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The effect of the exercises brain on boxers' eye-hand coordination, dynamic balance and visual attention performance


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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether exercising brain performed by boxers have any kind of effect on visual attention, eye-hand coordination and dynamic balance performances of athletes.
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The effect of the exercises brain on boxers’ eye-hand coordination,
dynamic balance and visual attention performance
Çetin O.ABCDE, Beyleroğlu M.ABCDE, Bağış Y.E.ACDE, Suna G.ACDE
Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education Department, Sakarya University, Turkey
Authors’ Contribution: A – Study design; B – Data collection; C – Statistical analysis; D – Manuscript Preparation;
E – Funds Collection.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether exercising brain performed by boxers have any kind of effect on
visual attention, eye-hand coordination and dynamic balance performances of athletes.
Material: In accordance with the purpose of this study, 29 athletes who do exercises regularly at Sakarya Boxing Club
have been divided into two groups as control and experiment group. The Star Excursion Balance test was used
to measure participants’ dynamic balance performance, the Bourdon-Wiersma Stipple test was used to measure
visual attention, and Alternate Hand Wall Toss test was used to measure eye-hand coordination as pre and post-
test. Repeated Measures Anova analysis was used for analysis of the obtained data.
Results: In terms of the obtained data, it has been observed that between pre and pro tests a signicant development pattern
shows itself for whole study group. On the other hand, as for the investigation of the pre and post-test interactions
of experiment and control group, When pre and post-test interactions of experimental and control groups were
examined, there was no signicant difference in visual attention and dynamic balance development, but in eye-
hand coordination test, improvement in experimental group was found to be higher than in control group.
Conclusions: The ndings of the study in which exercising brain applied to boxers for 8 weeks showed that there was no signicant
difference between dynamic balance and visual attention development values, but there was a signicant difference
between control and experimental groups, eye-hand coordination development values.
Keywords:cognitive exercise, dynamic balance, visual attention, hand-eye coordination.
Today’s sport has started to be perceived and
practiced very differently than in the recent past. Sportive
activities that are increasingly different have been done
for different purposes [1]. One of the sportive activities
that differentiate is brain exercises. Life kitetic found and
developed by Horst Lutz et al; is a brain training system
that is practiced using exercises combined with visual,
mental and cognitive tasks. These exercises have such
physical and cognitive positive effects as concentration,
problem solving skills, reexes, balance, coordination
and coping with stress in elite athletes and sedentary
people [2]. Visual attention, hand-eye coordination and
balance have been included in the literature from past
to present in terms of general knowledge, especially in
research articles and the effect of various exercises on
these characteristics have been investigated [3,4,5].
However, whether brain exercise has an impact on these
physical and cognitive features is a problem that needs to
be investigated.
Attention is considered to be the subjective awareness
of the world around us at rst, while attention is
considered as a neural system in which visual, auditory,
and motor systems are used for the selection of similar
information by the neuropsychological approach [6].
Visual attention refers to a series of cognitive processes
that allow the necessary information to be found from
scattered (complex) visual scenes, and the unnecessary
information to be ltered out [7]. In the literature, there
are studies examining the cognitive features such as
visual attention and the effects of exercises on cognitive
performance to improve the performance of these
features. In the present study, the effects of acute exercise
© Çetin O., Beyleroğlu M., Bağış Y.E., Suna G., 2018
on cognitive performance were investigated and specic
exercises were reported to have a greater effect than
those of acute exercise [8]. When we look at the specic
exercise studies on visual attention, it is concluded that
visual attention can be improved and trained by specic
web based training [9].
Hand-eye coordination is a visual system capability
that coordinates the revised information to control hands,
directing and managing tasks such as writing or capturing
a ball successfully [10].
When the researches carried out are examined, it is
concluded that acute and specic exercises have positive
effects on hand-eye coordination. In the related study on
the effects of hand-eye coordination on balance and hand-
eye coordination in the elderly, swimming exercises was
proven to have positive effects on hand-eye coordination
[11]. In another study on hand-eye coordination training
of table tennis athletes, it is reported that the table tennis
athletes trained on hand-eye coordination performed
better than those who were not trained [12]. In this study,
we investigated the effects of hand-eye coordination on
the effects of Traditional Chinese coordination exercises,
TaiChiChuan (TCC), on hand-eye coordination in the
elderly and it is reported that those who applied hand-
eye coordination exercises exhibited better hand-eye
coordination performance than those who did not [13].
Balance is dened as the state or ability to maintain
control over the body’s support centre. The most
important feedback mechanisms in balance are vestibular,
somatosensory and visual systems [6,14]. In this study,
we will discuss the relationship between the equilibrium
(balance) and the relationship between the two variables
[15, 16]. When we examine the effects of various exercise
programs on balance development, it is seen that exercise
programs have positive effects on balance development.
The effects of pliometrics, dynamic stabilization and
balance training for 7 weeks on the strength, balance
and fall forces of female athletes were examined and it
is reported that these exercises have a positive effect on
balance [17]. Similar results were obtained in the study
of different exercise methods on the follow-up of balance
development. Especially in athletes, it is reported that
neuromuscular training or specic exercises such as yoga
for 6 to 8 weeks has a positive effect on the development
of balance [18, 19, 20].
Brain exercises were developed by Lutz and his
colleagues as a multimodal training method that combines
coordinated, cognitive and visual tasks and performs the
physical activities of the participants and also cognitive
activities. This training method consists of combinations
of motor activities, cognitive skills, visual perception
training and especially perception of peripheral vision.
The main characteristic of this training method is to move
the limbs in different combinations, capture, throw, and
thus to train visual perception and limb-eye coordination
The effects of acute and specic exercises on
cognitive and motor features, especially visual attention,
hand-eye coordination and balance were investigated in
the investigated studies. However, there was no study
that examined the effects of brain exercise on these
three abilities as a whole. Therefore, this research will
help us to understand whether the brain exercises that
are increasingly being applied by athletes and sedentary
people have effects on visual attention, hand - eye
coordination and balance ability. When we consider the
concept above, it may be stated that the aim of this study
is to investigate whether brain exercises in boxers for 8
weeks have effects on athletes’ visual attention, hand-eye
coordination and balance performances.
Material and Methods
29 athletes who were trained regularly in Sakarya
Boxing Club participated voluntarily in this study using
experimental pattern with control group. The participants
were randomly divided into two groups. While 15 of
them were in the experimental group, 14 of them were
included in the control group.
Physical characteristics of the participants; age is
20.4± 0.8 years, body weight is 74 ± 9.4 kg and height
is 176 ± 8.1 cm.
Data Collection Tools
The body weights of the athletes were measured
with Seca 808 (Germany) brand electronic scales with
0.1kg sensitivity and height measurements with portable
stadiometer with Seca 213 (Germany) brand with 1mm
sensitivity. In the application of the Visual attention test,
the Bourdon attention test was used for marking papers
belonging to the Wiersma form with 450 gures on it.
The Dunlop brand tennis ball and the Casio HS-80TW-
DF brand chronometer were used in the application of
the Alternate Wall Hand Toss for hand-eye coordination.
In the implementation of the Star Excursion dynamic
balance test, the platform prepared in accordance with the
test protocol was prepared and Troy 23124 brand strip
meters were used to measure the reach distances of the
Collection of Data
Anthropometric measurements, balance and hand-eye
coordination tests were carried out in Sakarya University
Faculty of Sports Sciences gymnasium saloon and visual
attention test was carried out in the class which was
arranged for testing. The anthropometric measurements,
balance and attention tests of the control and experiment
groups were carried out on the same day and hand-eye
coordination was carried out on the same day. Following
the pre-test, brain exercises were performed for 8 weeks
and 3 days a week in addition to the branch training of
experimental group. The control group was not included
in the brain exercise and they continued their own branch
training with the experimental group. At the end of 8
weeks, the participants underwent the nal tests within
the framework of the selected tests protocols.
Determination of dynamic balance performance
The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was
used to determine the dynamic balance and dynamic
postural control performances of the participants. SEBT
is a balance test that requires force, exibility, and
proprioception performance used in dynamic balance
measurement [22]. The person who performs the test
tries to reach out in 8 different directions with one leg
and 45 degrees of angle between them, while the other
leg remains in the centre point and tries to maintain its
stability [23].
The validity of the SEBT test was reported between
0.89 and 0.92 [24]. After warming the participants for
general and test, they reached 8 different directions on
the test platform three times, respectively, and recorded
in meters and centimeters, which are best from 3
accesses. The same practice was carried out for the other
foot. In order to ensure the validity of the test, leg-length
measurements were taken for each of the participants.
The measurement was repeated when participants moved
the balance leg from the platform centre, lost balance or
were unable to contact the stated directions.
Measurement of visual attention performance
In order to measure the visual attention performance
of the participants, the Bourdon-Wiersma stipple test
developed and then conducted by Benjamin Bourdon was
used. In this test, participants are asked to nd and select
the necessary information from complex visual scenes in
accordance with visual attention. The Bourdon-Wiersma
test form contains three, four and ve point shapes and
the participants are requested to mark four point ones of
these3 gures [25, 26] Participants were given 6 minutes
to mark the correct shapes on the form with 450 gures
and the correct and wrong shapes were recorded.
Measurement of hand-eye coordination performance
In order to determine the hand-eye coordination
performance of the participants, the Alternate Hand Wall
Toss test was used. The number of successful catches
carried out in the test aimed at capturing the tennis ball
with the right hand and the left hand is recorded in the
30-minute period of time [27].
Data Analysis
SPSS 22 program was used in the analysis of the
obtained data. ANOVA (Repeated measurements
ANOVA) analysis was used to determine whether the
change in the pre and nal test measurements of the
participants in the experiment and control group was
signicantly different from the groups. P<0.05 was
considered as signicant.
There was a signicant improvement in hand-eye
coordination between the pre-test and the nal test in
the whole research group [F(1.27)=70.493; p<0.05].
When the experimental-control group’s pre-test-nal
test interactions were examined, it is seen that the
development of the experimental group was signicantly
higher than the control group [F(1.27)=8.439; p<0.05].
There is a signicant improvement in the attention
skill among the pre-test and nal test in the whole
Research Group [F(1.27)=6.495; p<0.05]. When the pre-
post test interactions of the experiment-control group
are examined, it was seen that the experiment-control
group showed a development at a similar level and
the development of attention level was not statistically
different in terms of the experiment-control group
[F(1.27)= .014; p>0.05].
There is a signicant improvement in the balance skill
between pre-test and nal test in the whole research group
Figure 1. Reaching directions of Star Excursion Balance Test
Table 1. Comparison of Hand-Eye Coordination of Pre and Post Test Results of Boxers
Tests Groups N X Ss
Experiment 15 20.73 4.74
Control 14 18.71 5.75
Experiment 15 26.47 5.12
Control 14 21.50 5.20
Table 2. Comparison of Visual Attention of Pre and Post Test Results of Boxers
Tests Groups N X Ss
Experiment 15 72.87 11.13
Control 14 66.50 8.76
Experiment 15 78.13 9.14
Control 14 72.29 12.88
[F(1.27)=6.104; p<0.05]. Experimental-control group’s
pre-and nal-test interactions examined have shown
similar levels of improvement in the experimental and
control groups and it is concluded that the experimental
and control groups are statistically signicantly different
at the level of the balance of the development [F(1.27)=
.292; p>0.05].
Boxing is a combination of technical, tactical,
durability, speed and coordination features. In addition to
the basic characteristics of the st, others are also part of
the ring. Success will be achieved with the completion of
these features and the proliferation of scientic research,
development of general training programs, physical
characteristics and the selection of talented athletes will
be possible by teaching of technical and tactical studies
through different methods.
One of the most important ndings of this study
is that the effects of brain exercise on the various
coordinative and cognitive characteristics of athletes;
hand-eye coordination repeated measurements on the
preliminary and nal test results were found to be
signicantly higher in the ANOVA analysis than in the
experimental group [F(1,27)=8,439; p<0.05]. The most
obvious characteristics of brain exercises are moving
the limbs in different combinations, capturing, throwing
objects, and thus training visual perception and limb-
eye coordination [21]. Therefore, visual skill training
is practiced intensively in brain exercises. When the
literature is examined, it has been observed that all
exercises including brain exercises and similar visual
training have positive effects on hand-eye coordination
and this nding supports the results in our study. When
we look at studies involving visual training like brain
exercise, it is seen that Du Toit and others (2011) reported
that visual training made signicant progress in hand-eye
coordination of university students. In another study,
“Eyerobic” (visual skill training) exercises were applied
to female footballers and at the end of the exercise period,
balance and hand-eye coordination values were reported
to be higher than control group [28].
It is known that balance skill, which is the basis of
performance, plays an important role in the successful
display of many sports skills, in changing directions, in
stopping, in starting, keeping the object, in moving the
object, and in maintaining the body’s specic position.
According to Meinel and Schnabel, balance
ability is dened as keeping the whole body in balance
and maintaining the state of the body during and after
displacement of the body [29]. Human’s ability to
maintain balance can be dened as a determining factor in
the development of other motor systems [30]. The control
of balance is a complex motor capability that includes the
integration of sensory inputs as well as the planning and
application of exible motion patterns [31]. The ability of
the whole body to move in coordination as a whole takes
place in a correct proportion with the ability to balance
In this study, based on the results of the measurements
on dynamic balance, the development differences in
balance level are not statistically signicant in terms of
experiment and control group. [F(1,27)=,292; p>0.05]. In
a study conducted on basketball players, it was reported
that brain exercise training for 12 weeks at basketball
players had no effect on balance scores of the athletes
[33]. Similarly, at the study conducted on young football
players, it was reported that there was no signicant
difference between the pre-test and nal test scores of the
participants in the brain exercise training for 8 weeks [34].
The researches examining the effects of brain exercise on
balance support the ndings of this study.
In this study, the measurements of visual attention
were examined and it was concluded that the development
of the control and experiment group showed similar
development but the visual attention level was not
signicantly different from the experimental and control
group [F(1,27)=, 014; p>0,05]. The resources that
scientists who develop and practice brain exercises refer
to as a reference to prove the effects of these exercises
on important cognitive skills and visual attention are
generally about young children or students who have
difculty reading [34]. There are studies in the literature
that reported positive effects of specic exercises on
Table 3. Comparison of the Dynamic Balance of Pre and Post Test Results of Boxers
Tests Groups N X Ss
Experiment 15 86.01 7.906
Control 14 90.16 4.304
Experiment 15 87.92 8.992
Control 14 91.39 5.065
visual attention [8]. In addition to this study, there was
only one study which examined the development of
visual attention of athletes who train intensively in brain
exercise and contrary to this research, positive results
were reported. In this research conducted by Vural (2016),
it was found that brain exercises had positive effects on
the visual attention performances of athletes. Therefore,
more research is needed to examine the impact of brain
exercise on visual attention development, especially in
trained and advanced athletes.
As a result, the results of this study showed that there
was a signicant difference in hand eye coordination
development values between control and experimental
groups of brain exercises performed in boxers for 8
weeks, while dynamic balance and visual attention did
not differ signicantly between development values.
Since brain exercise exercises are based on simultaneous
perception, evaluation, making the right choice and
making the appropriate decision, we believe that coaches
should be involved in brain exercise exercises in athletes
‘training and that the criteria for athletes’ performance
will contribute signicantly to the eld of sports sciences
as they have a signicant place in determining the current
levels of athletes.
We also think that brain exercise will help athletes
make the right decisions in training or competition by
enabling them to think continuously. It is thought that
after the exercises that are performed in this way, the
athlete will soon be able to demonstrate the dominance
of the more advanced coordinative features and will
become a well-featured athlete who understands fast
and makes decisions quickly by reecting them to his
team or to himself. Because of such many benets, we
think that sports scientists and coaches will benet from
brain exercises and it will be important to include brain
exercises in training plans.
Conict of interests
The authors state that there is no conict of interest.
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Information about the authors:
Çetin O.;; Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education Department,
Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Beyleroğlu M.;; Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education
Department, Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Bağış Y.E.;; Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education
Department, Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Suna G.; (Corresponding author);;; Educational Science
Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education Department, Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Cite this article as: Çetin O, Beyleroğlu M, Bağış YE, Suna G. The effect of the exercises brain on boxers’ eye-hand
coordination, dynamic balance and visual attention performance. Physical education of students, 2018;22(3):112–119.
The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
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Received: 06.05.2018
Accepted: 02.06.2018; Published: 27.06.2018
... It addresses various performance areas for optimum performance at an elite level [30,31]. In boxing, which is an Olympic sport, it is of great importance to be able to resist fatigue, tolerate this fatigue, and protect balance [32,33], agility [34,35] and cognitive performance [36,37], which play a vital role in boxing. This study evaluated anaerobic power, balance, agility and cognitive performance characteristics as significant predictors of boxing performance. ...
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In previous studies, the effect of single or combined intake of caffeine (CAF) and taurine (TAU) on exercise performance was investigated. However, the potential synergistic effect on physical and cognitive performance after fatigue induced by anaerobic exercise is unknown. The effects of single and combination CAF and TAU supplementation on the Wingate test in elite male boxers and to evaluate balance, agility and cognitive performance after fatigue are being investigated for the first time in this study. Twenty elite male boxers 22.14 ± 1.42 years old were divided into four groups in this double-blind, randomized crossover study: CAF (6 mg/kg of caffeine), TAU (3 g single dose of taurine), CAF*TAU (co-ingestion of 3 g single dose of taurine and 6 mg/kg of caffeine) and PLA (300 mg maltodextrin). The findings are as follows: co-ingestion of CAF*TAU, improved peak (W/kg), average (W), minimum (W) power, time to reach (s), and RPE performances compared to the PLA group significantly (p < 0.05). Similarly, it was determined that a single dose of TAU, created a significant difference (p < 0.05) in peak power (W/kg), and average and minimum power (W) values compared to the CAF group. According to the balance and agility tests performed after the Wingate test, co-ingestion of CAF*TAU revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the PLA group. In terms of cognitive performance, co-ingestion of CAF*TAU significantly improved the neutral reaction time (ms) compared to the TAU, CAF and PLA groups. As a result, elite male boxers performed better in terms of agility, balance and cognitive function when they consumed a combination of 6 mg/kg CAF and 3 g TAU. It has been determined that the combined use of these supplements is more effective than their single use.
... However, our pool of elite athletes performed significantly better (raw number of correct reaction and raw reaction time scores) than theirs. The literature also reports higher advanced visuospatial functioning and processing speed capacity in combat sport athletes (Muiños & Ballesteros, 2013;Yongtawee et al., 2021) as well as evidence that eye-hand coordination reaction time could be a predictor of combat sport abilities (Çetin et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2017;Grushko et al., 2016;Kaluga et al., 2020). At a more functional visual skill level, the boxers' peripheral field performance was consistent with findings obtained between novices, judo, and karate athletes in which athletes demonstrated a better capacity to process visual information presented in the peripheral visual field (Muiños & Ballesteros, 2014). ...
The COVID-19 pandemic struck right during the Olympic preparation, leading to significant training restrictions such as noncontact practices for combat sports. This case study research describes the application of a complementary virtual-reality (VR) intervention to train elite boxers preparing for Tokyo 2020 during the pandemic. It also addresses the evaluation of broader visuocognitive functions in elite boxers. Six boxers were allocated to two groups: one experimental group trained on a 360°VR (360VR) temporal video-occlusion program, and one active control group trained on a VR game simulation during 11 sessions. Pre-and postevaluations of specific decision-making performance were performed on a 360VR evaluation test. Fundamental visual and visuocognitive functions were assessed at baseline. Greater on-test decision-making improvements were observed in the 360VR-trained group compared with VR game, and 360VR offered self-reported satisfactory, representative, and safe individual training opportunities for the boxers. More research is warranted to explore the applications of 360VR and VR simulation for psycho-perceptual-motor-skill evaluation and training. Superior visuocognitive performance was observed in elite boxers and should also be a topic of further investigation. The methodological approach, implementation, and reflections are provided in detail to guide practitioners toward the applied use of VR in the sporting environment.
... The visual system, such as the musculoskeletal system, responds to the overload principle. Even the perceptual components of the visual system can be improved by sports vision training [9,10]. It also seems that stress or overloading can affect visual perceptual, visual motor, and visual perceptional systems during sports training and can provide better conditions to be prepared for the competition [11,12]. ...
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Introduction: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of visual and skill training on learning forehand drive in table tennis and motor-perceptual abilities (reaction time, coincidence-anticipation timing, eye-hand coordination, and depth perception).Materials and Methods: Forty volunteer female students (Mean±SD age: 21.50±0.78 years) were selected and randomly assigned to one of four groups (each group had 10 participants): visual and tennis training group, visual training group, tennis training group, and control group. Motor perceptual abilities (reaction time, coincidence-anticipation timing, eye-hand coordination, and depth perception) and forehand drive performance were measured before and after the training period, and also after 24 h retention period. After the pretest, including the accuracy of the kicks test for assessment of forehand drive in table tennis and motor-perceptual test, the experimental groups underwent four weeks (three sessions per week) of visual training, table tennis forehand training, or both. The control group followed their normal daily life for the whole study period. Then, they participated in the posttest and 24 h later in the retention test of kick accuracy.Results: The results revealed that visual and table tennis training, visual training, and table tennis training had a significant effect on the reaction time (P=0.001), coincidence-anticipation timing (P=0.001) and eye-hand coordination (error time) (P=0.01). Moreover, visual and tennis training and table tennis training had a significant effect on the acquisition (P=0.001) and retention of forehand drive (P=0.005). Besides, the post hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed that visual and tennis training had a more significant impact on the learning forehand drive. Visual training and tennis training had a significant effect on eye-hand coordination (number of errors). The three types of training programs were not effective in the depth of perception.Conclusion: Visual training can be used as a supplementary program in the athletes’ training schedule.
... The problem of brain workout exercises and their contribution to hand-eye coordination are analyzed by many modern scientific studies showing that those activities are focused on simultaneous moves that provide substantial variation of movement, improving hand-eye coordination for short to medium periods of training time, comparing the results with those of the control group. However, in some investigations, the parameter of dynamic balance and visual attention did not develop significantly over short periods of training time (Cetin et al., 2018). ...
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Background. Eye-hand coordination refers to the capacity to use the vision skill to guide hand movements and is vital not only in sports activities but also in everyday life and jobs. Aims. Our investigation tried to identify statistically significant variations between 110 children, aged 10-11 years old, from five different schools in Targu Mures-Romania, who practice or not sports activities, comparing genders, and also correlating those who practice predominantly arm or leg sports. Methods. As a research method, we used the hand-eye coordination test and also examined the obtained data with professional statistical programs. Results. The results showed that between genders there is a statistically significant difference with better results in the eye-hand coordination test in the male gender. Also, a statistically significant difference was found between those who practiced sport and those who did not, and also between genders. No statistical difference was found between predominantly leg and arm sports. Conclusions. The conclusions of our investigation highlighted a statistically significant difference between the numbers of executions in the female gender compared with males and also between the median number of executions in students who practice sports and those who do not, and between the average number of executions for the female and male gender for those who practice sports.
... Atlet olahraga permainan membutuhkan kemampuan koordinasi yang baik, agar dapat lebih mudah melakukan gerakan yang kompleks (Çetin, Beyleroğlu, Ye, & Suna, 2018). Di dalam olahraga permainan pada saat pertandingan, atlet harus didukung oleh mekanisme motorik yang baik, agar menghasilkan gerakan yang sempurna dan memiliki kemampuan yang baik untuk berkontak langsung dengan objek yang bergerak yaitu bola (Efthimios, 2006). ...
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui apakah ada pengaruh dari programpermainan motor cognitive coordination training terhadap motor coordination danworking memory. Metode penelitian ekperimen dengan desain pretest-posttest controlgroup design digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwaprogram latihan motor cognitive coordination training memiliki pengaruh yangsignifikan terhadap motor coordination dan working memory pada atlet junior.Selanjutnya pelatih menggunakan program latihan motor cognitive coordinationtraining untuk meningkatkan performa motor skill dan cognitive skill pada atlet junior.The purpose of this study is to find out whether there is an influence of the motor cognitive coordination training program on coordination motors and working memory. The experimental research method with the design of the pretest-posttest control group design was used in this study. The results showed that the coordination training cognitive-motor training program had a significant effect on coordination motors and working memory in junior athletes. Furthermore, the trainers used the cognitive training coordination training program to improve the performance of motor skills and cognitive skills in junior athletes.
... Thus, the tests measured the same level of difficulty regardless of age. 3,4,7,8 In general, as age increases, motor ability increases, and then starts decreasing from a certain point of age. Using the identical test tool, the difficulty of the test tool may vary depending on the age of the subject; therefore, age may be an important factor in discriminating the ability of the subject. ...
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Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify how the difficulty level of Alternative Hand Wall Toss (AHWT) test changed according to the distance between wall and subject (2.0 m or 1.2 m) and to determine the proper distance for 11–12 years old elementary school students. Material and Methods: Fitness measurement data from participants of “A Study on Development of Fitness Accreditation Standards for National Fitness Award 100 Elementary School Students (aged 11 to 12) in 2018” (total n = 2,753; 2.0 m, n = 1,428; 1.2 m, n = 1,325) were selected. The ratio of numbers, means, and standard deviations of subjects who were unable to measure according to distance were calculated. Difficulty levels of 6 fitness tests including AHWT test by applying Rasch model of Item Response Theory (IRT) were calculated, and AHWT test difficulty levels according to distance, 2.0 m and 1.2 m were compared. All statistical significance levels were set at p < 0.05. Results: Our findings were as follows: First, the ratios of subjects who performed 0 point (action) according to distance were 41% and 5.2% at 2.0 m and 1.2 m, respectively; Second, there was no difference of difficulty level among five test items except for the AHWT test; the difficulty level of the AHWT test was higher at 2.0 m than at 1.2 m. Conclusion: In conclusion, it is difficult to discriminate the ability of 11–12-year-old subjects if the distance to the wall is set to 2.0 m in the AHWT test because the difficulty level is too high. Therefore, we recommend setting the distance to 1.2 m for 11–12-year-old subjects.
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The level of individual physical condition can affect a team's performance. The problem in this study is how to describe the level of the physical condition of male basketball athletes at the Universitas Negeri Semarang. A total of 19 male athletes were included in this study. The research used descriptive quantitative using sport-specific tests and measurements. The average BMI is 2.52; The average agility is 12.92 seconds; an average balance is 9.03 seconds; the average aerobic endurance is 39.20 ml/kg/min; the average arm muscle strength is 33.94 repetitions; the average abdominal muscle strength is 26.52 repetitions; explosive power average is 58.57 cm; flexibility average is 15.78 cm, and eye-hand coordination average is 17.68 catches. Based on the results, the description of the level of the physical condition of the male basketball athletes of Universitas Negeri Semarang is an average condition of 55.7%.
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The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week coordinative ability training program on adolescents' cognitive functioning, using evaluation tests of visuospatial perception, attention, and working memory. We randomly assigned 60 public school students (14-15 years) to either an experimental coordinative abilities training (∼40 min twice/week) group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) who received general psycho-physical wellness training (∼40 min., twice a week). At baseline and after training we used two standardized motor tests and a single cognitive measure (Corsi's Block-tapping test) to assess students' visuospatial perception, attention, and working memory. We found a significant Time x Group interaction for the Throwing and Catching Test and Corsi's Block-Tapping test, reflecting a meaningful experimental group improvement (p < 0.001), and there were no significant pre-post changes found in the control group. Thus, a 12-week program of coordinative abilities was able to improve not only coordination skills but aspects of cognitive functioning relevant to academic achievement.
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Sporda başarılı olabilmenin altın anahtarı hiç kuşku yok ki bilimsel çalışmalardan elde edilmiş veriler kullanılarak dizayn edilmiş antrenmanların uygulanmasıdır. Tarih boyunca spor bilim insanlarının ilgisini çeken konulardan bir tanesi de sporcuların vücut yapısı ile performansları arasındaki ilişki olmuştur. Sporda arzu edilen üstün performansa ulaşabilmek için, iyi planlanmış uygun antrenman programının yanı sıra, antropometrik ve fizyolojik yapıya da dikkat edilmelidir Aksi taktirde fiziksel yapının özelliği, icra edilen spor dalına uygun olmadıkça sporcunun performansı en uygun düzeyde gerçekleşmesi düşünülemez. Antropometri; insan bedeninin özelliklerini belirli ölçme yöntemleri ve ilkeleriyle, boyutlarına veya yapı özelliklerine göre sınıflandıran bir tekniktir (Yazarer ve ark.,2004). Antropometrik veriler, çeşitli ırklar, etnik gruplar, farklı sosyoekonomik toplumlar, cinsiyetler arasında değişim ve gelişim evreleri içinde farklılıklar gösterirler (Günay ve ark.,2006). Antropometrik özelliklerin performansa etkisi, beden yapısı, kompozisyonu, ağırlık ve boy, motor işlevlerde ve performansta önemli faktörler olarak kabul edilmektedirler. Beden ölçüsünün göstergesi olan ağırlık, boy, yaş ve cinsiyet gibi değişkenlerle kombine edilerek, normlar geliştirilmiştir. Bu normlar, birçok bedensel aktivitede rol alan çocuk ve gençlerin hangi gruba uygunluk gösterdiğinin bilinmesi açısından yararlı olmuştur. Antropometrik ölçülerin motorik performansla ilişkili olduğu ve performans düzeylerindeki potansiyel etkinliği fark edilmistir (Can ve ark., 2002). Antropometri son yıllarda sporda oldukça kullanışlı bir alan olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Spor dalının özelliklerine göre elit sporcunun morfolojik yapısının belirlenmesinde de önemli bir rol oynamaktadır (Pekel, 2004; Savucu ve ark., 2004). İnsan vücudunun dış görünüşünün sınıflandırılması veya vücut tipinin belirlenmesine somatotip denir. Adolesan dönemi futbolcuların performans düzeylerinin artırılması için somatotiplerinin belirlenmesi gerekir. Çünkü sporcuların fiziksel özellik ve yeteneklerinin tespit edilmesi, sporcu seçiminde ve uygun antrenman programının planlanmasında önemli bilgiler sağlayabilir (Can ve ark., 2002). Sahip olunan fiziksel yapının özelliği yapılan spor dalına uygun olmadıkça istenilen performans düzeyine ulaşmak pek mümkün değildir. Fiziksel yapı bir sporcunun yüksek düzeyde performans gösterebilmesinin göstergelerinden sadece bir tanesidir ve kuvvet, güç, esneklik, sürat, dayanıklılık ve çabukluk gibi diğer performans göstergeleriyle birleşerek sporcunun performansını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir (Acar, 2000). Beden ölçüsü, beden yapısı ve kompozisyonu, kuvvet ve performansı etkileyen önemli faktörlerdir. Çocuklarda kas kuvvetinin artışı yaşa, cinsiyete, olgunlaşma düzeyine, önceki fiziksel etkinlik düzeyine ve beden ölçülerine bağlıdır (Duquet ve Carter, 1996). Morfolojik yapı kişiler arasında farklılık gösterir. Yıllarca gerçekleştirilen araştırmalar ile ortaya çıkarılan farklı insan vücut şekilleri çeşitli faktörlerden bağımsız kalıcı karakteristiklerine göre sınıflandırılmış ve somatotip yapı ile motorik özellikler ve psişik yapı arasında önemli ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. Fiziksel yetenekler ile somatotip bileşenleri arasındaki ilişkilerin araştırıldığı çalışmalarda dayanıklılık, kuvvet, hız gibi fiziksel yetenekler ile mezomorfi bileşeni arasında pozitif, endomorfi bileşeni negatif etkiler dikkat çekmektedir (Gürses ve Olgun, 1991). Diğer spor branşları gibi futbolda da, başarıda teknik ve taktik kabiliyetlerin yanında antropometrik özellikler ve fiziki performans da önemli faktörlerdendir (Hakinken, 1992; . Laessens, 1987). Bugün tüm dünyada oynandığı her yerde yüz binlerce insanı statlara ve televizyon ekranları basına çeken, onlara aynı anda heyecan, sevinç ve üzüntüyü yaşatan futboldan kitlelerin beklentileri artmaktadır. Özellikle medyanın yakından ilgilendiği uygulayıcısından çok seyirci kitlesinin daha yoğun olduğu bir gerçektir. Bu yüzden futbolda bilimsel araştırmalara hız verilmistir (Zorba ve ark., 1999). Futbol oyunu, oyuncunun teknik, taktik, özelliklerinin yanı sıra antropometrik ve fizyolojik uygunluğuyla direkt ilişkilidir. Bu ilişkilerin daha iyi belirlenmesi amacıyla, oyuncuların oyun esnasındaki hareketleri incelenmiş, bu hareketler futbolcuların fizyolojik profilinin belirlenmesinde önemli bir etken olmuştur (Carter ve Heath, 1990). Çocuk ve futbol konusunda büyüme ve gelişme dikkat edilmesi gereken en önemli unsurlardandır. Çocuk büyüdükçe ve geliştikçe futbol performansı da artacaktır. Çocukların fiziksel büyüme ve gelişmesi aerobik ve anaerobik kapasitesini, kas kuvvetini, süratini ve çabukluğunu etkileyecektir dolayısıyla yas ilerledikçe futbolcu maç sırasında daha hızlı, daha dayanıklı ve daha kuvvetli olacaktır (TFF Çocuk ve Futbol, 2009).Sporda başarılı olmak için eğitimcilerin ve uzmanların yetişen çocukların fiziki özelliklerini iyi tanımaları ve iyi analiz etmeleri gerekmektedir. Antropometrik özellikler, insanın anatomik yapısı olup, gövde ile üyeler arasında orantılıdır. Antropometrik özellikler antrenman ile kazanılmaz. Sporcuda verimi etkileyen özelliklerin başında gelmektedir. Bu nedenle yetenekli ve spor dalına uygun kişileri bulmak önemlidir (Yörükoğlu ve Koz,2007). Bu araştırmanın amacı, büyük bir genç nüfus potansiyeline sahip olan ülkemizde çocukların ve gençlerin spora yönlendirilmesinde, antropometrik ölçümler yardımıyla somatotiplerinin hesaplanması ve performans özelliklerinin belirlenerek, kişiye uygun spor dalı seçiminin yapılması ve bu alandaki çalışmalara katkıda bulunmaktır. Bu bilgiler ışığı altında çalışmamız aracılığı ile erkek öğrencilerin antropometrik, somatotip ve performans özelliklerini belirleyerek futbolda yetenek seçimi ve yönlendirme sürecinde sporcu seçiminde ve yine bu alanda gerçekleştirilecek çalışmalara katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
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This study investigated the impact of “life kinetik” training on brain plasticity in terms of an increased functional connectivity during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The training is an integrated multimodal training that combines motor and cognitive aspects and challenges the brain by introducing new and unfamiliar coordinative tasks. Twentyone subjects completed at least 11 one-hour-per-week “life kinetik” training sessions in 13 weeks as well as before and after rsfMRI scans. Additionally, 11 control subjects with 2 rs-fMRI scans were included. The CONN toolbox was used to conduct several seed-to-voxel analyses. We searched for functional connectivity increases between brain regions expected to be involved in the exercises. Connections to brain regions representing parts of the defaultmode network, such asmedial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, did not change. Significant connectivity alterations occurred between the visual cortex and parts of the superior parietal area (BA7). Premotor area and cingulate gyrus were also affected.We can conclude that the constant challenge of unfamiliar combinations of coordination tasks, combined with visual perception and working memory demands, seems to induce brain plasticity expressed in enhanced connectivity strength of brain regions due to coactivation.
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The effects of balance training (BT) in older adults on proxies of postural control and mobility are well documented in the literature. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT modalities (i.e., training period, training frequency, training volume) have not yet been established in healthy older adults. The objectives of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis are to quantify BT intervention effects and to additionally characterize dose-response relationships of BT modalities (e.g., training period, training frequency) through the analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that could maximize improvements in balance performance in healthy community-dwelling older adults. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science from January 1985 up to January 2015 to capture all articles related to BT in healthy old community-dwelling adults. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 345 articles identified for initial review. Only RCTs were included if they investigated BT in healthy community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years and tested at least one behavioral balance performance outcome (e.g., center of pressure displacements during single-leg stance). In total, 23 studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. Weighted mean standardized mean differences between subjects (SMDbs) of the intervention-induced adaptations in balance performance were calculated using a random-effects model and tested for an overall intervention effect relative to passive controls. The included studies were coded for the following criteria: training modalities (i.e., training period, training frequency, training volume) and balance outcomes [static/dynamic steady-state (i.e., maintaining a steady position during standing and walking), proactive balance (i.e., anticipation of a predicted perturbation), reactive balance (i.e., compensation of an unpredicted perturbation) as well as balance test batteries (i.e., combined testing of different balance components as for example the Berg Balance Scale)]. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using I (2) and Chi(2)-statistics. The methodological quality of each study was tested by means of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Weighted mean SMDbs showed that BT is an effective means to improve static steady-state (mean SMDbs = 0.51), dynamic steady-state (mean SMDbs = 0.44), proactive (mean SMDbs = 1.73), and reactive balance (mean SMDbs = 1.01) as well as the performance in balance test batteries (mean SMDbs = 1.52) in healthy older adults. Our analyses regarding dose-response relationships in BT revealed that a training period of 11-12 weeks (mean SMDbs= 1.26), a frequency of three training sessions per week (mean SMDbs= 1.20), a total number of 36-40 training sessions (mean SMDbs = 1.39), a duration of a single training session of 31-45 min (mean SMDbs = 1.19), and a total duration of 91-120 min of BT per week (mean SMDbs = 1.93) of the applied training modalities is most effective in improving overall balance performance. However, it has to be noted that effect sizes for the respective training modalities were computed independently (i.e., modality specific). Because of the small number of studies that reported detailed information on training volume (i.e., number of exercises per training session, number of sets and/or repetitions per exercise, duration of single-balance exercises) dose-response relationships were not computed for these parameters. The present findings have to be interpreted with caution because we indirectly compared dose-response relationships across studies using SMDbs and not in a single controlled study as it is difficult to separate the impact of a single training modality (e.g., training frequency) from that of the others. Moreover, the quality of the included studies was rather limited with a mean PEDro score of 5 and the heterogeneity between studies was considerable (i.e., I (2) = 76-92 %). Our detailed analyses revealed that BT is an effective means to improve proxies of static/dynamic steady-state, proactive, and reactive balance as well as performance in balance test batteries in healthy older adults. Furthermore, we were able to establish effective BT modalities to improve balance performance in healthy older adults. Thus, practitioners and therapists are advised to consult the identified dose-response relationships of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis. However, further research of high methodologic quality is needed to determine (1) dose-response relationships of BT in terms of detailed information on training volume (e.g., number of exercises per training session) and (2) a feasible and effective method to regulate training intensity in BT.
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DefinitionThe time-derivative of the velocity vector of a specific particle. For a material body, at each instant of time there exists an acceleration field, namely an acceleration vector assigned to each particle of the body.MechanicsMeasurement Techniques
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This study was conducted to examine the effects of six weeks of strength training on static and dynamic balance in young male athletes. Thirty 15-17 young male athletes with mean and SD (62.79±3.62 kg ∞171.1±4.46 cm) were divided into two groups (15 subjects for each group). We used the SEBT and Romberg adjusted balance test before and after exercise programs to test balance. Strength exercise consisted, including: squat, leg extension, and calf raise, lunge, curl up. The results showed a significant increase in static and dynamic balance in the group (P=0.001). A possible reason for increased balance in the experimental group maybe increasing strength muscle in lower extremity after exercise program, the process of decreasing disinhibition and stimulating of muscles’ spindles during strength training.
Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A convenience sample of 34 out of 40 men aged 25-55 years old (34.0 ± 0.9) were deemed eligible for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: Experimental and control groups. Subjects in the experimental group were engaged in 60 min sessions of hatha yoga three times a week for 5 months. We evaluated postural control by measuring the limit of stability and velocity of oscillation (VOS) in three conditions of the balance rehabilitation unit (BRU) and through field procedures (four position, plane, flamingo, hopscotch, and dynamic test). Results: We observed differences (P < 0.05) in postintervention scores between the groups regardless of BRU parameters and field procedures (except for flamingo) even after adjusting for preintervention scores, suggesting that these changes were induced by hatha yoga training. The partial eta squared on BRU parameters ranged from 0.78 (VOS1)-0.97 (COP2), and from 0.00 (flamingo)-0.94 (four position) for the field procedures. Conclusions: Our results provide substantial evidence that postural control in healthy young adults can be improved through practicing hatha yoga.
Context: Dynamic postural control has gained popularity as a more useful assessment of function than static postural control. One measurement of dynamic postural control that has increased in frequency of use is the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Although the intrarater reliability of the SEBT is excellent, few authors have determined interrater reliability. Preliminary evidence has shown poor reliability between assessors. Objective: To determine interrater reliability using a group of investigators at 2 testing sites. A corollary purpose was to examine the interrater reliability when using normalized and nonnormalized performance scores on the SEBT. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or other participants: A total of 29 healthy participants between 18 and 50 years of age. Intervention(s): Participants were evaluated by 5 raters at 2 testing sites. After participants performed 4 practice trials, each rater assessed 3 test trials in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reaching directions of the SEBT. Main outcome measure(s): Normalized and nonnormalized (leg-length) reaching distances were analyzed. Additionally, the mean and maximum values from the 3 test trials were analyzed, producing a total of 16 variables. Results: For all 16 measures, the interrater reliability was excellent. For the normalized maximum excursion distances, the intraclass correlation coefficients (1,1) ranged from 0.86 to 0.92. Reliability for the nonnormalized measurements was stronger, ranging from 0.89 to 0.94. Conclusions: When the raters have been trained by an experienced rater, the SEBT is a test with excellent reliability when used across multiple raters in different settings. This information adds to the body of knowledge that exists regarding the usefulness of the SEBT as an assessment tool in clinical and research practice. Establishing excellent interrater reliability with normalized and nonnormalized scores strengthens the evidence for using the SEBT, especially at multiple sites.
Context: Prior work has revealed that cognitive ability is adaptive and can be improved with cognitive behavioral training methods; however, use of these methods is limited outside of the lab. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of Lumosity, a web-based cognitive training program developed by Lumos Labs to improve attention and memory in healthy adults. Design, Settings, and Participants: Randomized, controlled experiment consisted of assessment, training intervention, and post-training assessment. Volunteer participants (n=23, mean age=54) were recruited from various locations across the US. Training and testing were conducted on each participant's personal computer to simulate conditions of actual use. Both groups used computers on a regular basis. Results and compliance data were captured automatically via the online program. Intervention: Online cognitive training for twenty minutes once daily for five weeks. Trained participants completed an average of 29.2 sessions, and control participants received no training. Training sessions consisted of five distinct exercises. Main Outcome Measures: Tests of working memory and visual attention. Assessment pre- and post-training was conducted via a separate web-based application. Results: The trained group improved significantly in measures of visual attention and working memory, while the control group did not. Training reduced the average error in localization of transient, non-central visual stimuli (p
18 female varsity soccer players, ages 19 to 23 years, were randomly assigned to either a training or a control group. Trained subjects were exposed to the 4-wk. Eyerobics visual skills training to assess the effects on balance and on hand-eye and foot-eye coordination. Analysis indicated significantly better performance on the balance, hand-eye and foot-eye coordination (Dribble Test) tasks than by the control group, but not on the foot-eye coordination Wall-Volley Test.