In this article theoretical perspectives for analyzing the pedagogical meaningfulness of using videos in teaching, studying, and learning are presented and discussed with a special focus on using digital and online video materials. The theoretical arguments were applied in the international Joint Inserts Bank for Schools (JIBS) project (http:// www.ebu.ch/departments/television/co_finance/jibs.php). Out of existing theoretical literature six characteristics of meaningful learning were selected. According to these characteristics, meaningful learning is (a) active, (b) constructive and individual, (c) collaborative and conversa-tional, (d) contextual, (e) guided, and (f) emotionally involving and motivating. In this article, these characteristics are discussed with a special focus on learning with digital and online video materials. The characteristics provide insights into how digital and online videos can be used in a pedagogically meaningful way in teaching, studying, and learning processes. It is evident that videos viewed either through television or computer can be seen as tools for learning. However, videos are just one component in the complexity of a classroom activity system. The learning outcomes depend largely on the way videos are used as part of the overall learning environment, for example, how viewing or producing videos is integrated into other learning resources and tasks. Karppinen, P. (2005). Meaningful learning with digital and online videos: Theoretical perspectives. AACE Journal, 13(3), 233-250. 234 Association for the Advancement of Computing In Education Journal, 13(3) EDUCATIONAL USE OF DIGITAL AND ONLINE VIDEOS The moving image has been used quite a long time for educational purposes, starting from the magic lanterns over a century ago to the latest web streaming technologies (Asensio & Young, 2002). It has nevertheless been argued that analogue video lack the interactivity needed for a meaningful learning experience and a number of researchers (Tiffin & Rajasingham, 1995; Asensio & Young, 2002) associate film and video with a classic instructional or transmission pedagogic approach. The research into the educational use of television is abundant, and within this line of research, the views of television as a passive medium are, of course, also challenged by many researchers (Bickham, Wright, & Huston, 2001). Indepth research into the educational use of online videos and multimedia, on the other hand, is still rather scarce due to the relative infancy of the Internet and the technologies needed to produce, edit and view digital and online videos (Tarpley, 2001, p. 555; Young & Strom, 2002, p. 6; Jonassen 2000, p. 208). Asensio and Young have introduced a conceptual framework called the "Three 'I's Framework" for analysing the benefits and use of video in education. In the framework they describe the interplay of image, interactivity, and integration. According to Asensio and Young, in the research on the educational use of videos, it has been argued that the value of videos lies mainly in its possibility to deliver images. As the cliché has it, "an image is worth a thousand words." In addition, the modern digital and online videos can be used as an interactive and integrated tool. Online videos can be interlinked with slides, supporting texts, discussion boards, chat, resource links, and so forth, as part of a virtual learning environment. The creation of online and digital video has changed the nature of video itself, and it cannot be treated as a medium in isolation (Asensio & Young, 2002; Young & Strom). Digital and online videos are often embedded in a multimedia or hypermedia environment, and some educators prefer talking about multimedia or hypermedia learning (Boyle, 1997).