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User Experience Design With Augmented Reality (AR)


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The paper examines the influence of augmented reality (AR) technology on the user experience, comparing the IKEA Place AR App with the IKEA website. The International Organization for Standardization (2010) defines user experience as a “person's perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service” and thus describes a person’s quantification of satisfaction with a company’s digital touchpoint. AR is a technology that overlays information or interactive elements on top of the user’s physical environment. The technology is increasingly being used in an economic context and changes the user’s brand experience, as we demonstrate in our IKEA research case. User experiences at digital touchpoints are a decisive success criterion for brands like IKEA, due to their influence on the image of the company and its products. IKEA, therefore, focuses on touchpoint innovations such as the IKEA Place AR App. Taking this development into account, the research question of our study was: “How does the user experience differ when using an AR App as a substitute for the use of a web application?” To answer this question, we conducted experimental A/B testing with two groups of 28 persons each: one group used an AR touchpoint (IKEA Place App) to make product decisions and the other group used a conventional touchpoint (IKEA website) for the same task. After testing, the participants' user experience with the respective touchpoint was recorded using the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) (Laugwitz, Held and Schrepp, 2008; Schrepp, Hinderks and Thomaschewski, 2017). Results showed that the innovative IKEA Place App touchpoint could deliver a better user experience than the IKEA website. The App scored stronger in the user experience dimensions “Stimulation” and “Novelty”. The results illustrate the importance of innovative digital touchpoints and reflect practical recommendations for their design and thus to improve the brand experience of companies.
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User Experience Design with Augmented Reality (AR)
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Bernburg, Germany
Abstract: The paper examines the influence of augmented reality (AR) technology on the user experience, comparing the
IKEA Place AR App with the IKEA website. The International Organization for Standardization (2010) defines user
experience as a “person's perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or
service” and thus describes a person’s quantification of satisfaction with a company’s digital touchpoint. AR is a technology
that overlays information or interactive elements on top of the user’s physical environment. The technology is increasingly
being used in an economic context and changes the user’s brand experience, as we demonstrate in our IKEA research case.
User experiences at digital touchpoints are a decisive success criterion for brands like IKEA, due to their influence on the
image of the company and its products. IKEA, therefore, focuses on touchpoint innovations such as the IKEA Place AR App.
Taking this development into account, the research question of our study was: “How does the user experience differ when
using an AR App as a substitute for the use of a web application?” To answer this question, we conducted experimental
A/B testing with two groups of 28 persons each: one group used an AR touchpoint (IKEA Place App) to make product
decisions and the other group used a conventional touchpoint (IKEA website) for the same task. After testing, the
participants' user experience with the respective touchpoint was recorded using the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ)
(Laugwitz, Held and Schrepp, 2008; Schrepp, Hinderks and Thomaschewski, 2017). Results showed that the innovative IKEA
Place App touchpoint could deliver a better user experience than the IKEA website. The App scored stronger in the user
experience dimensions “Stimulation” and “Novelty”. The results illustrate the importance of innovative digital touchpoints
and reflect practical recommendations for their design and thus to improve the brand experience of companies.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, User Experience, Brand Touchpoints, IKEA
1. Introduction and Motivation
The digitization of society provides new opportunities and challenges for brand management (Mauroner and
Best, 2016). The design of user experiences at innovative brand touchpoints thus plays a central role in the
brand strategy of companies (Rauschnabel, Felix and Hinsch, 2019). New technologies that use virtual reality or
augmented reality (AR) create new ways for brands to allow contact with consumers. Whether AR games such
as Nintendo's Pokémon GO (Butcher and Raynes-Goldie, 2018; Zsila et al, 2018; Rauschnabel, Rossmann and
Tom Dieck, 2017), drive assistance by Jaguar or a magic mirror by Uniqlo that combines AR and gesture
interfaces (Cacho-Elizondo et al, 2018, p. 100) – brand leaders have recognized the potential and are trying to
integrate the new technologies into their brand strategy.
A pioneer in the integration of innovative brand touchpoints is the multinational furnishing company IKEA. The
brand is experimenting with virtual reality kitchen (IKEA Communications AB 2016) and a virtual reality
showroom in the IKEA furniture store Berlin-Lichtenberg (Demodern, 2016). In the field of AR, the brand is
offering the IKEA Place App. With this application, furniture from the IKEA catalogue can be freely placed at
home on the customers’ smartphone or tablet (Inter IKEA Systems B.V., 2017).
Efforts by corporate brands like IKEA, which offer consumers new and innovative brand touchpoints, are
relevant, if there is an impact on the brand and the company's success. However, the question arises whether
innovative brand touchpoints can create a better user experience, which will then have an influence on the
perception of the brand by potential consumers. Even with proof of this influence, companies face the
challenge of innovating and adapting touchpoints in line with the brand. This research is building on existing
scientific literature to evaluate user experiences at brand touchpoints. Primarily, work exists here under the
term “user experience” (cf. among others Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006). The combination of both topics is
becoming increasingly important (Scholz and Duffy, 2018; Gonzalez et al, 2016, p. 112). It has been observed in
the study of Modak and Sinha (2019) that with the use of AR marketers are able to better demonstrate the
product and consumers are able to evaluate the product better.
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
Figure 1: Instructions for the IKEA Place App (Screenshot from Inter IKEA Systems B.V., 2017)
It is the aim of this paper to evaluate whether innovative brand touchpoints can improve user experience using
the innovative AR IKEA Place App. Furthermore, the purpose of this work is to establish a research design that
can be a basis for a more extensive investigation of the research object, and to gain insights that justify a more
intensive analysis of the topic.
In the first part of this paper, the theoretical framework is presented. Relevant theoretical constructs and the
presentation of connections to the topics AR, brand touchpoints and user experiences are presented. The
empirical part provides information about the derivation of the case study approach. First, hypotheses are
derived from the theoretical considerations and the objectives of the work. These are used to model the
empirical investigation. Next, the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) is used to answer the derived
hypotheses. The results obtained are then presented, evaluated and interpreted. Finally, the results achieved
are summarised, implications for research and practice are derived and proposals for ongoing research are
2. Theoretical Background and Hypothesis development
2.1 Augmented Reality
In their Reality-Virtuality (RV) Continuum Milgram and Kishino (1994) define Mixed Reality as a mixture of the
real and virtual world represented on a display. In the context of Mixed Reality, they refer to AR “any case in
which an otherwise real environment is augmented by means of virtual (computer graphic) objects”. Azuma
(1997) takes up these remarks and defines them more comprehensively: “Augmented Reality (AR) is a
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
variation of Virtual Environments (VE), or Virtual Reality as it is more commonly called. VE technologies
completely immerse a user inside a synthetic environment. While immersed, the user cannot see the real
world around him. In contrast, AR allows the user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed
upon or composited with the real world” (Azuma 1997, p. 2). Four years later, Azuma (2001, p. 34) stated that
AR “combines real and virtual objects in a real environment; runs interactively, and in real time; and registers
(aligns) real and virtual objects with each other”. This is a widely accepted definition which is also used in
current papers (Javornik, 2016, p. 5). Billinghurst, Clark and Lee (2015, p. 84) recommend considering
taxonomies such as Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum to fully understand the potential of AR in the broader
2.2 Evaluation of brand touchpoints based on user experience
Brand touchpoints are potential points of contact between a brand and its potential customers (Meyer and
Schwager, 2007; Baxendale, Macdonald and Wilson, 2015). Interactions between customers and brands take
place here. The coordination of touchpoints is essential to create a consistent brand experience (“Seamless
experience” Shankar et al, 2011, p. 33). The brand experience is therefore here reduced to the individual
touchpoints at which the user experience of the touchpoint should be congruent with the brand experience
(Gonzalez et al, 2016, Spies, 2015, p. 66; van de Sand, 2017, p. 15). User experience is a “person's perceptions
and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service” (International
Organization for Standardization, 2010). User experience thus describes the perceptions and reactions of a
person before, during and after the use of a (digital) touchpoint. In this context, the evaluation of user
experience with a brand touchpoint takes place during use through usability evaluation. Usability is defined by
ISO 9241-11 as the “extent to which a system, product or service can be used by specified users to achieve
specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use” (International
Organization for Standardization, 2018). In order to be able to evaluate individual touchpoints, a usability
evaluation is necessary. When analysing the experience with a touchpoint in a larger context, a measurement
of the user experience is necessary (Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006; Bevan, 2008). By measuring usability or
user experience, it can be deduced whether touchpoints correspond to the usage needs of potential
customers. This also makes it possible to compare touchpoints (Laugwitz, Held and Schrepp, 2008).
3. Research Methodology
This study is based on a research design that combines both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
The combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection is also known as mixed methods
or multi-method approach (Schreier and Odag, 2010).
The UEQ by Laugwitz, Held and Schrepp (2008) enables the analysis of the entire user experience beyond mere
usability. The questionnaire takes into account the feelings, impressions and attitudes of the respondents and
creates a format that supports the direct expression of these elements. The scales collect usability aspects
(Efficiency, Perspicuity and Dependability) and user experience aspects (Stimulation, Novelty) and thus offer a
comprehensive impression of the user experience of brand touchpoints (Schrepp, Hinderks and
Thomaschewski, 2017). The UEQ consists of 6 scales. Attractiveness reflects the overall impression of the
product and shows whether users like the product. Efficiency shows whether users can solve their tasks
without unnecessary effort. Perspicuity indicates whether it is easy to become familiar with the product, i.e.
whether it is easy to learn how to use it. Dependability shows whether users can feel control over the
interaction. Stimulation shows whether it is exciting and motivating to use the product. Novelty indicates
whether the product is innovative and creative and whether the product catches the user's interest.
Attractiveness is a pure liability dimension. Efficiency, Perspicuity and Dependability are aspects of pragmatic
quality, while Stimulation and Novelty are aspects of hedonic quality (Laugwitz, Held and Schrepp 2008).
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
Figure 2: Assumed scale structure of the UEQ (Schrepp, Hinderks and Thomaschewski, 2017)
As figure 2 shows, Laugwitz, Held and Schrepp (2008) evaluate user experience with the dimensions
“Attractiveness” (DV1), “Efficiency” (DV2), “Perspicuity” (DV3), “Dependability” (DV4), “Stimulation” (DV5) and
“Novelty” (DV6), which are represented by a total of 26 characteristics. The dimensions correspond to the
dependent variables which are influenced by the available touchpoint (IV1). In this case, these touchpoints are
the IKEA Place App and the IKEA website. The indicators for the dependent variables, i.e. the corresponding
dimensions or their characteristics, are given by the evaluation of the user in a semantic differential from -3 to
+3. The independent variable, the available touchpoint, is provided to the test persons and can assume the
nominal scaled values “IKEA Place App” and “IKEA Website”. Table 1 provides an overview of these
This research assumes that the user experience will be improved by using the IKEA Place App. The following
hypothesis is therefore applied:
Measured mean value of user experience scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA Website.
This hypothesis must be specified regarding the user experience dimensions in order to determine the
influence of the individual dimensions. The resulting hypotheses for the respective dimensions are shown in
table 2.
Table 1: Indicator, Manipulator and measurement level (User Experience)
Dependent variable
Measurement level
Evaluation of the touchpoint
the corresponding
Ordinal scale, symmetric differential
-3 to +3
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
Independent variable
Measurement level
Choice of touchpoint
Nominal scale, values: “IKEA Place App”
and “IKEA Website”.
Table 2: User Experience Hypotheses
Measured mean value for Attractiveness scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA website.
Measured mean value for Efficiency scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA website.
Measured mean value for Perspicuity scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA website.
Measured mean value for Dependability scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA website.
Measured mean value for Stimulation scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA website.
Measured mean value for Novelty scores higher with the IKEA Place App than with the IKEA website.
For the experiment an A/B-Testing approach was used. The sample consists of 56 randomly selected students.
In groups of four participants each, the test persons were asked to plan the furnishing of a room with four
items from IKEA's product portfolio. The corresponding products were to be selected and placed imaginarily in
the room. Group A had access to the IKEA Place AR App, which represents the innovative brand touchpoint.
Group B accomplished the same task with the IKEA website. The sample of the IKEA Place App (Group A)
consists of 42.9 percent female and 57.1 percent male participants, the sample of the IKEA Website (Group B)
consists of 32.1 percent female and 67.9 percent male participants. The average age is 20.6 years for users of
Group A and 21.1 years for users of Group B. Both groups were asked to visualize their product decisions on a
flipchart. The four objects to be placed were always a couch, an armchair, a table and a floor lamp. There were
no monetary limits. The decision-making process for the selection of objects and their placement could be
discussed together in the group. The decision for a product and its location was ultimately taken by only one
participant at a time, whereby each one could take one product. This ensured that each participant came into
direct contact with the touchpoint and their user experience could be determined. There was no time limit for
the experiment and no external help for using the touchpoints.
An online survey questionnaire was conducted after the experiment to collect the information needed to proof
the hypotheses. The user experiences with the digital brand touchpoints IKEA Place App and the IKEA website
were determined by the UEQ. In addition, the respondents had the opportunity to comment on three open-
ended questions in their own words about what they liked most and least about the applications and which
features they thought were missing. These questions are intended to create a deeper understanding of the
test persons' user experience, which may not be reflected by the UEQ.
4. Results and findings
The participants were asked to rate their familiarity with the IKEA brand on a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (not at
all familiar) to 7 (very familiar). None of the subjects gave a rating lower than 3, with an average of 5,57.
Therefore, it can be assumed that the subjects are familiar with the brand. The respondents were also asked
about their purchase intensity of IKEA products. No respondent stated that they had never purchased from
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
IKEA. 57 percent of the respondents are regular IKEA customers who buy IKEA products at least once every six
months. Test persons were randomly selected and therefore could not volunteer for the survey due to their
possible IKEA affinity. 11% of the PLACE App group participants had already used the PLACE AR app before the
experiment. 71% of the participants of the Web App group had already used the website before the
experiment. As there is a notable difference in application knowledge (as seen in figure 3), it should be
mentioned, that this could have an impact on measured user experience.
Figure 3: IKEA brand touchpoints used before the experiment
The user experience evaluation results of both touchpoints are shown in table 3. The table shows the mean
values of the user experience dimensions recorded by the interviewees about the use of the IKEA Place App
and the IKEA website. The IKEA Place App scores higher in every dimension but for Perspicuity and
Dependability due to higher mean values.
Table 3: Comparison of Scale Means, standard deviations and confidence intervals
IKEA Place App
IKEA Website
To verify the significance of these results, a Two Sample T-Test assuming unequal variances was carried out.
Since a normal distribution cannot be assumed with 100 percent certainty, a Mann-Withney-U-Test was also
carried out (see table 4). This is a nonparametric test that compares two groups even without the assumption
of normally distributed data (, n.d.). The IKEA Place App performs significantly (with both tests)
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
better in the dimensions of Stimulation and Novelty. This significance is also given by taking into account the
Bonferroni correction, a mathematical statistical method that helps to neutralize alpha error cumulation in
multiple comparisons.
Table 4: Two sample T-test and Mann-Whitney-U-Test
Two sample T-Test
assuming unequal
Alpha level 0,05
With reference to the hypotheses formulated in table 2, it can be stated that hypotheses 5 (Stimulation) and 6
(Novelty) are verified while hypotheses 1 to 4 are not. The dimension Stimulation describes whether a user
perceives an application as exciting, motivating and interesting. Novelty, on the other hand, describes the
degree of innovation and creativity of the application. It can therefore be assumed that the users surveyed in
this study rate the IKEA Place App as more exciting, interesting and motivating than the website. In addition,
the new application is perceived as more innovative and creative. Furthermore, we can assume that these
perceptions also have a direct effect on the perception of the brand. Rauschnabel, Felix and Hinsch (2019, p.
49) also come to similar conclusions that hedonic benefits lead to a change in the brand attitude when using
In open-ended questions, the respondents were given the opportunity to comment on what they liked most
and least about the application and what they thought was missing. The IKEA Place App testers particularly
praised the novelty of this approach. Some test persons were surprised how realistic the virtual objects in the
room looked. The test persons were thrilled “how fast and easy it is to learn the application and plan the room
before buying”. Some respondents also critically mentioned that the control system was a little difficult to
operate at first, but after those first difficulties the app was very well received. Some test persons also
criticized the placement as being too sensitive or for furniture being placed too close together at the
beginning. A few test persons also had problems quickly finding the desired object in the furniture categories.
From the points of criticism, the test persons accordingly noticed what they lacked in the application. Some
test persons would have liked instructions, easier handling and a catalogue overview. During the placement
process, a few respondents would have liked to receive a (coloured) indication if objects did fit.
The IKEA website has been praised for its good structure and clarity, which provides quick access to a lot of
product information. The inspiring ideas and the wide range of products were also praised. However, the
clarity of the website seems to be questioned by other test persons. For example, some respondent said that
they found the clarity poor, that it was not so easy to find some things and that the site was “somewhat
overloaded”. Test persons also perceived some products in the wrong category. In the end, some respondents
found the page to be “a bit too monotonous”, some respondents whished for clearer pages, better filtered
categories and more colour variety. It is noteworthy that some test persons stated that they would like 3D
models showing how individual or several pieces of furniture would look in the room. Exactly these wishes are
served with the IKEA Place App, which was available to the other group. Some of those test persons did not
report any experience with the IKEA Place App.
In the following the observations, which became apparent during the experiment, are described. The test
persons gave the impression of having fun with their task. The IKEA Place App test persons showed a high
dynamic right from the start of the experiment. They took the tablet and went directly to the room area to be
decorated, gathered around the tablet and experimented with the app. However, some users were afraid at
first when they were asked to place an object. At first, the respondents to the website were less dynamic. At
the beginning of the experiment, they sat on their chairs in a circle and thought about how to proceed. On the
Stefan Stumpp, Tobias Knopf and Daniel Michelis
other hand, the individual test persons were less afraid of the tablet when selecting their objects on the
website. The existing knowledge about the website minimized the learning effort for most people to complete
the task. The test persons of the IKEA Place App left a very satisfied impression after the successful placement
of their object. In the groups, opinion leaders crystallized, but their influence was limited by the group
instruction that everyone should choose and place one item. The test persons who had the website at their
disposal to complete the task were also showed the IKEA Place App after they took the survey. Although they
described their experience with the website as positive, their enthusiasm for the IKEA Place App was
noticeable. They may have been able to better appreciate the benefits of the IKEA Place App based on their
experience with the website.
5. Limitations and Future work
The results of this study reflect the findings of a literature search, an A/B experiment and a quantitative online
survey. The methodological diversity made it possible to obtain different qualitative and quantitative findings,
but it is a specific challenge to link these results stringently.
A limitation of the present study arises from the fact that only a small number of test persons were used for
the experiment and that they were composed exclusively of students, which resulted in a sample selection of
users between the ages of 18-30. For further studies it is therefore conceivable to increase the number of
participants and their diversity. Also, the study considers the respondents' brand knowledge, but not their
technological knowledge. It would therefore be of interest to take this into account and compare it with the
available results. Furthermore, we have conducted a case study on IKEA and our empirical findings are related
to one specific company context. Therefore, a transfer of the study to other industries and fields of application
would be of interest.
The research area dealing with AR technology and its impact on brand user experience is still young and offers
room for further research. The predicted growth of the AR industry (IDC, 2018) requires a better
understanding of the impact this technology will have. Our recommendations for future research include
additional studies addressing customer receptiveness towards AR.
6. Summary and conclusion
The results presented are of both practical and theoretical relevance. The study provides empirical support for
measuring the impact of AR applications on user brand experience. Furthermore, the mixed methods approach
contributes to a deeper understanding about AR technology. There are indications that the use of innovative
touchpoints has a positive influence on the dimensions of Stimulation and Novelty of the user experience.
AR technology has the potential to fundamentally change the retail industry (Spreer and Kallweit , 2014). It
offers the opportunity to improve our perception and enrich our environment (Van Krevelen and Poelman,
2007). However, the finding that not all dimensions were rated equally well in comparison to website use is an
indication that there is still potential for optimisation in the application. In sum, IKEA Place App today do not
seem to influence the customers in the best possible way. In order to further improve AR experience with the
IKEA Place App, it is suggested that IKEA should find a balance between different dimensions of the user
experience by also improving the dimensions Attractiveness, Perspicuity, Efficiency and Dependability of the
application. While the results for this study are particularly connected to IKEA Place and the IKEA website, the
findings could also be of interest to companies that are also planning to implement AR technologies to
improve brand user experience.
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... To address these issues, we conducted an experimental study to identify important factors that influence users' satisfaction using three footwear try-on methods (VR, AR, and real environment) with both psychological and physiological measures. Meanwhile, evaluating human emotional response to AR applications can be problematic because the technology is new to most users and their expectations are not well understood [27]. Furthermore, traditional evaluation methods of virtual environments may not be applicable to AR, in which both real and virtual components need to match visually and physically. ...
... In this study, we explored potential factors that may have a negative impact on user experience in different try-on environments. A complete user experience questionnaire measures the subjective ratings of users' feelings, impressions, and attitudes toward a system from multiple perspectives [27]. As some of these factors are addressed by the SUS and ITC-SOPI questionnaires, a simplified measure was used to compare the degree of overall satisfaction in each try-on method. ...
Virtual try-on technology (VTO) in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) has been developed for years to create novel shopping experiences for users by allowing them to virtually wear fashion products. Compared to garments or facial accessories, fewer studies have focused on virtual footwear try-on, regardless of user study or technical development. Thus, it is necessary to examine the effectiveness of existing VTO applications on the user's affective responses. In this study, we compared the user experience of three different footwear try-on methods (real, VR, and AR) with both physiological and psychological measures. Subjects conducted a try-on experiment on different pairs of sneakers. Each subject's gaze trajectory was recorded using an eye tracker and analyzed to show his/her visual attention in each method. Afterward, the subjects completed questionnaires to assess the sense of presence, usability, and the user experience score for the try-on processes, and subsequently attended a think-aloud procedure to express their thoughts. The analysis results of the collected data showed that the user experience produced by the VR and AR try-on is not comparable to that of the real environment. The results also revealed factors that negatively affect the quality of the user's interaction with the processes. These findings may provide insights into further improvements in VTO technology.
... Augmented reality has been gaining in prominence as having the ability to create experiences (Rompapas et al. 2019). With its ability to overlay digital elements onto the physical world, it allows for real-time, contextual content to provide a rich experience within the real world (Stumpp, Knopf, and Michelis 2019). AR has been shown to be a fascinating technology for creating experiences due to its personal yet pronounced nature for transforming objects (and environments), within individual users' personal space. ...
In recent years, augmented reality (AR) in marketing has seen a large amount of interest from scholars and practitioners looking to adopt the technology within their marketing strategy. This paper explores the relationship between the perceived quality of the AR experience on customer perceived value as well as the mediating influence of attitude on this relationship. We collected data through an online survey and found that experience quality i.e. authenticity, presence, and interactions, created through AR, directly impact customer attitudes. Our study also found that customer attitudes towards AR positively influences the customer’s perceived value of using the technology and mediates the relationship between experience quality and perceived value. However, our findings reveal no direct relationship between experience quality and perceived value. Our study is one of the first to investigate the role of experiences generated through AR as being reflected by authenticity, presence, and interaction quality. Moreover, the results of this study underscore the importance of customer attitudes within service experiences and how they potentially influence customer perceived value.
The rise of information society and the profound mediatization phenomenon led to a book use decrease. On the other hand, the attempt to promote book use and widen the capacities of the traditional book led to the application of computational resources, one of these resources is Augmented Reality (AR). This study is about AR published Books and their User Experience (UX). We want to know if publishing AR books shows sufficient UX. We chose three AR books published in Portugal and applied a quantitative empirical study to evaluate their UX and answer this research question. Sixty users read the AR books and then answered the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) used as the research instrument of this study. We also compare the results with a benchmark. The results show a positive evaluation in almost all the means of the scales of the three AR books. Only in one book do we find a neutral evaluation in the scales of Stimulation and Novelty. Regarding the benchmark, the scales Attractiveness, Novelty and Stimulation achieved Excellent/Good category levels. On the other hand, the pragmatic quality aspects like Perspicuity, Dependably, and Efficiency revels a below “Good category” level, emphasizing the urgent need to improve the UX of AR books.
The paper presents some results of interactive user interfaces implementation in practice. Virtual mark-up approach is used to classify the professional status of the users and respectively adapt the user interface. New software components are introduced as a part of Augmented Reality system that capture the user’s behavior, compare it to the typical patterns and generate virtual elements when necessary. The resulting solution is capable of providing alerts and notifications for novice users and hiding the redundant information for experts and thus personalizing the user interface. Artificial neural network provides classification based on the results of user performance in script execution according to pre-defined scenarios. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example of electrical meters surveying mobile application. Research results illustrate the possibility to improve and personalize the augmented reality user interfaces based on the analysis of user activity.
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In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has been adopted in various fields. The development of handheld devices (HHD) such as smartphones and tablets gives people more chances to use AR technology in their daily lives. However, AR applications using head-mounted devices (HMD) such as Microsoft HoloLens or Magic Leap provide stronger presence experiences than HHD, so that users can immerse themselves better in AR scenarios. While currently there already exist prototypical examples of HMD in museum contexts, widely used interaction patterns are not yet well established, although they would play an important role for accessibility by large user groups. This paper explores existing and potential interaction patterns for guided tours in museums, led by the question how to reconcile AR interaction patterns on HHD and HMD. We use an existing museum showcase for handheld AR from the project “Spirit” to transfer its interaction patterns to an HMD, such as the MS HoloLens. Technical constraints and usability criteria regarding the potential overlaps and applicability have been analyzed in this paper.
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Despite the success of similar and far more immersive games from lesser known brands, Pokémon Go burst into pop-culture by merging augmented reality technology with the much-adored Pokemon world. The strategy of (re)capturing new and old fans through a highly innovative brand extension has been successful, illustrated by the total distance walked in real life by its players through the game being further than the distance from Earth to Pluto. With the release of further AR gaming extensions from colossal brands already underway (see Star Wars’ Find The Force), how can we explain the success of Pokemon Go as an innovative gaming brand extension? Collecting data from a sample of extensive players of Pokemon Go, results yield intriguing findings into the favourable and unfavourable evaluations of the innovative extension, offering substantial insights to those seeking to expand or rejuvenate brand portfolios through innovative brand extensions.
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This article explores the current and potential impact Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality have on Consumer markets by analyzing adoption patterns, different uses and specific applications in the commercial field. The authors propose a conceptual framework from which the commercial implications linked to the introduction of high-impact technologies into the market will be analyzed. In developing this conceptual framework, it will cite and classify the key players by identifying the consumer industries in which a major disruption in consumer habits may be caused. The authors also review the relevance of technology-based marketing, emphasizing the main factors to be taken into consideration to evaluate its growth potential from the perspective of both the company and end users. Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality can enrich consumers’ perceptions of brands and transform business processes. Using these technologies makes it possible to bring the customer experience to a new level of convergence and immersion through close interaction between the real and the virtual world. When combined with other technological trends (ex. Internet of Things –IoT, Social Media, Wearables) it is possible to take consumers to a new sensory dimension (Immersive Media) and open a new era for creativity and innovation in strengthening the consumer-brand relationship.
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In 2016, Pokémon Go became the most popular game in the history of smartphone games and was among the first games to feature geo-located augmented reality (AR) elements. The goal of the present research was to obtain a deeper understanding concerning the motivations underlying Pokémon Go use and to create a measure that assesses these motivations. By extending the framework of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire, three new factors – Outdoor Activity, Nostalgia, and Boredom – were added based on the findings of qualitative analysis, and which led to the creation of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire - Pokémon Go extension (MOGQ-PG). Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on a sample of Pokémon Go players (N = 621). Results demonstrated that the final 37-item, first-order, 10-factor model had appropriate factor structure and internal consistency. A second follow-up study on Pokémon Go players (N = 510) examined associations between gaming motivations, problematic use, and impulsivity. Results demonstrated that impulsivity was not related to the MOGQ-PG motives. Results also showed that competition and fantasy motivations predicted problematic gaming behavior. The present research is the first empirical contribution to the assessment and understanding of the motivational background of playing AR games such as Pokémon Go.
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Questionnaires are a cheap and highly efficient tool for achieving a quantitative measure of a product’s user experience (UX). However, it is not always easy to decide, if a questionnaire result can really show whether a product satisfies this quality aspect. So a benchmark is useful. It allows comparing the results of one product to a large set of other products. In this paper we describe a benchmark for the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ), a widely used evaluation tool for interactive products. We also describe how the benchmark can be applied to the quality assurance process for concrete projects.
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Existing brands already have certain products and services that generate a particular experience in the mind of custome. However, distortions exist between what the brands what to communicate and what the customer perceive referred to as the Brand Gap.
Technical Report
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In the near future we may enrich our perception of reality through revolutionary virtual augmentation. Augmented reality (AR) technologies offer an enhanced perception to help us see, hear, and feel our environments in new and enriched ways that will benefit us in fields such as education, maintenance, design, reconnaissance, to name but a few. This essay describes the field of AR, including its definition, its development history, its enabling technologies and the technological problems that developers need to overcome. To give an idea of the state of the art, some recent applications of AR technology are also discussed as well as a number of known limitation regarding human factors in the use of AR systems.
Augmented Reality (AR) is a promising and growing field in marketing research and practice. Very little is known if, how, and why AR-apps can impact consumers' perception and evaluation of brands. The following research presents and empirically tests a framework that theorizes how consumers perceive and evaluate the benefits and augmentation quality of AR apps, and how this evaluation drives subsequent changes in brand attitude. The study reveals consumer inspiration as a mediating construct between the benefits consumers derive from AR apps and changes in brand attitude. Besides providing novel insights into AR marketing theory, the study also suggests that marketers should consider evaluating mobile AR apps based on the inspiration potential (and not simply based on consumer attitudes, such as star-ratings in app stores).
Dieses Buch zeigt, wie eine nachhaltige User Experience an den digitalen Touchpoints einer Marke erzeugt werden kann. Die überzeugende und unverwechselbare Kommunikation einer Markenpersönlichkeit auf Websites, Mobile Sites, Apps und Landingpages führt direkt zu Wachstum in User Engagement, Conversion und ROI. An Praxisbeispielen führt der Autor anschaulich vor, wie die Erkenntnisse aus Neuropsychologie und Neuromarketing konkret in den Produktgestaltungsprozess und das User Experience Design übertragen werden können. Die wichtigsten Werkzeuge und Leistungsbausteine werden vorgestellt und ihre Anwendung verständlich erläutert. Ein empfehlenswertes Fachbuch für Produktmanager, CMO, UX Manager und Webentwickler, die den Mehrwert ihrer Marke mit einem stimmigen User Experience Design steigern wollen. Der Inhalt Das Zeitalter des Kunden Customer Experience ist User Experience ist Brand Experience Wie “Experience” im Gehirn funktioniert Wahrnehmung und Aufmerksamkeit Was uns antreibt: Emotionen, Motive und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale Neuromarketing und der Traum vom gläsernen Konsumenten Codes: Produkte und die Geschichten, die sie erzählen Die UXi Methode – so entwickeln sie (digitale) Produkte mit Identität und markengetriebenem User Experience Design Der Autor Felix van de Sand ist geschäftsführender Gesellschafter und Director Design Strategy der Münchner UI/UX Design Agentur COBE. Vor der Gründung von COBE hat er Produkt Design an der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar studiert und mehrere Jahre als Design Stratege im Bereich Industrial Design bei designaffairs gearbeitet.
Pokémon Go was the first mobile augmented reality (AR) game to reach the top of the download charts of mobile applications. However, little is known about this new generation of mobile online AR games. Existing theories provide limited applicability for user understanding. Against this background, this research provides a framework based on uses and gratification theory, technology risk research, and flow theory. The proposed framework aims to explain the drivers of attitudinal and intentional reactions, such as continuance in gaming or willingness to invest money in in-app purchases. A survey among 642 Pokémon Go players provides insights into the psychological drivers of mobile AR games. The results show that hedonic, emotional, and social benefits and social norms drive consumer reactions while physical risks (but not data privacy risks) hinder consumer reactions. However, the importance of these drivers differs depending on the form of user behavior.