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Becoming a more adaptive teacher through collaborating in Lesson Study? Examining the influence of Lesson Study on teachers' adaptive teaching practices in mainstream secondary education

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Abstract

Adaptive teaching has become increasingly important in research and practice. However, its complexity calls for effective professional development approaches, such as Lesson Study, that may promote adaptive teaching practices. This study uses a quasi-experimental mixed-methods design, consisting of stimulated recall interviews and classroom observation instruments, to determine whether participating in Lesson Study leads to more adaptive teaching practices in both teachers' perceptions and behavior. Although intervention group teachers reported various important changes in their perceptions about adaptive teaching and their (adaptive) teaching behavior, no intervention effects were found. This raises questions about how adaptive teaching can be defined and measured.

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... Angehenden Lehrkräften muss die Chance geboten werden, die Maßnahmen, die sie theoretisch lernen, praktisch anwenden zu können (Schipper et al., 2020). Maßnahmen, die besonders wirkungsvoll sind, wie bspw. ...
... Den Lehramtsanwärtern sollte in der Ausbildung verdeutlicht werden, dass Binnendifferenzierung ein komplexes Unterfangen ist, das Vorbereitung bedarf, welche sich allerdings auch auszahlt, werden positive Effekte auf Schüler/-innenseite in Betracht gezogen. Die vorbereitungsärmere Methode ist eventuell dann nicht die effektivste Methode, was Lehrkräfte bei der Unterrichtsplanung und -durchführung reflektieren müssen(Schipper, van der Lans, de Vries, Goei & van Veen, 2020).Mastery Learning und Helfer-und Tutorensysteme am seltensten implementiert (H1.2)Weiterhin gibt es Maßnahmen zur Binnendifferenzierung, die insgesamt nur sehr selten eingesetzt werden. In einer eigenen Vorarbeit gaben Lehrkräfte in Interviews an, Maßnahmen zielerreichenden Lernens (Mastery Learning) sowie Helfer-und Tutorensysteme nur selten in die Schulpraxis zu implementieren. ...
Thesis
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Heterogenität ist Teil des (Schul-)Alltags, was sich in den Lerngruppen widerspiegelt, die Lehrkräfte in der Schule vorfinden. Unterschiedlichen Bedürfnissen auf Seiten der Schüler/-innenschaft soll – und das ist in zahlreichen der Öffentlichkeit zugänglichen Dokumenten, wie Schulgesetzen, Schulordnungen und Standards für die Lehrerbildung festgeschrieben – in Form von Differenzierung begegnet werden. Innerhalb dieser Dissertation wird untersucht, wie Binnendifferenzierung auf Mikroebene in der Schulpraxis implementiert wird. Dabei werden die Einsatzhäufigkeit binnendifferenzierender Maßnahmen und Kontextvariablen von Binnendifferenzierung untersucht. Anhand einer Stichprobe von N = 295 Lehrkräften verschiedener Schulformen, die die Fächer Deutsch und/oder Englisch unterrichten, wurde u.a. gezeigt, dass Binnendifferenzierung allgemein nicht (sehr) häufig eingesetzt wird, dass manche Maßnahmen häufiger Einsatz finden als andere, dass an Gymnasien Binnendifferenzierung nicht so häufig eingesetzt wird, wie an anderen Schulformen und dass die Einsatzhäufigkeit bedingende Kontextfaktoren bspw. kollegiale Zusammenarbeit bei der Unterrichtsplanung und -durchführung, die wahrgenommene Qualität der Lehramtsausbildung hinsichtlich des Umgangs mit Heterogenität und die Bereitschaft zur Implementation von Binnendifferenzierung sind und auch Einstellungen zu Binnendifferenzierung und (Lehrer/-innen)Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen in Zusammenhang mit dem Maßnahmeneinsatz stehen. Die durchgeführte Post-hoc Analyse zeigte bzgl. Einsatzhäufigkeit weiterhin Zusammenhänge zwischen der Persönlichkeit der Lehrkräfte und der Schulform, an der diese unterrichten. Die Ergebnisse entstammen der Schulpraxis und liefern deshalb praktische Implikationen, wie bspw. Hinweise zur Steigerung der Qualität der Lehramtsausbildung, die neben zukünftigen Forschungsansätzen im Rahmen dieser Arbeit expliziert werden. _____________________________________________________________________ Heterogeneity is part of everyday life, and classrooms mirror this reality. Thus, students’ broad array of learning needs should, as stipulated in numerous publicly accessible documents, such as school laws, school regulations and standards for teacher training, be meaningfully addressed through means of differentiated instruction. The present doctoral thesis examines how differentiated instruction at the micro level is implemented in school practice. In particular, teachers’ differentiated practice in terms of frequency of use, as well as context variables are examined. Data analyses from a sample of N = 295 German (as a school subject) and/or English teachers from different school tracks, indicated that: a) differentiated instruction is scarcely used in daily practice, b) that German and English teachers hold a low invariance in their differentiated instructional practices, and c) that in comparison to low and comprehensive school track teachers, high track school teachers implement far less differentiated instruction in their in-class practice. Additionally, the analyses from the present doctoral thesis show that teachers’ implementation of differentiated instruction is dependent on context factors, such as teacher collaboration in planning and implementation of lessons, the perceived quality of teacher training with regard to dealing with heterogeneity as well as teachers’ willingness to implement differentiated instruction, their attitudes and expectations of self-efficacy. Lastly, post-hoc analysis showed, with regard to the frequency of use, links between teachers’ personality and the school track at which they teach. Given that the results stem from school practice, they provide practical implications, such as information on the importance and necessity of increasing the quality of teacher training. Further practical implications are explored and future lines of research are discussed.
... Responding to the importance of assessment literacy in supporting the quality of education, it is necessary to ensure the ability of teachers to apply authentic assessment through lesson study-based action research. In lesson study activities, teachers can learn to assess the effectiveness of the planned learning activity [15]. It implies that the teacher is not only a practitioner, but in lesson study is also a learning activity researcher. ...
Conference Paper
Student assessment during the COVID-19 pandemic is a challenge because the quality of learning in the classroom is closely related to the quality of the assessment applied. This research aimed to build the teachers' authentic assessment literacy through the implementation of a guided inquiry learning model based on authentic assessment on teachers to improve written communication skills and student learning outcomes. This research is an action research based on lesson study. The research method is a classroom action research based on lesson study, with a qualitative approach. The subjects used in this study were 30 teachers from a teacher forum in Malang, East Java and all 11th grade student of SMA Al Maarif Singosari This action research was carried out in 2 cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, implementing actions, observing, and reflecting. The results of the second cycle showed that there was an increase in written communication skills and student learning outcomes. This suggested that biology teachers need to have authentic assessment literacy which will have a real impact by enhancing students' written communication and learning outcomes, particularly during this pandemic and generally ensuring the success of students' science learning achievements.
... ).66 Deze onderzoeksresultaten over leerKRACHT lijken in lijn met de positieve ontwikkelingen in leraarhandelen op 'het efficiënt maken van de lesorganisatie' dieSchipper et al. (2019) vonden met hetzelfde instrument als het huidige onderzoek 67 bij scholen werkend met Lesson Study. Dat betrof ook een onderzoek naar scholen die een interventie inzetten gericht op onder andere leraarhandelen. ...
... Den siste gruppen studier er fra Nederland (Schipper et al. 2017;Schipper, Goei, de Vries & van Veen, 2018;Schipper, van der Lans, de Vries, Goei & van Veen, 2020) med utgangspunkt i et prosjekt der Lesson Study ble brukt med mål om å utvikle laerernes evne til å tilpasse undervisningen til elevmangfoldet. Funn fra studiene viser blant annet at laererne ble mer oppmerksomme på, og bedre til å identifisere ulike elevers behov selv om de etter prosjektets slutt oppgav at de fremdeles opplevde tilpasning som vanskelig. ...
Book
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The idea of a public school for all students has long been a tradition in Norway and inclusion is an important part of Norwegian educational policy. At the same time, there are several challenges to the realisation of an inclusive school, some of which are part of the framework, such as finances and competence, but there are also traditions and mindsets that can stand in the way of all students experiencing an inclusive school environment. After the turn of the millennium, there has been a comprehensive political investment in the area of professional development within schools. The introduction of a new curriculum in august 2020 further strengthened the expectation that the teaching profession itself would contribute to an increase in quality within education. As a result, everyone who works in schools can now count participation in collective professional development among their work tasks. With this as a starting point, this dissertation examines professional development focused on inclusion in a primary school which has worked systematically with Lesson Study (a method for professional development) over a four-year period. The overall research question is, How can teachers’ conversations in professional development with Lesson Study contribute to inclusive practice? The research is particularly interested in conversations taking place within teaching teams. For this reason, the study’s data consists of audio recordings of the conversations teaching teams had while planning their teaching. Through content analysis of the conversations, the dissertation provides insight into the teachers’ mindsets: How the teachers perceived the students and their challenges, how they understood their own role and obligations to the students, and how conversations about these topics changed during the four years of the project. The findings show developmental changes that can contribute to inclusion. In the beginning, difficulties were presumed to be simply characteristics of students, but were eventually understood as being dependent on the circumstances in the classroom to a much greater extent. This shift increased teachers’ awareness of and experience in positively influencing student learning and development. The teachers also greatly adapted their regular teaching in ways that made it possible for all students to participate in joint activities instead of providing specific students with individual adaptations, as had been done previously. Features of the conversations that contributed to the change were that the teachers tried to understand the students’ situations, they discussed their own opportunities to exert influence within the classroom, and became aware of some of the unfortunate aspects of their own practice. This dissertation contends that Lesson Study contributed to these positive developments by not only encouraging teachers to anticipate student responses and closely observe students during teaching, but also through the perceived social and professional safety of teachers sharing joint responsibility for lessons.
... Consistently, educational scholars and leaders present adaptive teaching as central to effective instruction (Allen et al., 2016;Beltramo, 2017;Borko & Livingston, 1989;Gitomer & Bell, 2016;Pearson, 2007;Schipper et al., 2020). However, there have been no large-scale, quantitative studies of adaptability because there did not exist, until now, a way to measure teachers' adaptability quantitatively. ...
Article
Although adaptive teaching is considered a cornerstone of effective instruction, there remains a lack of focus on teacher adaptability in policy, professional practice, and teacher education in the United States. High-profile educational reform efforts have pressured districts and states across the nation to rely on prescriptive curricula that fail to meet the linguistic, cultural, and instructional needs of the nation’s diverse student population. In this article, we describe the development of the Adaptive Teaching Inventory and present validity evidence from our administration in the United States. These findings provide insight into the potential for widespread implementation of adaptability and its focus to support teacher professionalism and decision-making. The discussion centers on moving adaptability to the forefront of policy and practice efforts to counter the prevailing emphasis on restrictive curricula that has stymied teachers in their efforts to support students for far too long. Implications for administrators, policymakers, and researchers are discussed
... Collaboration in the form of team teaching can be a path for developing and deepening the prospective reflexive practices of pre-service teachers of second languages (Barahona, 2017). Similar observations were made by Schipper, van der Lans, de Vries, Goei, & van Veen (2020) when commenting on the influence of Lesson Study (LS) on teachers' responses to implementing adaptive teaching practices in their classrooms. The results indicated that LS, where teachers collaborate to identify ways to improve their teaching practices, played a key role in influencing their perceptions of different educational needs and how they were able to address them. ...
Article
This paper reports on the relationship between language teacher practices and their collaborations with other teachers through professional development. The paper argues that there is a link between the disposition to use evidence-based practices in language teaching, and ongoing reinforcement of such practices through dialogic exchange in professional practice sessions. Furthermore, the paper understands the learning and development of such disposition as a career-long endeavour, first encountered in quality teacher education programs and then continued by committing to ongoing professional development. Survey data were collected from a group of language teachers from various second languages in primary and secondary schools in [state removed], Australia after they had participated in a workshop on language teaching methodology. The teachers reported extensive use of evidence-based language learning strategies in their classrooms. The paper argues that this disposition is grounded in the ongoing commitment of these teachers to stay in dialogic exchange with colleagues during professional development.
... & Kamalia, 2020) y puede contribuir a mejorar la formación (inicial y permanente) del profesorado, además de que mejora la adopción de técnicas adaptativas en el aula, en línea con los resultadosde Schipper, van der Lans, de Vries, Goei, & van Veen (2020).PALABRAS CLAVE: Lesson Study, aprendizaje cooperativo, formación del profesorado, proyecto interna-348 XARXES-INNOVAESTIC 2021. Llibre d'actes / REDES-INNOVAESTIC 2021. ...
... Various international LS reviews have shown the benefits of working in a LS team (Huang and Shimizu 2016;Xu and Pedder 2015). Participating in LS is claimed to contribute to teachers' individual knowledge, skills, attitudes and (adaptive) mindsets (Schipper, Van der Lans et al., 2020;Vermunt et al. 2019), to reduce a sense of isolation (Cajkler et al. 2015;Chassels and Melville 2009), to contribute to collegiality and a professional school context (Lee Bae et al. 2016), and ultimately, to impact students' learning (Lewis and Perry 2017). However, while the research base around LS grows rapidly, most of the LS research is focused on teachers in primary or secondary education. ...
Article
Lesson Study is a rapidly growing and increasingly popular teacher professional development approach and is valued for its cyclical, classroom-based and collaborative nature. Mostly used in primary and secondary education, Lesson Study has only recently been applied to the context of initial teacher education focussing on pre-service teachers’ professional learning. Only a few studies report on teacher educators participating in Lesson Study. This study aims to fill this gap by examining to what extent Lesson Study is considered a valuable approach to support teacher educators’ professional learning and what conditions should be taken into account when applying Lesson Study in their context. Two groups of teacher educators were followed using learning reports as they participated in a Lesson Study cycle. To determine whether the reported reflections sustained in their practice, focus group interviews were held one year after their Lesson Study participation. The results show that, depending on the conditions, participating in Lesson Study can be supportive as a means to focusing on the learning of pre-service teachers, exchanging knowledge and experiences, and counteracting a culture of professional isolation.
... On the other hand, it shows sufficient for students to clarify information of the lesson learning process where teaching is adaptive essential in becoming the practice of learning. It is an effective development and approaches in the complexity of lessons to determine adaptive practice and promotion of teaching in classroom instrument, behavior, and perspective of teaching, Schipper, van der Lans, de Vries, Goei, & van Veen [27]. Lastly, it shows that complex lessons or subject matter is clearly explained for easy learning where teachers are doing their very best to provide clarification of lessons in the easiest way. ...
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A B S T R A C T The study aims to identify the teaching strategies and utilization of the educational system in the new normal as the basis for effective teaching approach in the 21st century in the area of learning outcome, learning clarity, learning engagement, and learning enthusiasm. A mixed-method is employed in the study which stressed the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) for both quantitative and qualitative approaches of research design. Convenience and purposive sampling techniques are utilized in the study that explores accessible and convenient sources for the population of the study. The subjects of the study are a combination of teachers in both private and public educational institutions where they have experienced the utilization of the teaching strategies in the new normal as the basis for effective teaching and approaches in the 21st century. The study comprised thirty (30) respondents only. Results show that teaching strategies and techniques have a positive impact on learning and teaching, and the instructional techniques and strategies are employed for the contribution of the effective outcome of learning and accomplish the ability of students, learning outcome is observed among students during their previous lesson which is directly implied or stated where students learn something based on the set learning outcome and objectives, learning clarity shows that students are provided better instructional strategies and techniques on the lesson content and clear explanation, learning engagement shows that there is a time for engaging the activities of learning among students and learning enthusiasm shows that effective communication is observed and done with passion in the subject matter among the respondents. Findings show that there is a significant correlation between the teaching strategies and utilization of the educational system in the new normal as the basis for the effective teaching approach in the 21st century as observed by the respondents.
... On the other hand, adaptive hypermedia systems constitute an evolution of virtual teaching and learning environments and can combine open learning models and social comparison to support learning (Wang, Christensen, Cui, Tong, Yarnall, Shear and Feng, 2020). Adaptive teaching means approaching the educational needs of students by previously analyzing the social and dynamic context of the classroom, leading to careful planning of the teaching process (Schipper, van der Lans, de Vries, Goei and van Veen, 2020). ...
Article
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5 Prevalence of the student's gender in their daily interactions with devices on the Internet Predominio del género del alumno en sus interacciones diarias con los dispositivos en Internet Abstract The health crisis caused by COVID-19 views technological innovation as a way to improve equity in education. Gender differences in education are under constant investigation due to the long-term consequences on the personal and professional future of students. The goal of this work is to analyze the prevalence of the student's gender in their daily interactions with devices on the Internet. Supported by a comparative education research methodology. A representative sample of a population of students of Spain, countries of the EU (European Union) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) are contrasted. The regression analysis and an adjustment by coefficient of determination determined the intensity of the dependency relationship between the independent variables: daily participation in social networks, daily participation in online games, daily reading of online news and the dependent variable is the average mathematical score. The results are compared with other investigations conducted in virtual teaching and learning environments. In fact, there are patterns of behavior and responses of students when considering gender differences in their daily interactions with devices on the Internet. This work highlights the importance of a gender approach to improve virtual educational proposals.
... Yet, a focus on student learning (e.g. Cook and Faulkner 2010;Schipper et al. 2020;Vangrieken et al. 2017) is especially important in stimulating TPL, and thus requires attention (Slavit and Nelson 2010). Levine and Marcus (2010), however, stress that a focus on student learning alone is not enough, because without simultaneous attention to the process of teacher collaboration it 'may not produce a strong feedback loop with data informing teachers' work or deprivatised practice as a resource for critical reflection and learning' (Levine and Marcus 2010, 396). ...
Article
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A multiple case study has been carried out of four teacher groups who engaged in collective lesson design, observation, and reflection to support their professional learning. The teacher groups were examined on what and how they learned from their collaboration over time. For each meeting, teachers’ learning logs and transcripts were analysed. The results show that the groups differed in the amount, consistency, and stability of self-reported learning outcomes throughout the meetings. Differences between groups also relate to the number and type of dialogic moves between the teachers within each group. A main conclusion includes that challenging each other in their dialogues supported teachers’ learning. Additional explanations of learning outcomes relate to teachers’ collective participation and facilitation in the group.Keywords: teacher professional learning; teacher collaboration; collaborative learning activities; teacher dialogue; secondary education
... Upaya untuk menghindari adanya salah persepsi mengenai Lesson Study yakni pada tahap perencanaan perlu dilakukan penyamaan persepsi antar-anggota kelompok (Coenders & Verhoef, 2019). Penyamaan persepsi ditekankan pada pemahaman bahwa Lesson Study lebih dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran, dan bukan untuk menilai guru (Kanellopoulou, & Darra, 2019;Schipper, Lans, Vries, Goei, & Veen, 2020;Collet, & Greiner, 2020). ...
Article
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Hal penting yang ingin ditingkatkan berkenaan pembelajaran yaitu methods dan insight. Metode meliputi pengetahuan profesionalisme guru yang akan terlihat dalam rancangan pembelajaran dan penerapannya. Insight merupakan hal-hal yang tidak nampak dalam rancangan pembelajaran, unpredictable, terjadi spontan dalam pembelajaran, dan guru harus mengambil keputusan (decision). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah peningkatan pengelolaan pembelajaran secara reflektif, dengan cara menganalisis pembelajaran berdasarkan salinan percakapan selama proses pembelajaran. Oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian 'Penerapan Transcript Based Lesson Analysis (TBLA) Sebagai Upaya Peningkatan Pembelajaran Kimia Di SMA Negeri 7 Banjarmasin'. TBLA merupakan salah satu cara dalam Lesson Analysis yang merupakan bagian dari Lesson Study. Adapun langkah-langkah penelitian ini yaitu: (1) Merencanakan research lesson, (2) Implementasi pembelajaran, meliputi: observasi, refleksi, transkripsi (instant transcript), (3) Analisis pembelajaran melalui full transcript yang diperoleh melalui rekaman audio dan video. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kelas 12 MIPA-2 SMAN 7 Banjarmasin secara bersiklus. Berdasarkan hasil TBLA siklus 1 dan 2 terlihat kecenderungan transkrip percakapan secara klasikal masih didominasi oleh guru. Adapun dampak positif penerapan Lesson study antara lain: membantu guru mengkritisi pembelajarannya berdasarkan hasil reflektif, membantu guru dalam memantau aktivitas peserta didik secara lebih detail, karena bantuan observer dan meningkatkan kolaborasi guru dalam team teaching.
... This data indicates that in general the respondent is not ready to carry out learning using the STEM approach. This can be understood given that respondent is a prospective physics teacher who has been studying physics as a main content/ subject, while STEM demands the ability to elaborate on several subject subjects [26] [27]. In addition, one of the factors that is thought to play a role in this situation is the low experience of the respondent, where the respondent is a student teacher candidate who has no experience in developing a learning plan. ...
Article
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This study aims to describe the ability of prospective physic teachers in planning learning with the STEM approach. This capability is determined through the lesson plan analysis that has developed. Each lesson plan that has been developed is then analyzed and given a score in accordance with the rubric of assessment, then the data is analyzed through a quantitative approach. Based on the data it can be concluded that in general the ability to plan STEM learning for students who are physics teacher candidates is still dominated by students with low and moderate levels. There are 9 students who are ready to implement STEM learning or around 25%. In addition, it can also be concluded that the ability to plan student STEM learning, in general, is dominated in the Explanation stage and Exploration stage in the medium category. The lowest score obtained by the Evaluation stage and Elaboration stage with an average score of 1.69 and 2.5 respectively. Improvement of STEM pedagogical skills is needed to ensure an increase in the quality of education in general and prepare quality human resources in the future. The enhancement of STEM's pedagogical skills can be done through integrated learning, special training, and encouraging students to be actively involved in scientific communities.
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p>Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pelaksanaan pembelajaran berbasis lesson study dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran Number Head Together (NHT) pada materi bilanagn bulat. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswakelas VII SMP Negeri 3 Singkawang yang berjuklah 34 orang . Analisis penelitian difokuskan pada kegiatan perencanaan (plan), pelaksanaan (do), dan refleksi (see). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan proses pembelajaran matematika berbasis lesson study dengan model pembelajaran NHT dapat diikuti oleh siswa secara efektif. Sebagian besar siswa berpartisipasi aktif dalam proses pembelajaran. Hasil tes individu sebagai uji pemahaman konsep bilanagn bulat mengalami peningkatan dengan perolehan nilai rata-rata kelas sebesar 83,00 pada siklus I dan perolehan nilai rata-rata kelas sebesar 86,50 pada siklus II. Sementara, hasil respon mahasiswa terhadap proses pembelajaran diperoleh skor rata-rata sebesar 3,20 yang berarti respon siswa</p
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Differentiated instruction is a key indicator of effective teaching, but difficult to implement. Thus, educators have called for professional development (PD) programs on the topic. Based on 27 selected studies, this meta-analysis examined the overall effectiveness of PD programs in terms of teacher and student outcomes, and assessed theoretically relevant PD program features as moderators. Our findings indicated that PD programs have a medium effect on teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Furthermore, teachers improved more in their differentiation practices if a PD program was provided within a specific subject domain. As PD programs had no significant effect on students’ learning, the relation between teacher development and student learning requires further scrutiny so that students will benefit from their teachers’ learning.
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Purpose This article aims to consider teacher's views about intervisitations regarding its application and its usefulness as a community-enhancer. Many educators venture into the world of teaching because they love learning and value learning from their peers (rather than merely from text or administrators); however, teacher reservations or hesitations towards the practice of engaging in intervisitations do exist and can serve as an obstacle. Design/methodology/approach The findings reported in this study resulted from the analysis of two teacher's perspectives towards classroom intervisitations. The subset of data presented in this study resulted from the surveys and semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Qualitative methodology was used to address the research question as it allows for a greater exploration, description and ideally the emotions of participants/teachers. The coding process consisted of open coding, which then led to axial coding and the elevation of codes to themes. Findings In this study, teacher buy-in would be enhanced through the protocol feeling more personalized, less-dictated and more flexible in its execution, especially through the support of administrators and district leaders. In addition, teacher mindsets and perceptions also need some reshifting and should be part of the professional development process involving intervisitation roll-outs as any hesitations/limitations/and lack of willingness need to be honed in on and prioritized. Lastly, limiting teachers from an appropriate amount of time to complete such work may also encourage shallow collaboration among teachers instead of in-depth reflexive practice. By prioritizing intervisitations and/or inter-teacher collaboration in the building and allowing teachers to embark on professional development sessions with each other as a means of growing as a teacher and community, all will flourish. Originality/value Through examining the narratives of two educators, it was found that teacher willingness to partake in intervisitations is dependent on the school climate, particularly with regards to trust and a yearn-to-learn among inter-school peers and administrators. In addition, providing ample time and educating teachers on the benefits of such practices enhances one's wanting to independently venture into such work.
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La literatura sobre aprendizaje cooperativo se muestra unánime en las ventajas que este ofrece para el desarrollo de habilidades esenciales para el ciudadano del siglo XXI. Las Lesson Study (LS) son “not only a means of improving the skills and knowledge of teachers, but also a way to improve the knowledge base of the teaching profession” (Stigler, 2004: ix). Los dos objetivos principales de este trabajo son: i. Analizar y comparar el impacto de dos rondas de implementación de LS (175 estudiantes) en el marco del proyecto Dispositifs inclusifs de cooperation - DICO+ (2018-1-FR01-KA201-047904); y ii. Analizar el impacto formativo de las LS entre el profesorado. Se usó la metodología de análisis de métodos mixtos para esta investigación. Los resultados cuantitativos revelaron interesantes comparaciones sobre las preferencias del alumnado cuando trabajan bajo el paradigma de las LS, mientras que los datos cualitativos indican que las LS han contribuido significativamente a la mejora de la formación y a la praxis docente del profesorado. Nuestras conclusiones indican que el alumnado reconoce los beneficios sociales de las LS y apuntan a que el profesorado debería conocerlas más a fondo e implementarlas con frecuencia, porque la estructuración del trabajo cooperativo previo a la implementación beneficia el aprendizaje (Sulfemi & Kamalia, 2020) y, además, puede contribuir a mejorar la formación (inicial y permanente) del profesorado, así como a mejorar su disposición para adoptar técnicas adaptativas en el aula.
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Se presenta el modelo de gamificación empleado en la asignatura análisis y evaluación del rendimiento en deportes colectivos. Se trata de una asignatura optativa de cuarto curso del grado en CAFD.
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The current work was set in the sphere of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) during the academic year 2019/2020. This teaching innovation experience was specifically developed for the Master’s Thesis (MT) embedded within the Master in Renewable Materials Engineering (12 credits ECTS out of the 60 credits ECTS of the Master), which is taught in the Faculty of Engineering, Gipuzkoa in Donostia-San Sebastian. In this context and based on the results of previous works (Martínez-Segura, 2019; Martínez-Segura, Sánchez-López. and García-Sánchez, 2012), actions were taken towards the teaching innovation as a useful tool for the learning development in the framework of Higher Education. Likewise, it was also considered that the employment of formative assessment in the process of teaching and learning, increments the quality of the students’ learning while at the same time improves their functionality (Martínez-Segura, Cascales y Gomariz, 2018). Finally and considering the orientation and guidance actions, which should be performed by the tutor, the implementation of seminars was raised (Martínez-Segura and Gomariz, 2011), as a meaningful strategy in the guidance of the students during the development of the MT. Thus, the aims pursued in this work were; on the one hand, the guidance of the student during the development of the MT. This aids significantly to promote the development of habits and strategies in the student, which can show him/her how a research work is carried out. This point is of significant relevance since a great number of students are using the Master as the starting point of their future PhD and research career in the same domain. On the other hand, the other objective searched was the implementation of the formative assessment, as a mean allowing the student to build meaningful learning during the process of development of the MT. For the guidance of the MT, a time planning based on different tasks and subtask was design to give response to all the objectives proposed in the MT. An analogous process was followed in the development of each task. First, seminars were carried out with the student, in which each task was introduced and extensively described. In the preparation of each seminar, a previous questionnaire was sent to the student (3-4 open items to be completed before the seminar and 1 open item to be completed after the seminar). The questionnaire provides several important points related to each task, such as the student expectations, experience and doubts. Consequently the student needs with regard to these aspects, can be fulfilled during the seminar. The other important part was the formative assessment of the corresponding task, which was carried out by means of another questionnaire sent to the student at the end (13 close items, Likert scale with 5 degrees of agreement-disagreement). The results obtained provide answers to diverse questions: Were appropriate the objectives defined for each task? Were well defined the objectives related to each task? Was the achievement of the objectives set for each task feasible? Were the strategies and means provided to the student appropriate for the proper development of the corresponding task? Were the mentioned means and strategies enough for the achievement of the tasks proposed? As main conclusions, it was observed that the student acknowledged the usefulness of the seminars to overcome his doubts and to answer to his expectations. Likewise, the formative assessment was positively valued by the student, considering an average scoring of 4.4 out of 5. This fact pointed out the almost total agreement of the student to the proposals formulated. Thereby, it was demonstrated that the formative assessment implemented helped the student to build new learnings.
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El presente trabajo se contextualiza en el marco de la Facultad de Educación (Universidad de Murcia) en dos asignaturas: “5527” del cuarto curso del Grado en Educación Primaria (Mención de Pedagogía Terapéutica) y “2402” de segundo curso del Grado en Pedagogía. Este trabajo pertenece a la convocatoria para promover proyectos y acciones de innovación y mejora en la Universidad de Murcia para el curso 2020/2021. Los resultados que aportamos se han obtenido a través del proyecto titulado “Actividades formativas para fomentar la transferencia del conocimiento en la atención a la diversidad”.
Article
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Lecturers in higher education are recruited based on scientific field qualifications. Therefore, most of them did not have sufficient pedagogical competence academically. Pedagogical competence training in the form of instructional skills training (IST) and applied approach (AA) has not run optimally because it still emphasizes mastery of pedagogical basic knowledge and lacks in strengthening the lecturer’s learning management skills in the real classroom. By literature review method, this paper aims to analyze a practical experience of lecturer pedagogical competence training then propose the new structure both of material and pattern of IST and AA to overcome their problems. Analysis of the training experience and literature review concludes that university needs to restructure both material and pedagogic training patterns which include (a) merging of training material (b) focusing IST on providing basic pedagogical knowledge, while AA on developing supporting skills and learning practice (c) conducting IST in an online platform using a learning management system, while AA conducting through the field practice (d) conducting the learning practice in a real classroom using lesson study approach. It needs to involve the university institution leaders to facilitate the program by taking an appropriate policy to keep the sustainability of the program.
Article
This article presents findings from a study examining teacher talk in the early and late phases of a 4-year project in a Norwegian elementary school where Lesson Study was used as a method for professional development. The study focuses on inclusive and adapted education and aims to explore the changing beliefs about student needs and the adaptations teachers made to meet these needs. To this end, the study applies content analysis to audio recordings of teachers planning meetings. Findings show development in how teachers understand themselves and their work in ways that can contribute to education that is more inclusive and adapted: 1) an increased awareness of student needs paired with a growing trust in students’ ability to participate in the lessons; 2) more trust in teachers’ own ability to influence student learning and development and; 3) a growing view of teaching and learning as a social enterprise where the active participation of all students is identified and used as a lesson resource.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pelaksanaan pembelajaran berbasis lesson study dengan menggunakan model kooperatif Tipe Think Pair Share(TPS) pada matakuliah pengantar aljabar. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa Pendidikan Matematika kelas C-2019 Universitas Negeri Malang yang berjumlah 34 mahasiswa. Analisis penelitian difokuskan pada kegiatan perencanaan (plan), pelaksanaan (do), dan refleksi (see). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan proses pembelajaran matematika berbasis lesson study dengan model kooperatif tipe TPS dapat diikuti oleh mahasiswa secara efektif. Sebagian besar mahasiswa berpartisipasi aktif dalam proses pembelajaran. Hasil tes individu sebagai uji pemahaman konsep aljabar mengalami peningkatan dengan perolehan nilai rata-rata kelas sebesar 80,00 pada periode I dan perolehan nilai rata-rata kelas sebesar 88,50 pada periode II. Sementara, hasil respon mahasiswa terhadap proses pembelajaran diperoleh skor rata-rata sebesar 3,26 yang berarti respon mahasiswa sangat positif. This study aims to describe the implementation of lesson study-based learning, using cooperative learning models Think Pair Share (TPS) type to improve understanding of algebraic concepts. This type of research is qualitative research. The subjects in this study were students of Mathematics Education class C-2019 State University of Malang, amounting to 34 students. Research analysis focused on planning (plan), implementation (do), and reflection (see) activities. The results showed that the whole process of learning mathematics based on lesson study with a cooperative model of Think Pair Share (TPS) type could be effectively followed by students. Most students actively participate in the learning process. Individual test results as a test of understanding the concept of algebra have increased with the acquisition of an average grade of 80.00 in period I and the average grade of 88.50 in period II. Meanwhile, the results of student responses to the learning process obtained an average score of 3.26, which means that the response of students was very positive.
Article
There are practical questions about how inclusive schools can enable quality teaching and teachers’ professional development that are relevant to students with special educational needs (SEN). In moves towards inclusive education, teachers are confronted with issues about their knowledge, skills and perceived efficacy to adopt inclusive teaching approaches. Based on an explicit approach to inclusive teaching, this paper illustrates how Lesson Study (LS) and Lesson Study related professional development practices embody the values of inclusive teaching and reflective practice. Peer-reviewed academic papers about LS and LS related practices were reviewed. This found that these practices were predominantly used in continuing professional development and evaluated with a focus on their contexts, processes and outcomes in ordinary and specialist settings. The extent to which LS and LS related practices have been evaluated in these settings with different kinds of SEN is also examined. Based on this review increased use and evaluation of lesson study and lesson study related practices are recommended.
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Teachers in Dutch mainstream secondary education are faced with a complex challenge to tailor their instruction to an increasingly diverse student population while at the same time having to meet national and school quality standards. Consequently, this demands a high degree of adaptability of teachers though they do not always feel capable to address their students’ learning needs. The Japanese professional development approach Lesson Study may address this given its distinct focus on student learning. In a Lesson Study cycle, small groups of teachers systematically prepare, teach and observe, evaluate, and refine so-called research lessons. Despite rapidly growing research evidence in the context of Lesson Study, only limited studies focus on the influence of participating in Lesson Study on teachers’ adaptive teaching behavior and their feelings of competence (as a vital predictor of teacher behavior). Moreover, the school context in which teacher professional learning ideally takes place is generally not included in Lesson Study research. This doctoral dissertation examines these issues through four empirical studies. The results show that teachers who participate in Lesson Study become more aware of students’ different learning needs and feel more capable to address these needs and to engage all students in their classroom. In addition, the school context, in particular school conditions such as facilitated time, collaboration with colleagues, and support from school (department) leaders, was found to be essential in order to promote teacher learning through Lesson Study. Conversely, participating in Lesson Study may also influence how teachers perceive the school context.
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Observation systems are increasingly used around the world for a variety of purposes; 2 critical purposes are to understand and to improve teaching. As observation systems differ considerably, individuals must decide what observation system to use. But the field does not have a common specification of an observation system, nor does it have systematic ways of thinking about how observation systems are similar and different. Given this reality and the renewed global interest in observation systems, this article first defines the observation system concept and then presents a framework through which to understand, categorize, and compare observation systems. We apply the framework to 4 well-known observation systems that vary in important ways. The article concludes with a discussion of the results of the application of the framework and some important implications of those findings.
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This article presents a methodology for the developmental evaluation of a lesson study programme in primary and secondary schools. Our approach combined the principles of (i) user-focused evaluation, in which, as evaluators, we acted as participatory members of the innovation team and sought to involve users in the design and implementation of evaluation tools, (ii) a multi-level logical model to guide data collection and impact measurement and (iii) an ‘improving rather than proving’ approach to evaluation. The evaluation tools were used on a programme to promote lesson study in London schools involving 133 teachers and 33 schools. The evaluation methodology included outcomes at school leadership, teacher and student levels. Issues of internal and external validity are discussed and strengths and weaknesses are described. Findings showed promise in the use of our scale to measure changes in teacher pedagogical outcomes and in the recording of qualitative changes to both teachers and students as a result of the lesson study cycles. Suggestions for the future use and development of this methodology are proposed, including better use of control groups and quantitative measures to record changes in learning outcomes for students. List of Abbreviations: HE: Higher Education; LS: Lesson Study; PD: Professional Development
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Growing student diversity in today's classrooms calls for appropriate instructional strategies. Differentiated instruction (DI) is put forward as a key solution but seems challenging. In this study, actual DI implementation of teachers is linked to a complex set of variables: teachers' DI self-efficacy, teaching beliefs, teaching experience, professional development, teacher certification, and classroom size. The findings show that DI implementation seems high, but is still below a critical benchmark. The regression analysis results indicate 39% of the variation in DI implementation which can significantly linked to DI self-efficacy beliefs, higher constructivist beliefs and higher classroom size. Research implications are discussed.
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This study connects descriptions of effective teaching with descriptions of teacher development to advance an initial understanding of how effective teaching may develop. The study's main premise is that descriptions of effective teaching develop cumulatively where more basic teaching strategies and behaviors are required before teachers may advance to more complex teaching behaviors. The sample incorporates teaching behaviors observed across 878 classrooms. Teaching behaviors were observed using the International Comparative Analysis of Learning and Teaching (ICALT) observation protocol. Using Rasch analysis, the study reveals that 31 of 32 effective teaching behaviors fit cumulative ordering. The ordering also parallels descriptions of teacher development. Together the results indicate that the instrument is a potentially useful tool to describe teachers' development of effective teaching.
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Although lesson study is increasingly adopted in the United States (U.S.), the impact of lesson study on teacher learning is uncertain. This study presents a theoretically grounded set of codes to systematically document the various aspects of teacher learning and change (knowledge and beliefs, professional learning community, resources) in lesson study across contexts. To present examples of the codes in use, a subset of codes related to change in teacher knowledge and beliefs were applied to analyze teachers' professional discourse in three middle school science lesson study teams.
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This introductory article aims to provide a synthesis of the state-of-the art studies on lesson study with in-service mathematics teachers and an outlook on the entire issue. First, we report a systematic literature review on lesson study with in-service mathematics teachers. The findings are synthesized into four themes that include conceptualization of lesson study, theoretical perspectives on research on lesson study, benefits of implementing lesson study, and challenges in adapting lesson study. Then, we briefly introduce the articles in the current issue under four clusters. These are conceptualizations and adaptation of lesson study, teacher learning and improving teaching through lesson study, knowledgeable others’ learning, and interplay between theory and practice through lesson study. The literature review and the other articles in this special issue provide a ground for readers to reflect critically on the current research on and practice of lesson study and to discuss future directions for the development of lesson study.
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This paper describes Lesson Study research with 25 pre-service primary teachers. We focus on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development as participants design, teach and reflect upon early number lessons. Engaging in Lesson Study promoted mathematics PCK development, notably in Knowledge of Content and Students (KCS) and Knowledge of Content and Teaching (KCT) subdomains. Reflecting on classroom teaching facilitated growth across both knowledge subdomains and resulted in highly integrated and robust pedagogical understandings that transferred beyond the study context. This development of early number PCK is outlined and the features of LS that make it effective in initial teacher education identified.
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New common standards for mathematics were adopted by most of the states in the US by 2010. Achieving these standards, however, is a challenge, since they require significant changes in how mathematics is taught. Lesson study (jugyou kenkyuu) is a form of professional development that has been credited for supporting profound changes in teaching in Japan, but its effectiveness outside of Japan has been uneven. From research on school-based lesson study in Japan and from the research on and experience with lesson study in schools in the US, the authors hypothesize that certain institutional structures and practices are important for maximizing its impact, but are sometimes omitted from lesson study outside of Japan. The authors introduce a new term: collaborative lesson research (CLR), defined to include those structures and practices. A three-phase model of school-based CLR, focused on implementation of the new learning standards for mathematics, is being piloted at 15 urban schools in three major school districts in the US. This paper provides details of the pilot program and preliminary results from some of the partner schools.
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Mainstream primary school teachers generally acknowledge the need to implement adaptive teaching; however, meeting a variety of students’ needs is a challenge. Studies have addressed the conditions under which teachers attribute their (in)capacities, but these have mainly involved vignettes. Therefore, it remains unknown whether teachers are capable of meeting their own students’ needs and what is of help or hindrance to them. The current study drawn from survey data obtained from 108 Dutch teachers addresses teacher-perceived (in)capacities to meet their students’ needs and perceived sources of help or hindrance in meeting them. Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs were expected to partly explain teachers’ capacity. Results show that teachers feel fairly adequate in meeting students’ needs. They discern four sources of help or hindrance to which teachers attribute their success, including the teacher him/herself, student characteristics and school/working conditions. Attributions at the teacher and school levels were mostly related to teacher-perceived capacities rather than to teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs.
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This article analyses lesson study as a mode of professional learning, focused on the development of mathematical problem solving processes, using the lens of cultural-historical activity theory. In particular, we draw attention to two activity systems, the classroom system and the lesson-study system, and the importance of making artefacts instrumental in both. We conceptualise the lesson plan as a boundary object and use this to illustrate how professional learning takes place through the introduction of carefully designed artefacts that draw on teachers’ professional knowledge of potential student approaches, and to the nature of progression in problem-solving processes. We identify the roles of instrumentalisation and instrumentation in supporting professional learning as these artefacts are prepared for use before a lesson and as they are again used as catalysts for reflection in post-lesson discussions. These artefacts are seen to effectively facilitate the socially situated learning of all participants. We conclude that the design of artefacts as boundary objects that support teaching and professional learning in their respective activity systems may be fundamental to the success of lesson study as a collaborative venture.
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Catering for learner diversity is one of the key areas in the recent educational reform in Hong Kong. Pre-service teacher education acts as a fundamental way to equip pre-service teachers ready for accommodating diverse learning needs and to build up pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy. The purpose of the study is to examine prospective teachers’ teaching beliefs toward differentiated instruction and teaching efficacy. Using a sequential mixed methods design that contains a questionnaire, focus group interviews, and individual interviews, prospective teachers undertaking a 13-session course regarding differentiated instruction as offered by a local university in Hong Kong participated in the study from January to April 2013. Changes in teaching beliefs regarding differentiated instruction as well as teaching efficacy levels were found. More positive attitudes toward differentiated teaching were found; however, there existed different concerns including class management and conflicts with personal teaching beliefs. These concerns may be related to practical experiences and confidence as well as expectations upon students. Implications for future course development and research are discussed at the end of the paper.
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Systematically observing instruction for students with learning disabilities provides information regarding the quality of school-based interventions, allocation of instructional time, and other implementation variables associated with student outcomes. In this synthesis, observation studies of reading and mathematics instruction from 2000 to 2013 were identified through a systematic literature search. The purpose was to understand findings from observations of typical practice for students with LD during an era of increased exposure to evidence based practices, educational policy reforms and reports on reading and mathematics designed to influence instruction (e.g. National Reading Panel, 2000; No Child Left Behind Act), and amid a period of increased academic expectations. Eleven studies focusing on academic instruction for students with LD were identified and reviewed. Cognitive strategy instruction, differentiated instruction, and opportunities for independent application (i.e. text reading, problem solving) were reported infrequently across the published observational research. However, findings provide some evidence of improved teacher use of effective instructional practices in several areas compared to earlier observation study syntheses. Implications for practice and areas for future research are discussed.
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This essay explores the dialectic between theorizing teachers’ decision-making and producing a workable, theoretically grounded scheme for classroom observations. One would think that a comprehensive theory of decision-making would provide the bases for a classroom observation scheme. It turns out, however, that, although the theoretical and practical enterprise are in many ways overlapping, the theoretical underpinnings for the observation scheme are sufficiently different (narrower in some ways and broader in others) and the constraints of almost real-time implementation so strong that the resulting analytic scheme is in many ways radically different from the theoretical framing that gave rise to it. This essay characterizes and reflects on the evolution of the observational scheme. It provides details of some of the failed attempts along the way, in order to document the complexities of constructing such schemes. It is hoped that the final scheme provided will be of some value, both on theoretical and pragmatic grounds. Finally, the author reflects on the relationships between theoretical and applied research on teacher behavior, and the relevant research methods.
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Rural areas in the alpine regions suffer from dwindling student numbers. Differentiated instruction (DI) could help improve the teaching culture by allowing instructors to better adapt to heterogeneous student groups. At the beginning of a combined research and school improvement project, a survey of 162 teachers and 1180 students was conducted to obtain an overview of the types of DI that are currently practiced. In addition, we examined the school conditions that supported the implementation of DI. This cross-sectional study demonstrates a difference in practices between teachers with more- and less-developed DI cultures, and it was determined that team collaboration that includes pedagogical topics enhances teachers' use of DI.
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This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the DCOS was developed to examine the impact of differentiated classroom practices for gifted children, it is expected that the scale could be used for observing the educational experiences of any identifiable group of children. Reflections on the benefits offered by the DCOS that are not available with existing measures are provided, and include (a) the ability to contrast the educational experiences of two groups of learners; (b) documentation of a variety of educational factors including pedagogy, student engagement, and level of cognitive activity; and (c) preservation of contextual factors for deeper investigation through a database‐driven record keeping system that maintains disaggregated data from a series of short observational segments.
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Lesson study, a Japanese form of professional development that centers on collaborative study of live classroom lessons, has spread rapidly in the United States since 1999. Drawing on examples of Japanese and U.S. lesson study, we propose that three types of research are needed if lesson study is to avoid the fate of so many other once-promising reforms that were discarded before being fully understood or well implemented. The proposed research includes development of a descriptive knowledge base; explication of the innovation’s mechanism; and iterative cycles of improvement research. We identify six changes in the structure and norms of educational research that would enhance the field’s capacity to study emerging innovations such as lesson study. These changes include rethinking the routes from educational research to educational improvement and recognizing a “local proof route”; building research methods and norms that will better enable us to learn from innovation practitioners; and increasing our capacity to learn across cultural boundaries.
Article
Professional school cultures, which can be characterized by teachers who take an inquiry stance and in which exchanging knowledge and colla-boratively developing classroom material is common practice, receive increasing attention. However, teachers in many schools still often work in isolation and generally do not critically examine their practices. This could lead to decreased feelings of self-efficacy and could negatively impact teacher learning. To counteract such an isolationist school culture , Lesson Study, known for its integration of collaborative and inquiry-based features, could play an essential role. Using a quasi-experimental design (N = 60) including two questionnaires, this study explores whether participating in Lesson Study influences teachers' perceptions of the school culture and conditions in their schools (such as leadership and collegial support), as well as their feelings of self-efficacy. The results reveal significant between-group differences in terms of efficacy in student engagement and significant within-group differences in the intervention group in terms of teacher autonomy and support from the school department leader as well as all teacher self-efficacy. This study could support school leaders who wish to implement, sustain or upscale Lesson Study practices in order to promote a professional school culture in their schools.
Article
This paper focuses on the role of pupil voice as a trigger for teacher learning and for improving teaching quality. This is investigated in the context of Lesson Study (LS), a professional development model that can incorporate pupil voice into teachers’ collaborative reflections on lessons. Data are from two LS groups of mathematics teachers in London (one primary and one secondary school). Video-recorded pupil interviews and teacher discussions were transcribed. Episodes of teacher discussions were coded for reference to pupil input and subsequent impact on future plans. Qualitative analysis of discussions examined whether some pupils’ input was favoured over others’. Results are significant in pointing to LS as a mechanism for attending to pupil voice. In so doing, it is suggested that pupil input provided a challenge for teachers in their interpretations of pupil learning, evaluating lessons and planning, and in contributing to teacher learning from LS.
Article
Providing differentiated instruction (DI) is considered an important but complex teaching skill which many teachers have not mastered and feel unprepared for. In order to design professional development activities, a thorough description of DI is required. The international literature on assessing teachers’ differentiation qualities describes the use of various instruments, ranging from self-reports to observation schemes and from perceived-difficulty instruments to student questionnaires. We question whether these instruments truly capture the complexity of differentiation. In order to depict this complexity, a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of the differentiation skill was performed. The resulting differentiation skill hierarchy is presented here, together with the knowledge required for differentiation, and the factors influencing its complexity. Based on the insights of this CTA, professional development trajectories can be designed and a comprehensive assessment instrument can be developed, enabling researchers and practitioners to train, assess, and monitor teaching quality with respect to providing differentiated instruction.
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From bestselling author Peter Westwood, this new edition of Inclusive and Adaptive Teaching provides a considered approach to meeting the ongoing challenge of inclusive teaching in the classroom and offers a range of strategies for good practice. This comprehensive resource promotes a fully inclusive approach to teaching and outlines the necessary adaptations and accommodations that are often required in order to address the needs of the very diverse population of students now to be found in most classrooms. Drawing on the ever-evolving practices of inclusive education and research into learning theories, Westwood describes useful, evidence-based strategies for adapting curriculum content, learning activities, assessment and resource materials. Fully updated to reflect cutting-edge international research and teaching practices, this new edition gives additional focus to the role of digital technology, differentiation, the teaching of STEM subjects and support for inclusivity in higher education. Accessible chapters in this new edition present: • principles, aims and issues in providing inclusive schooling; • sound pedagogical practices for adapting curriculum content; • evidence-based methods for teaching mixed-ability classes; • ideas for designing and modifying teaching materials; • ways of implementing inclusive assessment of learning. Each chapter contains an up-to-date list of online and print resources easily available to teachers who wish to pursue topics in greater depth. This is an invaluable resource for both practising and trainee teachers and teaching assistants, as well as school principals, school counsellors and educational psychologists.
Article
This paper describes an innovative use of Lesson Study (LS), an internationally used collaborative approach in which teachers develop their teaching knowledge and practices. It aimed to evaluate how EPs join teachers in LS teams, using working memory and other knowledge to inform the teaching of pupils with learning difficulties. The study uses a case study methodology to evaluate LS teams (three teachers and EP) in a primary, secondary and special school. The findings show how working memory knowledge is used in reviewing and planning research lessons, how the teams interact, including the teachers’ perceived EP contribution to the Lesson Study process. The paper illustrates the potential of an inter-professional LS study to embody collaborative reflective practice in order to improve the teaching of pupils with learning difficulties.
Article
This systematic review gives an overview of the effects of differentiation practices on language and math performance in primary education, synthesizing the results of empirical studies (n = 21) on this topic since 1995. We extracted 78 effect sizes from the included studies. We found that using computerized systems as a differentiation tool and using differentiation as part of a broader program or reform had small to moderate positive effects on students’ performance. Between- or within-class homogeneous ability grouping had a small negative effect on low-ability students, but no effect on others. The finding that computer technology can be a useful tool to facilitate differentiated instruction is not covered in earlier reviews. Moreover, our findings emphasize that homogeneous ability grouping alone is not enough to guarantee differentiated instruction. This stresses the importance of embedding differentiation practices in a broader educational context.
Article
Teachers are expected to address a broad range of diverse pupil needs but do not always feel capable or lack the skills to meet these high expectations. The professional development approach Lesson Study may address this. Therefore, this study examines whether participating in Lesson Study influences teachers’ beliefs of self-efficacy and (adaptive) teaching behaviour. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design was used to compare pretest and posttest data of intervention and comparison group teachers (N = 48). Significantly different results between the two groups arise in terms of efficacy in pupil engagement as well as classroom management and instructional behaviour. Immediate stimulated recall interviews provide insight in these outcomes and illustrate to what extent teachers addressed pupils’ educational needs.
Article
This study investigates dialogic processes in student teachers' mentoring conversations in field practice, where Lesson Study (LS) was used as a context for establishing a dialogic learning community in one student group in science. We apply an analytical framework associated with Sociocultural Discourse Analysis to identify utterances that have the potential to create a dialogic space and contribute to ‘interthinking’ among the participants. The findings show the important role of the mentor teacher as a facilitator and a ‘knowledgeable other’, challenging the student teachers to reflect on chosen activities using predictions and detailed observations related to pupils' learning.
Article
Researchers recognize adaptive teaching as a component of effective instruction. Educators adjust their teaching according to the social, linguistic, cultural, and instructional needs of their students. While there is consensus that effective teachers are adaptive, there is no consensus on the language to describe this phenomenon. Diverse terminology surrounding the same phenomenon impedes effective communication and comprehensive understanding of this important aspect of classroom instruction. Moreover, researchers have studied this phenomenon using a variety of methods, in various disciplines, with different results. Therefore, our research team completed a comprehensive literature review of the empirical research studying adaptability across academic disciplines. In this article, we describe how adaptive teaching is defined and conceptualized in the education research literature from 1975 to 2014, the methods used to study instructional adaptations, and the results of these studies.
Article
Since classrooms have become more diverse, professional development on adaptive teaching seems critically important, yet turns out to be complex. Lesson Study may address this issue due to its explicit focus on student learning. In total, 22 Lesson Study participants from different school contexts were interviewed. Clarke and Hollingsworth's Interconnected Model of Professional Growth was used as the analyzing framework to explore its adequacy for understanding teacher professional growth. The results reveal teacher professional growth in adaptive teaching competence and show how the intensive focus on student learning, collaborative professional experimentation and the facilitators' role may contribute to this.
Article
An understanding of fractions eludes many U.S. students. This randomized trial of lesson study supported by mathematical resources assigned 39 educator teams across the United States to locally managed lesson study supported by a fractions lesson study resource kit or to 1 of 2 control conditions. Results suggest that integrating research-based resources into lesson study offers a new approach to the problem of “scale-up” by combining the strengths of teacher leadership and research-based knowledge.
Article
Researching the efficacy of lesson study has been complicated by the manner in which it has been reinterpreted in different settings and contexts. Drawing on research into a national school improvement programme in England, this paper looks at how various reconfigurations of lesson study were affected by the different collaborative arrangements among schools and practitioners in the programme. Utilising a mixed methods approach, the paper provides and problematizes new empirical evidence concerning the effectiveness of lesson study. It concludes with a consideration of how those researching lesson study intitaives would benefit from adopting a more critical contextual analysis.
Article
Originating in Asia, lesson study is gradually spreading around the globe. As evident from the papers in this issue, we have much to learn as it is implemented in a variety of cultural contexts. In this article we reflect on the goals of lesson study, the organizational supports required to sustain the practice in various contexts, and the benefits that may be derived from making more explicit the connections between lesson study and the wider field of improvement science. Both research and practice can benefit from learning from, and about, the process of importing cultural routines.
Article
Both the current school reform and standards movements call for enhanced quality of instruction for all learners. Recent emphases on heterogeneity, special education inclusion, and reduction in out-of-class services for gifted learners, combined with escalations in cultural diversity in classrooms, make the challenge of serving academically diverse learners in regular classrooms seem an inevitable part of a teacher's role. Nonetheless, indications are that most teachers make few proactive modifications based on learner variance. This review of literature examines a need for "differentiated" or academically responsive instruction. It provides support in theory and research for differentiating instruction based on a model of addressing student readiness, interest, and learning profile for a broad range of learners in mixed-ability classroom settings.
Chapter
Over nearly two decades the Supporting Effective Teaching project examined the characteristics of teachers that result in successful inclusion of students with disabilities in Canadian regular education classrooms. These studies revealed that teachers who rate high in adapting and calibrating instruction for students who have special needs are the most successful overall with all their students. In this chapter, we present an adaptation of the observation scale that we used to rate effective inclusive instructional practices. The adapted scale can be used both as a self-rating and as a third-party measurement scale of effective teaching practices. We link each element of the scale to the Universal Design for Learning framework. We discuss how challenges to effective practices are affected by teacher beliefs about ability and disability, collegial differences in beliefs and practices, and the focus set by the leadership in the school.
Article
This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.
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Teachers often struggle to provide all students access to specific learning activities that work best for them-and what works best for some students will not work for others. Differentiating instruction makes sense because it offers different paths to understanding content, process, and products, considering what is appropriate given a child's profile of strengths, interests, and styles. This study focused on teacher efficacy as a way to explain teacher willingness to differentiate instruction. We found that a greater number of professional development hours in differentiation of instruction was positively associated with both teacher efficacy and the teacher's sense of efficacy beliefs. This study demonstrated that teacher efficacy is an important dimension in implementing the process of differentiation regardless of what level or what content area the teacher taught (elementary, middle, or high school). Implications and future directions for research are also discussed.
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The study reported here examines whether teaching skills included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness can be grouped into types of teacher behaviour and whether these types are related with different student outcome measures. The data stem from a study which was conducted in order to test the validity of the dynamic model. Results reveal that teaching skills can be grouped into five types of teacher behaviour which are discerned in a distinctive way and move gradually from skills associated with direct teaching to more advanced skills concerned with new teaching approaches and differentiation of teaching. Teachers exercising more advanced types of behaviour have better student outcomes. Suggestions for research on teacher education and professional development are drawn.
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In the province of Quebec, Canada, a trend towards full inclusion has impelled teachers to adapt their instruction to meet the needs of both advanced and weaker learners in regular school settings. The main purpose of the present investigation was to develop and validate the Differentiated Instruction Scale (DIS), which assesses the use of instructional adaptations and academic progress monitoring strategies in general education classrooms. A total of 125 elementary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional study, allowing us to develop and validate the DIS. Overall our results show that the DIS is composed of two factors that are consistent with the predicted constructs (instructional adaptations and academic progress monitoring). Evidence of convergent validity is provided through correlations among DIS' subscales and two criteria: (1) teachers' autonomy support and (2) perceptions of school climate. Results also reveal that teachers tend to use instructional adaptations that do not require much preparation or tailored instruction. The DIS could thus be used in future research to investigate outcomes of differentiated instruction. Moreover, it could provide useful information on optimal strategies for promoting learning in children with different abilities in general education classrooms.
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In this article, the authors report findings from a self-report survey completed by 125 preservice elementary, secondary, and special education teachers. The purpose of the study was to identify aspects of university coursework and assigned field experiences that contribute to their ability to define, identify, and implement inclusion. Results indicated a lack of consistency across teacher preparation programs within one college and a disconnectness between knowledge of inclusion as presented through university coursework and students’ real-world field experience observations of inclusion. Preservice special educators’ perceived lack of confidence in their ability to implement inclusion in practice was also noted in the analysis of results. The article also addresses implications of the findings for teacher education programs.
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This paper discusses how a design-based research approach was used to refine the use of Lesson Study in a project with novel research methods in a new area of teaching focussing on pupils with moderate learning difficulties. The study refined the Lesson Study methods in terms of the evaluation of the contexts, processes and outcomes of the Lesson Studies undertaken over two phases. The findings suggest beneficial outcomes for pupils and teachers while outcomes for schools remain more complex. The study shows that various contextual factors are critical if Lesson Study is going to become a sustained commitment in schools.
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This research examines what discourse interactions reveal about teacher learning in Lesson Study (LS) contexts as teachers plan and discuss research lessons.LS group members combined social and cultural capital resources and vivid data from research lessons. This created motivating conditions enabling collective access to imagined practice and joint development of micro practices. Improvements in subsequent teaching, and pupils' learning are reported.Iterative, collaborative LS processes enabled teachers to access tacit knowledge resources and remove filters (developed to cope with classroom complexity), unmasking hidden characteristics of pupils. This both challenged and informed teacher beliefs, motivating joint development of enhanced practices.
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This article examines the impact of federal, state, and local policies on the roles that elementary school teachers are asked to assume inside and outside the classroom. Through a detailed analysis of changes in teacher tasks over a 4-year period, the authors determined that role expectations increased, intensified, and expanded in four areas: instructional, institutional, collaborative, and learning. These changes had unanticipated, and often negative, consequences for teachers’ relationships with students, pedagogy, and sense of professional well-being. The authors use one policy directive, differentiated instruction, to illustrate the complexity of role demands currently made of teachers, and they draw implications for policy and research.
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In many studies of class size effects, teacher characteristics are missing, even though many argue it is not class size that is important but teacher quality. In the present study teachers' effectiveness on the learning progress was assessed while teaching a unit with predefined learning objectives. To measure adaptive teaching competency a multi-method approach was employed (e.g., vignette and video test). There were 49 teachers and 898 students. Smaller classes led to higher academic learning progresses, better knowledge of students, and better classroom processes. Adaptive teacher competency remained relevant in smaller classes, that is, class size and teacher quality were independently important.
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The author suggests that we apply recent research knowledge to improve our conceptualization, measures, and methodology for studying the effects of teachers' professional development on teachers and students. She makes the case that there is a research consensus to support the use of a set of core features and a common conceptual framework in professional development impact studies. She urges us to move away from automatic biases either for or against observation, interviews, or surveys in such studies. She argues that the use of a common conceptual framework would elevate the quality of professional development studies and subsequently the general understanding of how best to shape and implement teacher learning opportunities for the maximum benefit of both teachers and students.