The effect of the exercises brain on boxers’ eye-hand coordination,
dynamic balance and visual attention performance
Çetin O.ABCDE, Beyleroğlu M.ABCDE, Bağış Y.E.ACDE, Suna G.ACDE
Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education Department, Sakarya University, Turkey
Authors’ Contribution: A – Study design; B – Data collection; C – Statistical analysis; D – Manuscript Preparation;
E – Funds Collection.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether exercising brain performed by boxers have any kind of effect on
visual attention, eye-hand coordination and dynamic balance performances of athletes.
Material: In accordance with the purpose of this study, 29 athletes who do exercises regularly at Sakarya Boxing Club
have been divided into two groups as control and experiment group. The Star Excursion Balance test was used
to measure participants’ dynamic balance performance, the Bourdon-Wiersma Stipple test was used to measure
visual attention, and Alternate Hand Wall Toss test was used to measure eye-hand coordination as pre and post-
test. Repeated Measures Anova analysis was used for analysis of the obtained data.
Results: In terms of the obtained data, it has been observed that between pre and pro tests a signicant development pattern
shows itself for whole study group. On the other hand, as for the investigation of the pre and post-test interactions
of experiment and control group, When pre and post-test interactions of experimental and control groups were
examined, there was no signicant difference in visual attention and dynamic balance development, but in eye-
hand coordination test, improvement in experimental group was found to be higher than in control group.
Conclusions: The ndings of the study in which exercising brain applied to boxers for 8 weeks showed that there was no signicant
difference between dynamic balance and visual attention development values, but there was a signicant difference
between control and experimental groups, eye-hand coordination development values.
Keywords:cognitive exercise, dynamic balance, visual attention, hand-eye coordination.
Today’s sport has started to be perceived and
practiced very differently than in the recent past. Sportive
activities that are increasingly different have been done
for different purposes . One of the sportive activities
that differentiate is brain exercises. Life kitetic found and
developed by Horst Lutz et al; is a brain training system
that is practiced using exercises combined with visual,
mental and cognitive tasks. These exercises have such
physical and cognitive positive effects as concentration,
problem solving skills, reexes, balance, coordination
and coping with stress in elite athletes and sedentary
people . Visual attention, hand-eye coordination and
balance have been included in the literature from past
to present in terms of general knowledge, especially in
research articles and the effect of various exercises on
these characteristics have been investigated [3,4,5].
However, whether brain exercise has an impact on these
physical and cognitive features is a problem that needs to
Attention is considered to be the subjective awareness
of the world around us at rst, while attention is
considered as a neural system in which visual, auditory,
and motor systems are used for the selection of similar
information by the neuropsychological approach .
Visual attention refers to a series of cognitive processes
that allow the necessary information to be found from
scattered (complex) visual scenes, and the unnecessary
information to be ltered out . In the literature, there
are studies examining the cognitive features such as
visual attention and the effects of exercises on cognitive
performance to improve the performance of these
features. In the present study, the effects of acute exercise
© Çetin O., Beyleroğlu M., Bağış Y.E., Suna G., 2018
on cognitive performance were investigated and specic
exercises were reported to have a greater effect than
those of acute exercise . When we look at the specic
exercise studies on visual attention, it is concluded that
visual attention can be improved and trained by specic
web based training .
Hand-eye coordination is a visual system capability
that coordinates the revised information to control hands,
directing and managing tasks such as writing or capturing
a ball successfully .
When the researches carried out are examined, it is
concluded that acute and specic exercises have positive
effects on hand-eye coordination. In the related study on
the effects of hand-eye coordination on balance and hand-
eye coordination in the elderly, swimming exercises was
proven to have positive effects on hand-eye coordination
. In another study on hand-eye coordination training
of table tennis athletes, it is reported that the table tennis
athletes trained on hand-eye coordination performed
better than those who were not trained . In this study,
we investigated the effects of hand-eye coordination on
the effects of Traditional Chinese coordination exercises,
TaiChiChuan (TCC), on hand-eye coordination in the
elderly and it is reported that those who applied hand-
eye coordination exercises exhibited better hand-eye
coordination performance than those who did not .
Balance is dened as the state or ability to maintain
control over the body’s support centre. The most
important feedback mechanisms in balance are vestibular,
somatosensory and visual systems [6,14]. In this study,
we will discuss the relationship between the equilibrium
(balance) and the relationship between the two variables
[15, 16]. When we examine the effects of various exercise
programs on balance development, it is seen that exercise
programs have positive effects on balance development.
The effects of pliometrics, dynamic stabilization and
balance training for 7 weeks on the strength, balance
and fall forces of female athletes were examined and it
is reported that these exercises have a positive effect on
balance . Similar results were obtained in the study
of different exercise methods on the follow-up of balance
development. Especially in athletes, it is reported that
neuromuscular training or specic exercises such as yoga
for 6 to 8 weeks has a positive effect on the development
of balance [18, 19, 20].
Brain exercises were developed by Lutz and his
colleagues as a multimodal training method that combines
coordinated, cognitive and visual tasks and performs the
physical activities of the participants and also cognitive
activities. This training method consists of combinations
of motor activities, cognitive skills, visual perception
training and especially perception of peripheral vision.
The main characteristic of this training method is to move
the limbs in different combinations, capture, throw, and
thus to train visual perception and limb-eye coordination
The effects of acute and specic exercises on
cognitive and motor features, especially visual attention,
hand-eye coordination and balance were investigated in
the investigated studies. However, there was no study
that examined the effects of brain exercise on these
three abilities as a whole. Therefore, this research will
help us to understand whether the brain exercises that
are increasingly being applied by athletes and sedentary
people have effects on visual attention, hand - eye
coordination and balance ability. When we consider the
concept above, it may be stated that the aim of this study
is to investigate whether brain exercises in boxers for 8
weeks have effects on athletes’ visual attention, hand-eye
coordination and balance performances.
Material and Methods
29 athletes who were trained regularly in Sakarya
Boxing Club participated voluntarily in this study using
experimental pattern with control group. The participants
were randomly divided into two groups. While 15 of
them were in the experimental group, 14 of them were
included in the control group.
Physical characteristics of the participants; age is
20.4± 0.8 years, body weight is 74 ± 9.4 kg and height
is 176 ± 8.1 cm.
Data Collection Tools
The body weights of the athletes were measured
with Seca 808 (Germany) brand electronic scales with
0.1kg sensitivity and height measurements with portable
stadiometer with Seca 213 (Germany) brand with 1mm
sensitivity. In the application of the Visual attention test,
the Bourdon attention test was used for marking papers
belonging to the Wiersma form with 450 gures on it.
The Dunlop brand tennis ball and the Casio HS-80TW-
DF brand chronometer were used in the application of
the Alternate Wall Hand Toss for hand-eye coordination.
In the implementation of the Star Excursion dynamic
balance test, the platform prepared in accordance with the
test protocol was prepared and Troy 23124 brand strip
meters were used to measure the reach distances of the
Collection of Data
Anthropometric measurements, balance and hand-eye
coordination tests were carried out in Sakarya University
Faculty of Sports Sciences gymnasium saloon and visual
attention test was carried out in the class which was
arranged for testing. The anthropometric measurements,
balance and attention tests of the control and experiment
groups were carried out on the same day and hand-eye
coordination was carried out on the same day. Following
the pre-test, brain exercises were performed for 8 weeks
and 3 days a week in addition to the branch training of
experimental group. The control group was not included
in the brain exercise and they continued their own branch
training with the experimental group. At the end of 8
weeks, the participants underwent the nal tests within
the framework of the selected tests protocols.
Determination of dynamic balance performance
The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was
used to determine the dynamic balance and dynamic
postural control performances of the participants. SEBT
is a balance test that requires force, exibility, and
proprioception performance used in dynamic balance
measurement . The person who performs the test
tries to reach out in 8 different directions with one leg
and 45 degrees of angle between them, while the other
leg remains in the centre point and tries to maintain its
The validity of the SEBT test was reported between
0.89 and 0.92 . After warming the participants for
general and test, they reached 8 different directions on
the test platform three times, respectively, and recorded
in meters and centimeters, which are best from 3
accesses. The same practice was carried out for the other
foot. In order to ensure the validity of the test, leg-length
measurements were taken for each of the participants.
The measurement was repeated when participants moved
the balance leg from the platform centre, lost balance or
were unable to contact the stated directions.
Measurement of visual attention performance
In order to measure the visual attention performance
of the participants, the Bourdon-Wiersma stipple test
developed and then conducted by Benjamin Bourdon was
used. In this test, participants are asked to nd and select
the necessary information from complex visual scenes in
accordance with visual attention. The Bourdon-Wiersma
test form contains three, four and ve point shapes and
the participants are requested to mark four point ones of
these3 gures [25, 26] Participants were given 6 minutes
to mark the correct shapes on the form with 450 gures
and the correct and wrong shapes were recorded.
Measurement of hand-eye coordination performance
In order to determine the hand-eye coordination
performance of the participants, the Alternate Hand Wall
Toss test was used. The number of successful catches
carried out in the test aimed at capturing the tennis ball
with the right hand and the left hand is recorded in the
30-minute period of time .
SPSS 22 program was used in the analysis of the
obtained data. ANOVA (Repeated measurements
ANOVA) analysis was used to determine whether the
change in the pre and nal test measurements of the
participants in the experiment and control group was
signicantly different from the groups. P<0.05 was
considered as signicant.
There was a signicant improvement in hand-eye
coordination between the pre-test and the nal test in
the whole research group [F(1.27)=70.493; p<0.05].
When the experimental-control group’s pre-test-nal
test interactions were examined, it is seen that the
development of the experimental group was signicantly
higher than the control group [F(1.27)=8.439; p<0.05].
There is a signicant improvement in the attention
skill among the pre-test and nal test in the whole
Research Group [F(1.27)=6.495; p<0.05]. When the pre-
post test interactions of the experiment-control group
are examined, it was seen that the experiment-control
group showed a development at a similar level and
the development of attention level was not statistically
different in terms of the experiment-control group
[F(1.27)= .014; p>0.05].
There is a signicant improvement in the balance skill
between pre-test and nal test in the whole research group
Figure 1. Reaching directions of Star Excursion Balance Test
Table 1. Comparison of Hand-Eye Coordination of Pre and Post Test Results of Boxers
Tests Groups N X Ss
Experiment 15 20.73 4.74
Control 14 18.71 5.75
Experiment 15 26.47 5.12
Control 14 21.50 5.20
Table 2. Comparison of Visual Attention of Pre and Post Test Results of Boxers
Tests Groups N X Ss
Experiment 15 72.87 11.13
Control 14 66.50 8.76
Experiment 15 78.13 9.14
Control 14 72.29 12.88
[F(1.27)=6.104; p<0.05]. Experimental-control group’s
pre-and nal-test interactions examined have shown
similar levels of improvement in the experimental and
control groups and it is concluded that the experimental
and control groups are statistically signicantly different
at the level of the balance of the development [F(1.27)=
Boxing is a combination of technical, tactical,
durability, speed and coordination features. In addition to
the basic characteristics of the st, others are also part of
the ring. Success will be achieved with the completion of
these features and the proliferation of scientic research,
development of general training programs, physical
characteristics and the selection of talented athletes will
be possible by teaching of technical and tactical studies
through different methods.
One of the most important ndings of this study
is that the effects of brain exercise on the various
coordinative and cognitive characteristics of athletes;
hand-eye coordination repeated measurements on the
preliminary and nal test results were found to be
signicantly higher in the ANOVA analysis than in the
experimental group [F(1,27)=8,439; p<0.05]. The most
obvious characteristics of brain exercises are moving
the limbs in different combinations, capturing, throwing
objects, and thus training visual perception and limb-
eye coordination . Therefore, visual skill training
is practiced intensively in brain exercises. When the
literature is examined, it has been observed that all
exercises including brain exercises and similar visual
training have positive effects on hand-eye coordination
and this nding supports the results in our study. When
we look at studies involving visual training like brain
exercise, it is seen that Du Toit and others (2011) reported
that visual training made signicant progress in hand-eye
coordination of university students. In another study,
“Eyerobic” (visual skill training) exercises were applied
to female footballers and at the end of the exercise period,
balance and hand-eye coordination values were reported
to be higher than control group .
It is known that balance skill, which is the basis of
performance, plays an important role in the successful
display of many sports skills, in changing directions, in
stopping, in starting, keeping the object, in moving the
object, and in maintaining the body’s specic position.
According to Meinel and Schnabel, balance
ability is dened as keeping the whole body in balance
and maintaining the state of the body during and after
displacement of the body . Human’s ability to
maintain balance can be dened as a determining factor in
the development of other motor systems . The control
of balance is a complex motor capability that includes the
integration of sensory inputs as well as the planning and
application of exible motion patterns . The ability of
the whole body to move in coordination as a whole takes
place in a correct proportion with the ability to balance
In this study, based on the results of the measurements
on dynamic balance, the development differences in
balance level are not statistically signicant in terms of
experiment and control group. [F(1,27)=,292; p>0.05]. In
a study conducted on basketball players, it was reported
that brain exercise training for 12 weeks at basketball
players had no effect on balance scores of the athletes
. Similarly, at the study conducted on young football
players, it was reported that there was no signicant
difference between the pre-test and nal test scores of the
participants in the brain exercise training for 8 weeks .
The researches examining the effects of brain exercise on
balance support the ndings of this study.
In this study, the measurements of visual attention
were examined and it was concluded that the development
of the control and experiment group showed similar
development but the visual attention level was not
signicantly different from the experimental and control
group [F(1,27)=, 014; p>0,05]. The resources that
scientists who develop and practice brain exercises refer
to as a reference to prove the effects of these exercises
on important cognitive skills and visual attention are
generally about young children or students who have
difculty reading . There are studies in the literature
that reported positive effects of specic exercises on
Table 3. Comparison of the Dynamic Balance of Pre and Post Test Results of Boxers
Tests Groups N X Ss
Experiment 15 86.01 7.906
Control 14 90.16 4.304
Experiment 15 87.92 8.992
Control 14 91.39 5.065
visual attention . In addition to this study, there was
only one study which examined the development of
visual attention of athletes who train intensively in brain
exercise and contrary to this research, positive results
were reported. In this research conducted by Vural (2016),
it was found that brain exercises had positive effects on
the visual attention performances of athletes. Therefore,
more research is needed to examine the impact of brain
exercise on visual attention development, especially in
trained and advanced athletes.
As a result, the results of this study showed that there
was a signicant difference in hand eye coordination
development values between control and experimental
groups of brain exercises performed in boxers for 8
weeks, while dynamic balance and visual attention did
not differ signicantly between development values.
Since brain exercise exercises are based on simultaneous
perception, evaluation, making the right choice and
making the appropriate decision, we believe that coaches
should be involved in brain exercise exercises in athletes
‘training and that the criteria for athletes’ performance
will contribute signicantly to the eld of sports sciences
as they have a signicant place in determining the current
levels of athletes.
We also think that brain exercise will help athletes
make the right decisions in training or competition by
enabling them to think continuously. It is thought that
after the exercises that are performed in this way, the
athlete will soon be able to demonstrate the dominance
of the more advanced coordinative features and will
become a well-featured athlete who understands fast
and makes decisions quickly by reecting them to his
team or to himself. Because of such many benets, we
think that sports scientists and coaches will benet from
brain exercises and it will be important to include brain
exercises in training plans.
Conict of interests
The authors state that there is no conict of interest.
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Information about the authors:
Çetin O.; http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6841-5518; Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education Department,
Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Beyleroğlu M.; http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2223-0064; Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education
Department, Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Bağış Y.E.; http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3170-7343; Educational Science Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education
Department, Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Suna G.; (Corresponding author); http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2125-9105; firstname.lastname@example.org; Educational Science
Institute, Physical Education and Sports Education Department, Sakarya University, 54050, Turkey.
Cite this article as: Çetin O, Beyleroğlu M, Bağış YE, Suna G. The effect of the exercises brain on boxers’ eye-hand
coordination, dynamic balance and visual attention performance. Physical education of students, 2018;22(3):112–119.
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Accepted: 02.06.2018; Published: 27.06.2018