’ of complex maritime adaptations and interconnected social networks on the North Pacific Rim.
... Akira Matsui (1952Matsui ( -2015 explored taphonomic factors why salmon bones might not be preserved and reported 45 sites with salmon remains from Japan ranging from the Jōmon to early modern periods (Matsui, 1985). The best-known salmon fishing site from Stage 1 is Incipient Jōmon Maeda Kōchi (Tokyo) (Morisaki et al., 2019). The site is located at the confluence of the Tama and Akikawa rivers; presently 50 km from the coast, it would have been even further inland in the Incipient Jōmon. ...
Chapter
Archaeological research exploring prehistoric food globalization is beginning to transform our understanding of early agricultural expansions and exchange. By contrast, a more linear progression from aboriginal to global systems remains a common interpretation of the long-term history of fisheries, a trend sometimes reinforced by ideas about ‘traditional’ culinary heritage. Archaeological and historical information, including faunal remains, fishing tools and trading patterns, are used here to propose a seven-stage model for the history of Japanese fisheries from 14.5 ka (thousand years) BCE to the present. An analysis of causal factors behind these stages shows that globalization played a key role in all seven. Differences in the pattern of the premodern globalization of fisheries between Japan and Atlantic Europe underline the need for further research in this field.KeywordsFisheriesGlobalizationMaritime technologyTradeMaritime mode of productionState accessible productsJapanese Islands
... The association we note between early pottery and aquatic resources appears to have deep cultural roots and extends over large parts of East Asia, including other parts of Late Glacial Japan (Craig et al., 2013) and the Lower Amur (Shoda et al., 2020), plus the Early Holocene of Japan (Lucquin et al., 2016a(Lucquin et al., , 2018, Korea (Shoda et al., 2017) and Sakhalin Island (Gibbs et al., 2017). In general, much of the earliest pottery in Japan appears to have involved mobile groups gathering seasonally to harvest fish runs, which would have diversified subsistence during periods of extreme cold (Morisaki et al., 2019), but may also have involved group feasts and other rituals, as has been suggested in other world regions (Taché and Craig, 2015). However, the aquatic relationship also persists into warmer periods of the Late Glacial (Craig et al., 2013), and more surprisingly, across the major climatic and environmental shifts between the Pleistocene and Holocene, when warmer climates and expanding broad-leaved forest cover would have provided abundant new plant and animal resources such as nuts and wild ruminants (Lucquin et al., 2018). ...
Article
The goal of this contribution is to stimulate a wider reflection on the role of food consumption practices throughout prehistory. We focussed on the Jōmon communities of Hokkaidō Island in Northern Japan since these mobile foragers underwent a process of economic diversification and intensification, eventually leading to higher levels of sedentism across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Moreover, dynamic social settings and expansion of the subsistence base at the start of the Holocene would have provided rich opportunities for novel food combinations, and potentially, the rise of diverse regional cuisines. We investigated tool kits and resource landscapes, and sampled pottery from a range of sites, phases and regions. We then applied organic residue analysis to confirm the actual spatiotemporal patterning in cuisine. Although we predicted that ruminants and nuts would have played a major role in local cuisine, especially in inland areas, our results indicate that aquatic resources were central to pottery-based cuisines across the island, and that other food groups had probably been processed in other ways. While organic residue analysis enabled us to reconstruct some major patterns in Jōmon cuisine, we conclude that archaeologists will need to look "beyond the cooking pot" to fully appreciate the full diversity of local foodways.
Chapter
This chapter explores the available evidence for maritime adaptations around the coasts of Northeast Asia from 40 ka to the end of the Pleistocene. Drawing on the regional archaeological records reported in other chapters of this volume, as well as new genetic and palaeoceanographic understandings, I examine possible scenarios for a cryptic Maritime Beringian occupation in the Late Glacial Maximum—whether it could have been a continuation of earlier more temperate and subtropical practices; if not, where it could have formed, and what are the most likely regions of the North Pacific Rim to have supported coastal livelihoods prior to a coastal migration to temperate North American and points south. Recent evidence suggests the LGM North Pacific climate was milder in both winter and summer than the continental interiors of Beringia, making it plausible for maritime communities to form in areas of above average productivity such as the now submerged Pacific coasts of Hokkaido, Kamchatka and the north shore of the Alaska Peninsula/eastern Aleutians. With circumstantial evidence leaning heavily on the side of a coastal route for post-glacial settlement of the Americas, the question is no longer whether or not a Maritime Beringian population existed in the LGM but how people crossed the Bering Land Bridge, and—if by boat—how they manufactured their watercraft in a Beringian environment lacking abundant live trees. Future work should focus on: improved physical models of the Northeast Asian/Beringian paleoshorelines and ocean dynamics to refine predictions on likely places to prospect for submerged evidence; marine coring of submerged but protected paleolakes, ponds and lagoons in those locations in search of evidence of human presence in the most likely productive “hotspots” for maritime settlement (e.g., sterols, sedDNA, etc.); and refinement of submarine archaeological techniques to survey those locations for positive archaeological evidence as has been developed in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.
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Thorium-230 ages and oxygen isotope ratios of stalagmites from Dongge Cave, China, characterize the Asian Monsoon and low-latitude precipitation over the past 160,000 years. Numerous abrupt changes in 18O/16O values result from changes in tropical and subtropical precipitation driven by insolation and millennial-scale circulation shifts. The Last Interglacial Monsoon lasted 9.7 +/- 1.1 thousand years, beginning with an abrupt (less than 200 years) drop in 18O/16O values 129.3 +/- 0.9 thousand years ago and ending with an abrupt (less than 300 years) rise in 18O/16O values 119.6 +/- 0.6 thousand years ago. The start coincides with insolation rise and measures of full interglacial conditions, indicating that insolation triggered the final rise to full interglacial conditions.
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We found that the emergence of oldest pottery in each region in the East and Northeast Asia are temporally varied and affected by different factors due to the diverse resource structure and climatic condition of the area. Therefore, there is no single explanation for them as climatic amelioration or sudden behavioral change. In the second half of LGM, when the climate became relatively temperate, use of the world's oldest pottery has been started in the East and South China. In the end of LGM, the Japanese oldest pottery appeared from the whole area except for Hokkaido of northern Japan. In the warm period of the first half of LG first pottery appeared in the Transbaikal of East Siberia and the Amur basin of Russian Far East. In the second half of LG, in spite of the cold climate, first pottery appeared in the North and Northeast China.
Article
A review of the cultural evidence from northern coastal Atlantic Spain (a.k.a., Vasco-Cantabria) spanning the late Last Glacial and early Postglacial (from Greenland Interstadial 1 to the mid-Holocene) reveals that some changes may have been related to major climate/environmental changes, while others may be attributed to demographic factors that caused possible resource overexploitation and to historical factors such as the long-term availability of Neolithic domesticates and technology in adjacent regions. The culmination of the warming trend of the Last Glacial Interstadial in the Allerød seems to have been of particular importance in the transition from the classic Upper Magdalenian (with its rupestral and portable art and complex stone and bone technologies) to the Azilian, despite continuity in the main game species and in the process of subsistence intensification. The Younger Dryas, on the other hand, seems to have had little immediate direct repercussion in this region, as the Azilian continued, straddling the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. On the other hand, the climatically non-dramatic Preboreal-Boreal boundary seems to have seen the abrupt, marked break between the “Epimagdalenian” Azilian and the Asturian coastal shell midden Mesolithic in the western sector of the region. This contrasted with greater technological continuity (albeit with similarities to the Sauveterrian tradition in adjacent SW France) in the Mesolithic of the Basque Country, with no archeological indications that the 8.2 cal kya event had important consequences in this region. Then, some 15 centuries later, came the sudden, but centuries-delayed appearance of Neolithic domesticates and ceramics on the Atlantic side of the Cantabrian Cordillera originating from sources in the Mediterranean environments of the upper Ebro basin and/or southern France. This major lifeway change was possibly finally accepted, within a still mixed economy, in the face of the overexploitation of wild food resources. The “neolithization” of Vasco-Cantabria was finally underway by c. 6.6 cal kya, quickly leading to new human-land relationships characterized by mainly ovicaprine pastoralism, apparently limited cereal agriculture, continued foraging, recolonization of the montane interior and the construction of modest megalithic monuments.
Article
OxCal is a widely used software package for the calibration of radiocarbon dates and the statistical analysis of ¹⁴ C and other chronological information. The program aims to make statistical methods easily available to researchers and students working in a range of different disciplines. This paper will look at the recent and planned developments of the package. The recent additions to the statistical methods are primarily aimed at providing more robust models, in particular through model averaging for deposition models and through different multiphase models. The paper will look at how these new models have been implemented and explore the implications for researchers who might benefit from their use. In addition, a new approach to the evaluation of marine reservoir offsets will be presented. As the quantity and complexity of chronological data increase, it is also important to have efficient methods for the visualization of such extensive data sets and methods for the presentation of spatial and geographical data embedded within planned future versions of OxCal will also be discussed.
Article
Data on the emergence of pottery and agriculture in Eurasia were analyzed from the view of their spatiotemporal relationship. It was found that there are 2 major types of association between pottery and agriculture: 1) East Asian, with pottery as the main criterion of the Neolithization; and 2) Levantine, with agriculture as the phenomenon most closely related to the emergence of the Neolithic. Some regions of Eurasia have intermediate characteristics. The concept of a single area for pottery origin in eastern Eurasia and its subsequent spread to the west, still used by some scholars, is the revival of the old diffusionist paradigm and does not seem to advance the analysis of the Neolithization process. If the wheat/barley agriculture definitely originated in the Levantine “core” and spread toward Anatolia and central/western Europe, it is impossible to apply the same approach to pottery. The latest developments in chronology of the earliest ceramics in China, one of the key regions in the world in terms of the origin of pottery-making, are critically evaluated.
Article
This study reconstructs food habits through carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, and C/N analysis of charred residues inside pottery from Amur River sites in Russia (Goncharka 1 site, Novotroitskoe 10 site, Kondon 1 site) and in Hokkaido, Japan (Taisho 3 site, Yachiyo A site). We obtained dates from 12,330 to 7920 BP for these sites. There are major differences in the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios between the Taisho 3 site (δ ¹³ C: -21.7 to -24.1; δ ¹⁵ N: 11.9–14.7%) and the other sites (δ ¹³ C:-22.0 to -27.1%; δ ¹⁵ N: 7.1–13.1%), suggesting that the people of the Taisho 3 site made use of anadromous fish such as salmonids and some species of trout, as well as marine resources. The dates from the other sites except Taisho 3 were assumed to be from a mixture of marine foods, C 3 plants and terrestrial animals, and freshwater fish. The food boiled in the pots also indicated a high dependence on marine resources during the initial stages of the emergence of pottery.
Article
The following is a list of radiocarbon dates obtained since the preparation of the manuscript for the publication of Michigan V, in December, 1959. The method of measurement and treatment of data are the same as those described in the introductions to Michigan lists III and IV. A full statement on the Michigan counter is referred to by Crane (p. 46) in this issue.
Article
The following is a list of radiocarbon dates obtained since the time of the preparation of Michigan list IV. The method of measurement and treatment of data are the same as those described in the introductions to lists III and IV.
Article
Oxygen isotope records of five stalagmites from Hulu Cave near Nanjing bear a remarkable resemblance to oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores, suggesting that East Asian Monsoon intensity changed in concert with Greenland temperature between 11,000 and 75,000 years before the present (yr. B.P.). Between 11,000 and 30,000 yr. B.P., the timing of changes in the monsoon, as established with 230Th dates, generally agrees with the timing of temperature changes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) core, which supports GISP2's chronology in this interval. Our record links North Atlantic climate with the meridional transport of heat and moisture from the warmest part of the ocean where the summer East Asian Monsoon originates.
Article
A cross-cultural survey of hunter-gatherers is conducted with particular emphasis on housing, mobility, and subsistence as these features vary with ecological settings and with particular environmental variables. Implications are drawn for investigations of variability as it is documented archaeologically. Particular emphasis is given to the features listed above, and to arguments in the literature that cite these variables and seek to evaluate the relative "complexity" of ancient sociocultural systems known from archaeological materials.
Article
Kokubu plain is suitable for obtaining the records of sea levels and palaeoenvironments since the last deglaciation, because thick coastal deposits since this stage occur in the region. We examined changes in sea level and palaeoenvi-ronments over the past 15,000 years on the basis of palaeoenvironmental records of sedimentary facies, shells, foraminifers and diatoms, and chronological data of tephras and 14C dates in three cores obtained on Kokobu plain.The results are as follows. Kagoshima Bay was a lake with a level c. 90m below the present sea level in the Last Glacial Maximum. Sea level was 85〜90m below the present sea level and the sea attained the head of the bay at c. 14,500 calBP. Subsequent rapid sea-level rise occurred in two stages at c. 14,500〜13,000calBP and 11,500〜7,500calBP. A shallow sea or tidal flat was maintained in the present coastal area even during the course of rapid sea-level rise in the last deglaciation. The head of the bay was not closed by the growth of Sakurajima volcano at the southern rim of Aira caldera. These changes in sea level and palaeoenvironments are precisely correlated with marine oxygen isotope records using Sakurajima Satsuma tephra (ca. 12,800 calBP).
Article
Studies of human behavioural responses to climate change have begun to address traditional archaeological questions in new ways. Hitherto, most of these studies have focused on western Eurasia, but the question of human response to rapid climatic changes in northern Japan during the Upper Palaeolithic period opens up new perspectives. Combining artefact studies and palaeoenvironmental evidence, Japan provides a case study for how quickly modern humans adapted to new environmental challenges, and how that adaptation can be harted through the lithic technologies employed in different geoclimatic circumstances.
Article
OxCal is a widely used software package for the calibration of radiocarbon dates and the statistical analysis of C-14 and other chronological information. The program aims to make statistical methods easily available to researchers and students working in a range of different disciplines. This paper will look at the recent and planned developments of the package. The recent additions to the statistical methods are primarily aimed at providing more robust models, in particular through model averaging for deposition models and through different multiphase models. The paper will look at how these new models have been implemented and explore the implications for researchers who might benefit from their use. In addition, a new approach to the evaluation of marine reservoir offsets will be presented. As the quantity and complexity of chronological data increase, it is also important to have efficient methods for the visualization of such extensive data sets and methods for the presentation of spatial and geographical data embedded within planned future versions of OxCal will also be discussed.
Article
The effect of the Younger Dryas cold reversal on the survival of Late Glacial hunter-gatherers in the Japanese Archipelago is evaluated, through a synthetic compilation of 14 C dates obtained from excavated Late Glacial and initial Holocene sites (332 14 C dates from 88 sites). The estimated East Asian monsoon intensity and vegetation history based on the loess accumulations in varved sediments and pollen records in and around the Japanese Archipelago suggest an abrupt change to cool and dry climate at the onset of Younger Dryas, coupled with the DansgaardeOeschger Cycles as recorded in Greenland. The chronometric placement of sites based on an assessment of 14 C dates show that the site numbers decrease from the BøllingeAllerød to Younger Dryas and increase from the Younger Dryas to Preboreal. However, human population dynamics inferred from a site distribution analysis was little changed from the previous BøllingeAllerød and to the following Preboreal. Moreover, hunter-gatherers consistently employed ceramic pottery technology since its emergence prior to the onset of Younger Dryas, while the quantity of ceramic vessels that were undermined during the Younger Dryas dramatically increased at the onset of the Holocene, implying that a substantial change in hunter-gatherer socioeconomy occurred after the end of Younger Dryas.
Article
In the late Late Pleistocene (lLP), Japanese terrestrial large mammals consisted of two main groups; the Palaeoloxodon-Sinomegaceroides complex and the mammoth fauna. The former inhabited temperate forests and the latter were adapted to patches of taiga and grassland in cold environments. Among the two groups, almost all large mammals became extinct in the Late Quaternary. The lLP extinction is one of the most interesting topics currently debated in Japan.This paper evaluates previously reported radiocarbon dates of mammal fossils to determine the timing of lLP megafaunal extinctions on the Japanese Archipelago. Unreliable specimens which were dated by conventional 14C decay counting, samples obtained from poorly preserved fossils, samples inconsistent with geological context, and samples dated by combining bone fragments of several species and whose exact provenances are unknown are rejected. The timing of extinctions was compared with the vegetational changes. As a result, the present paper indicates that the extinction of large mammals in the Palaeoloxodon-Sinomegaceroides complex roughly coincided with the onset of the last glacial maximum (LGM: from ca. 25,000 BP to 16,000 BP) and subsequent domination by subarctic conifers. In contrast, the mammoth fauna survived the LGM and became extinct or migrated northward when the climate started to ameliorate. The lLP extinction on the Japanese Islands occurred in two pulses. These results imply that the main causes of lLP extinction on the Japanese Archipelago were changes of the ecosystem driven by climatic changes rather than “overkill” by human hunters.
Article
日本列島東北部を中心に分布する長者久保・神子柴文化に土器が出現する.青森県大平山元I遺跡は,最古の土器を出土した遺跡の一つである.大平山元I遺跡出土土器の表面に付着していた煮炊きのコゲとみられる微量の炭化物を試料として,加速器質量分析計(AMS)による14C年代測定を行った結果,12,680±140~13,780±170yrs BPの年代値が得られた.長者久保・神子柴文化よりも相対的に新しい十和田八戸テフラのAMS14C年代が12,380±110~13,080±60yrs BPであることに照らしてもこれは妥当な年代であり,長者久保・神子柴文化期における土器出現の14C年代は13,000yrs BP以前に遡る可能性が強い.INTCAL98を使用して大平山元I遺跡の14C年代を暦年較正すると15,320~16,540cal BPとなる.これは晩氷期の年代域よりもさらに古い.土器の出現は後氷期に起こった人類技術革新の一つと説明されてきたが,極東地域では最終氷期の寒冷な環境下ですでに土器の使用が始まっていたことが確実となった.長者久保・神子柴文化期を縄文時代草創期に含めている現在の時代区分は見直しが必要である.
Article
Pottery was a hunter-gatherer innovation that first emerged in East Asia between 20,000 and 12,000 calibrated years before present (cal bp), towards the end of the Late Pleistocene epoch, a period of time when humans were adjusting to changing climates and new environments. Ceramic container technologies were one of a range of late glacial adaptations that were pivotal to structuring subsequent cultural trajectories in different regions of the world, but the reasons for their emergence and widespread uptake are poorly understood. The first ceramic containers must have provided prehistoric hunter-gatherers with attractive new strategies for processing and consuming foodstuffs, but virtually nothing is known of how early pots were used. Here we report the chemical analysis of food residues associated with Late Pleistocene pottery, focusing on one of the best-studied prehistoric ceramic sequences in the world, the Japanese Jōmon. We demonstrate that lipids can be recovered reliably from charred surface deposits adhering to pottery dating from about 15,000 to 11,800 cal bp (the Incipient Jōmon period), the oldest pottery so far investigated, and that in most cases these organic compounds are unequivocally derived from processing freshwater and marine organisms. Stable isotope data support the lipid evidence and suggest that most of the 101 charred deposits analysed, from across the major islands of Japan, were derived from high-trophic-level aquatic food. Productive aquatic ecotones were heavily exploited by late glacial foragers, perhaps providing an initial impetus for investment in ceramic container technology, and paving the way for further intensification of pottery use by hunter-gatherers in the early Holocene epoch. Now that we have shown that it is possible to analyse organic residues from some of the world's earliest ceramic vessels, the subsequent development of this critical technology can be clarified through further widespread testing of hunter-gatherer pottery from later periods.
Article
Direct dating of a potsherd itself has been investigated for one group of Jomon pottery, so-called `fiber-tempered pottery', which contain a large amount of organic fiber as a temper. The best condition of alkaline treatment is examined for four samples. Each sample was divided into two parts, the surface and the black inside. A fraction of humic acid alone can be removed when a suitable moderate condition. In this study, 14 potteries have been dated.
Article
Measured 18O/16O ratios from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core extending back to 16,500 cal yr B.P. provide a continuous record of climate change since the last glaciation. High-resolution annual 18O/16O results were obtained for most of the current millennium (A.D. 818-1985) and record the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, and a distinct 11-yr 18O/16O cycle. Volcanic aerosols depress central Greenland annual temperature (∼1.5°C maximally) and annual 18O/16O for about 4 yr after each major eruptive event. On a bidecadal to millennial time scale, the contribution of solar variability to Holocene Greenlandic temperature change is ∼0.4°C. The role of thermohaline circulation change on climate, problematic during the Holocene, is more distinct for the 16,500-10,000 cal yr B.P. interval. (Analogous to 14C age calibration terminology, we express time in calibrated (cal) yr B.P. (A.D. 1950 = 0 cal yr B.P.)). The Oldest Dryas/Bølling/Older Dryas/Allerød/Younger Dryas sequence appears in great detail. Bidecadal variance in 18O/16O, but not necessarily in temperature, is enhanced during the last phase of lateglacial time and the Younger Dryas interval, suggesting switches of air mass transport between jet stream branches. The branched system is nearly instantaneously replaced at the beginning of the Bølling and Holocene (at ∼14,670 and ∼11,650 cal yr B.P., respectively) by an atmospheric circulation system in which 18O/16O and annual accumulation initially track each other closely. Thermodynamic considerations of the accumulation rate-temperature relationship can be used to evaluate the 18 O/16O-temperature relationship. The GISP2 ice-layer-count years of major GISP2 climate transitions also support the use of coral 14C ages for age calibration.
Article
Oxygen isotope records of five stalagmites from Hulu Cave near Nanjing bear a remarkable resemblance to oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores, suggesting that East Asian Monsoon intensity changed in concert with Greenland temperature between 11,000 and 75,000 years before the present (yr. B.P.). Between 11,000 and 30,000 yr. B.P., the timing of changes in the monsoon, as established with 230Th dates, generally agrees with the timing of temperature changes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) core, which supports GISP2's chronology in this interval. Our record links North Atlantic climate with the meridional transport of heat and moisture from the warmest part of the ocean where the summer East Asian Monsoon originates.
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